Region 1: EPA New England
How are TMDLs implemented?
A TMDL can only improve water quality if implemented. This means specific actions should be taken to control and manage point and non-point sources consistent with the TMDL.
EPA New England, in partnership with the New England states, has a record of success in reducing point-source pollution. Millions of federal dollars have been spent to upgrade wastewater treatment facilities, and to issue and enforce National Pollution Discharge Elimination Systems (NPDES) permits.
The NPDES permit program, which now includes stormwater discharges in most urban areas, is the primary mechanism for achieving the loading limits for point sources established in a TMDL. Nonpoint sources are typically controlled through voluntary federal, state, and local programs that promote use of Best Management Practices (BMPs), such as fences to keep animals out of streams or stormwater diversion or treatment systems. Many of these programs receive federal funds through the CWA Section 319 program.