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South Carolina State Implementation Plan

REGULATION NUMBER  62.5
STANDARD NUMBER 6
ALTERNATIVE EMISSION LIMITATION OPTIONS
("Bubble")

SECTION I - GENERAL

Alternative emission limitation options neither apply to nor
supersede the requirement that a plant must meet the emission
limitations of Prevention of Significant Deterioration, New
Source Performance Standards, National Emissions Standards for
Hazardous Air Pollutants, or any other conditions which the
Federal Clean Air Act mandates.

In order for a source to be eligible to use this option, it must
be:

1. A source subject to emission limitations set forth in the
State Implementation Plan:

2. Located in an area which has demonstrated attainment with the
appropriate National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) by the
statutory deadlines.
 
SECTION II - CONDITIONS FOR APPROVAL

Part A - Emissions of Total Suspended Particulate or Sulfur Dioxide 

The conditions for approval of a proposed alternative emission
plan for emissions of total suspended particulate or sulfur
dioxide submitted by an eligible source are:

1. The proposal must be initiated by the source; and

2. Each proposal must assure that attainment of NAAQS will not be
jeopardized; and

3. All aspects of the proposal must be legally enforceable; and

4. Points involved must have emissions which are quantifiable and
trades among them must be equal or show a net decrease; and,

5. Trades must be of the same pollutant category; and

6. The proposal must demonstrate equivalence or improvement of
air quality impact from the proposed trades; and

7. Pollutants designated as hazardous may only be used to "bubble
if the proposal would result in a decrease of the hazardous
pollutant; and

8. Emission reductions below the allowable emission rates are not
used simultaneously as an emission offset and in an alternative
set of emission limitations; and

9. No air quality modeling or SIP revision will be required for
use of an alternative emission limitation option if all of the
following conditions are met:

a. There is no net increase in actual emissions; and

b. The relevant emission points are in the same immediate
vicinity (approximately 100 meters); and

c. The relevant emission points are of similar effective stack
height (approximately plus or minus 10%; and

10. A SIP revision and limited air quality modeling will be
required for use of an alternative emission limitation option
where total emissions do not increase, and will not cause a
significantly different air quality impact from the original
emission points.  The limited modeling need only include the
emission points involved in the use of the bubble policy.  A
"significantly different impact" is one that equals or exceeds
1.0 ug/m 3 on an annual basis or 5.0 ug/m3 on a twenty-four hour
basis for both total suspended particulate and sulfur dioxide, or
25 ug/m 3 on a three-hour basis for sulfur dioxide; and

11. A SIP revision and air quality modeling will be required for
use of an alternative emission limitation option if conditions 9
and 10 of Part A of this standard are not met.  Diffusion
modeling considering all sources in the area of impact will be
required as follows;

a. Modeling must show that use of the bubble policy will neither
create a new ambient violation nor interfere with reasonable
further progress toward attaining national ambient air quality
standards as planned in the SIP; and

b. Modeling must show that use of the bubble will not create an
increment violation under the Prevention of Significant
Deterioration regulations (Standard No. 7); and

12. Public participation procedures shall include:

a. the Department shall make a preliminary determination whether
the application for an alternative set of total suspended
particulate or sulfur dioxide emission limitations should be
approved, approved with conditions, or disapproved.  A copy of
all materials pertaining to the application and the preliminary
determination shall be made available in at least one location in
the area of the application for the proposed alternative set of
limitations.

b. the public shall be notified in the geographic area of the
proposed action of the application, the preliminary
determination, the draft permits, and the opportunity for written
public comment for 30 days following public notification.  A
public hearing shall be held to receive written or oral comments
on the proposed action if a hearing is requested in writing
within 15 days following public notification.  The applicant will
be given the opportunity to respond to any comments submitted by
the public.
c. the Department shall make a final determination whether the
application should be approved, approved with conditions, or
disapproved; and notify the applicant.  The final determination,
permits, and public comments shall be made available for public
inspection at the same location where the Department made
available the preliminary determination.

d. a copy of the application, preliminary determination, notice
of public hearing, final determination, permits, and pertinent
materials shall be transmitted to the EPA.

Part B. - Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds.

1. An owner or operator may apply to the Department to be bound
by an alternative set of volatile organic compounds (VOC)
emission limitations for the emission points at the plant(s)
provided that the alternative set of limitations does not result
in an increase in total VOC emissions.  That is, the sum of those
alternative limitations must be equal to or less than the sum of
the limitations for those points previously imposed by the State
Implementation Plan (SIP).
   
Where no specific emission limitations are imposed by the SIP,
i.e., no VOC regulations have been adopted which cover those VOC
emissions, the actual emission rate of VOC emissions from such
points shall be the baseline for the original limitations used
for comparison with the proposed alternative set of limitations.
  
"Actual emissions" means the actual rate of emissions of a
pollutant from an emissions unit as determined in accordance with
the following:

     a. In general, actual emissions as of a particular date
shall equal the average rate, in tons per year, at which the unit
actually emitted the pollutant during a two-year period which
precedes the particular date and which is representative of
normal plant operation.  The reviewing authority shall allow the
use of a different time period upon a determination that it is
more representative of normal plant operation.  Actual emissions
shall be calculated using the unit's actual operating hours,
production rates, and types of materials processed, stored or
combusted during the selected time period.

     b. The reviewing authority may presume that plant specific
allowable emissions for the unit are equivalent to the actual
emissions of the unit.

     c. For any emissions unit which has not begun normal
operations on the particular date, actual emissions shall equal
the potential to emit of the unit on that date.

Should future regulations require a greater reduction from such
points, the newer emission limitations must be met by the
compliance date specified in the future regulations.

2. An application for approval of an alternative set of VOC
emissions limitations shall include the:

          a. identification and vapor pressure at standard conditions
     of each VOC; and

          b. concentration by volume and the emission rate of each
     VOC; and

          c. volumetric discharge flow rate and temperature of each
     VOC gas stream; and

          d. other information requested by the Department of each VOC
     gas stream; and

3. The Department may approve an alternative set of VOC emission
limitations provided:

          a. the VOC emission points involved in the proposed
     alternative set of emission limitations are within 50
     kilometers of each other; and

          b. the sum of the alternative set of VOC emission
     limitations does not exceed the sum of the maximum allowable
     emission rates contained in the SIP, where the maximum
     allowable emission rate for existing points not otherwise
     specified in the SIP shall be the actual VOC emissions; and

          c. calculations of the hourly combined emission rate are
     based on the uninterrupted operation at normal production
     rates of all included operations.  If the same equipment is
     used for manufacturing more than one product, the operation
     having the highest emission rate must be included; and

          d. the alternative set of emission limitations does not
     supersede the requirement that a plant must meet the
     emission limitations of Federal New Source Performance
     Standards, Federal National Emission Standards for Hazardous
     Air Pollutants, or any other requirements of the Federal
     Clean Air Act for new or modified sources; and

          e. when a hazardous pollutant is traded with non-hazardous
     pollutant, the emissions of the hazardous pollutant must be
     decreased; and

          f. the alternative set of emission limitations does not
     supersede requirements of South Carolina Air Pollution
     Control Regulations for new or modified sources; and

          g. emission reductions to less than the allowable emission
     rates are not used simultaneously as an emission offset and
     in an alternative set of emission limitations; and

          h. actual emissions of VOC from existing sources within
     designated nonattainment areas shall not be allowed to
     increase beyond the amount of growth allowance (over-all
     reductions provided for in the State Implementation Plan)
     remaining in the nonattainment area, as a result of
     bubbling.

4. Public participation procedures shall include:

          a. the Department shall make a preliminary determination
     whether the application for an alternative set of VOC
     emission limitations should be approved, approved with
     conditions, or disapproved.  A copy of all materials
     pertaining to the application and the preliminary
     determination shall be made available in at least one
     location in the area of the application for the proposed
     alternative set of limitations.

          b.  the public shall be notified in the geographic area of
     the proposed action of the application, the preliminary
     determination, the draft permits, and the opportunity for
     written public comment for 30 days following public
     notification.  A public hearing shall be held to receive
     written or oral comments on the proposed action if a hearing
     is requested in writing 15 days following public
     notification.  The applicant will be give the opportunity to
     respond to any comments submitted by the public.

          c. The Department shall make a final determination whether
     the application should be approved, approved with
     conditions, or disapproved; and notify the applicant.  The
     final determination, permits, and public comments shall be
     made available for public inspection at the same location
     where the Department made available the preliminary
     determination.

          d. a copy of the application, preliminary determination,
     notice of public hearing, final determination, permits, and
     pertinent materials shall be transmitted to the EPA.

Part C. - Emissions of Nitrogen Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, or
Lead.

The conditions for approval of a proposed alternative emission
limitation plan for emissions of nitrogen dioxide, carbon
monoxide, or lead submitted by an eligible source are:

1. Each proposal must receive the approval of EPA prior to
becoming effective; and

2. The proposal must be initiated by the plant; and

3. Each proposal must assure that attainment and maintenance of
NAAQS will not be jeopardized; and

4. All aspects of the proposal must be legally enforceable; and

5. Points involved must have emissions which are quantifiable and
trades among them must be equal or show a new decrease; and

6. Trades must be of the same pollutant category; and

7. The proposal must demonstrate equivalence or improvement of
air quality impact from the proposed trades; and

8. Pollutants designated as hazardous may only be used to
"bubble" if the proposal would result in a decrease of the
hazardous pollutant.

Part D. - Designated Pollutants.

"Designated pollutant" means any air pollutant which is subject
to regulation under Section 111(d) of the Federal Clean Air Act. 
In order for a plant to use alternative emission limitations for
designated pollutant, the designated pollutant must primarily
affect only public welfare instead of public health.
     
     The conditions for approval of a proposed set of alternative
emission limitations submitted by an eligible plant are:

1. Each proposal must receive the approval of EPA prior to
becoming effective; and

2. The proposal must be initiated by the plant; and

3. Each proposal must assure that attainment and maintenance of
NAAQS will not be jeopardized; and

4. All aspects of the proposal must be legally enforceable; and

5. Points involved must have emissions which are quantifiable and
trades among them must be equal or show a net decrease; and

6. Trades must be of the same pollutant category; and

7. The proposal must demonstrate equivalence or improvement of
air quality impact from the proposed trades; and

8. All information necessary to review the application shall be
submitted by the owner or operator and shall include:

          a. the emission limitations before and after the proposed
     trade of emissions for each pollutant; and

          b. proposed methods for demonstrating compliance with the
     proposed set of alternative emission limitations; and

          c. the remaining useful life of the existing equipment.

Part E. - De Minimis Cases.

Where bubbles involve small plants whose total potential to emit
is less than 100 tons per year, and where total emissions do not
increase as a result of using the bubble policy, such bubbles may
proceed without a SIP revision.

"Potential to emit" means the maximum capacity of a plant to emit
a pollutant under its physical and operational design.  Any
physical or operational limitations on the capacity of the plant
to emit a pollutant, including air pollution control equipment
and restrictions on hours of operation or on the type or amount
of material combusted, stored, or processed, shall be treated as
part of its design if the limitation or the effect it would have
on emissions is enforceable.  Secondary emissions do not count in
determining the potential to emit of a plant.
     
All other conditions for approval of a proposed alternative
emission limitation plan must be met.

SECTION III - ENFORCEABILITY

Each emission point involved in the alternative set of emission
limitations shall be assigned a specific emission limitation as a
condition of construction and operating permits.
Conditions on the permits must include:

1. Requirements that suitable test procedures as specified by the
Department shall be used to demonstrate compliance with the
alternative set of emission limitations; and

2. Methods and/or recordkeeping as specified by the Department to
show continued compliance with the alternative set of emission
limitations.
________________________________________________________________

THIS IS THE FEDERALLY APPROVED REGULATION AS OF SEP 3, 1982

               Date Submitted      Date Approved     Federal
               to EPA              by EPA            Register

Original Reg:  JUN 17, 1981        NOV 6, 1981       46 FR 55098
1st Revision:  JUN  7, 1982        SEP 3, 1982       47 FR 38887


For information about the contents of this page please contact
Sean Lakeman



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