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Camp Lejeune Military Res. (US Navy)


Deep soil mixing to address DNAPL at Camp Lejeune site

Additional Resources
Site Summary Profile
EPA ID: NC6170022580
Location: Jacksonville, Onslow County, NC
Lat/Long: 34.717780, -77.342910
Congressional District: 07
NPL Status: Proposed: 06/24/88; Final: 10/04/89
Affected Media: Ground water, Sediment, Soil, Surface water
Cleanup Status: Early Action Initiated/Completed design underway
Human Exposure Under Control: Yes
Ground water Migration Under Control:Yes
Sitewide Ready for Anticipated Use: No
Site Reuse/Redevelopment: In use - active military facility
Site Manager: Gena Townsend (townsend.gena@epa.gov)

Current Site Status

The Camp Lejeune Military Res. (USNavy) site includes an active U.S. Navy (Navy) base. The base opened in 1942. The EPA placed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1989 because of contaminated ground water, sediment, soil and surface water resulting from base operations and waste handling practices. The EPA, the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (NCDENR), and the Navy have investigated site conditions and taken steps to clean it up to protect people and the environment from contamination. Site contamination does not currently threaten people living and working near the site. By conducting site investigations, cleanup activities and required Five-Year Reviews, and placing institutional controls on the site property, the EPA, NCDENR and the Navy continue to protect people and the environment from site contamination.

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Site Location and Background

The 236 square-mile site is located in a rural area of Onslow County, just south of Jacksonville, North Carolina. The site includes the active Marine Corps Base (MCB) Camp Lejeune. The base includes six areas: Camp Geiger, Montford Point, Courthouse Bay, Mainside, the Greater Sandy Run Area and the Rifle Range Area. MCB Camp Lejeune was commissioned in 1942 as a training area to prepare Marines for combat.

The New River, which flows into the Atlantic Ocean, bisects the site and is used for fishing and recreation. State Route 24 borders the site to the north. The Atlantic Ocean borders the site to the south and east. U.S. Route 17 borders the site to the west. In 1989, the EPA placed the site on the NPL. Base operations at the site currently include industrial, recreational, commercial and residential land uses.

View site loaction map.

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Threats and Contaminants

Site investigations found contamination in ground water, sediment, soil and surface water that could potentially harm people in the area. Contamination resulted from base operations and waste handling practices at the site. Site contaminants of concern include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), metals, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

More than 13,000 people get their drinking water from wells in the area. Ground water is the sole source of drinking water for the site and surrounding areas.

The Navy has placed institutional controls on portions of the site to prohibit intrusive activities, ground water use and non-industrial land uses in these areas.

Fencing restricts access to portions of the site.

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Investigation and Cleanup Responsibility / Oversight

The Navy leads site investigation and cleanup activities, with oversight provided by the EPA and NCDENR.

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Site Cleanup Plan

Investigations and cleanup activities have focused on 25 areas, which the EPA refers to as operable units, or OUs. These OUs cover large portions of the site and contain one or more areas of contamination.

Department of Defense (DoD) established the Military Munitions response Program (MMRP), which was shortened to Munitions Response Program (MRP) by the Navy, under the Defense Environmental Restoration Program (DERP) in September 2001. The purpose is to address military munitions and explosives of concern (MEC) (unexploded ordnance [UXO] and waste military munitions) and munitions constituents (MCs) (Chemical residues of munitions) at locations that are not operational ranges.

Since 1992, the Navy and the EPA have issued 26 cleanup plans (Records of Decision, or RODs) for the OUs at the site.

Most recently, the Navy and the EPA issued a ROD for Site 49of OU23 in April 2014. The plan included:

A total of 27 sites have been identified in the MMRP, 8 are considered currently active and 19 have been formally closed.

Summaries of site cleanup approaches are also available online in key site cleanup documents, including the ROD and Five-Year Reviews.

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Cleanup Progress

The Navy has completed several cleanup activities at the site. Other site investigations and cleanup activities are ongoing.

From 1994 to 2000, the Navy removed and disposed of contaminated soils, drums, aboveground storage tanks, underground storage tanks, batteries, waste liquids and dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) from areas across the site. At several of these areas, the Navy conducted additional activities to address associated ground water contamination. For example, in 2006, the Navy completed a ground water study to evaluate the effectiveness of the cleanup approach for “hot spot” contaminated areas near the highway bypass.

In 1996, the Navy treated VOC-contaminated soil using a soil vapor extraction system. The Navy also put in a ground water treatment plant and a bio-treatment cell for contaminated soil.

In 2001, the Navy completed a time-critical removal action using low-level heat to pull contamination from soil. Then, in 2003 and 2004, the Navy began a pilot-scale treatability study using electrical resistance heating to treat areas containing DNAPL.

The cleanup for several areas has included institutional controls and ground water monitoring. At OU7 (Sites 1, 28 and 30) and OU4 (Sites 41 and 74), the Navy conducted ground water monitoring until concentrations of contaminants were below site cleanup goals. The Navy completed cleanup activities at these OUs in 2002 and 2006, respectively.

In 2003 and 2006, the Navy conducted additional removals of contaminated soil.

In 2007 and 2008, the Navy did a cleanup at OU16 (Site 93). It included institutional controls, ground water monitoring and use of chemicals called oxidants to break down contaminants.

The Navy has placed institutional controls on portions of the site to prohibit intrusive activities, ground water use and non-industrial land uses in these areas.

In 2010 to 2014 the following actions have been completed or are underway:

The EPA completed the site’s third Five-Year Review in 2010.

Summaries of cleanup activities are also available online in the Five-Year Review.  

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Enforcement Activities

In 1991, the EPA, North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources (now NCDENR) and the Navy signed a Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) for the site. The FFA helps make sure that the parties will fully investigate environmental impacts associated with past and present activities and undertake and complete appropriate cleanup actions. The FFA also establishes schedules and enforceable milestones for cleanup activities.

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Community Involvement

The Navy, the EPA and the state have worked with the community to develop a long-term cleanup plan for the site, reflecting the Agency’s commitment to safe, healthy communities and environmental protection. Community engagement and public outreach are core components of EPA program activities.
The Navy and the EPA have conducted a range of community involvement activities to ask for community input and to make sure the public remains informed about site activities throughout the cleanup process. Outreach efforts have included public notices and meetings.

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Future Work

Additional investigations are ongoing at several areas on site. Their focus is VOC and metal contamination in ground water and the potential for vapor intrusion into on-site buildings. The Navy continues to conduct long-term maintenance activities. It also maintains institutional controls and operates ground water treatment systems.

The Navy will conduct pilot studies to evaluate alternative remedies for some sites which could potentially shorten the time to achieve the remedial goals in 2015.

The Navy plans to finalize a feasibility study for a portion of the site in 2014.

The EPA completed the last Five-Year Review in 2010. The EPA plans to complete the next Five-Year Review in 2015.

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Additional Information

The EPA keeps additional site documents and information in a site information repository at the location below. The EPA also posts site documents, when available, on the EPA’s CERCLIS Site Profile page. For documents not available on the website, please contact the Region 4 Freedom of Information Office.

Site Repository

Onslow County Public Library
58 Doris Avenue
East Jacksonville, North Carolina 28540

Camp Lejeune also has an online repository.

Note: Some internet browsers do not include Department of Defense (DoD) digital security certificates, which may result in a security warning recommending that the user not proceed. Though there is no harm from proceeding, to avoid such security alerts first download the DoD Root CA Certificates by following the instructions at the following web site: http://dodpki.c3pki.chamb.disa.mil/rootca.html

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