Donald Baumgartner (firstname.lastname@example.org)
EPA Region 5
77 W. Jackson Blvd LC-8J
Chicago, IL 60604
The contents of the information, summaries, factsheets, publications and reports provided do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of US EPA. Mention of trade names or commercial products, and links to sites describing such materials do not constitute US EPA endorsement or recommendation for use.
Pesticides and Public Health
Pesticides and Public Health: Integrated Methods of Mosquito Management (2001) by R.L. Rose. CDC Emerging Infectious Diseases Synopsis. A review provided of EPA's perspective on mosquito control, FIFRA involvement, future of public health pesticides, and adulticides commonly used.
Mosquito Adulticiding Efficacy Studies (Selected References)
- Field Evaluation of Permethrin and Fluvalinate as ULV Cold Aerosols Against Caged Mosquitoes (1986) by D.L. Kline et al. J. FL Mosq. Assoc. 57:18-21. [Permethrin achieved 90-95% control & was 2-5X more effective than malathion].
- Preliminary Studies with Ultra-Low Volume Malathion, Chlorpyrifos, and Resmethrin Against Caged Culex Species. (1983) by R.G. Knepper et al. Proc. 18th Ann. Meet. Ohio Mosq. Ctrl. Assoc 13:21-25. [Resmethrin gave reduction of Culex of 83%, 86%, 97%, and 100% in front yards, and 52%, 94%, and 100% in back yards].
- A Review of Ultra-Low Volume Aerial Sprays of Insecticide for Mosquito Control (1996) by G.A. Mount et al. J. Am Mosq. Ctrl. Assoc. 12(4): 601-618. [Review of research reveals ULV efficacious for mosquito control, even among dense foliage and open housing if dosage increased].
- Mosquito Adulticiding – Is It Cost Effective? (1989) by D.L.Baumgartner. IL Mosq & Vector Ctrl. Assoc. 1(3): 2-6.[Literature review of numerous studies show high efficacy in caged field tests, but sometimes less effective (<70%) in residential areas on live mosquitoes].
- Efficacy of Resmethrin Aerosols Applied from the Road for Suppressing Culex Vectors of West Nile Virus (2006) by M.R. Reddy et al. Vector-Borne & Zoonotic Dis 6(2): 117-127. [Aerosol plumes of ULV from the road failed to contact target mosquitoes (as monitored by ovitraps only) and so such sprayings may not effectively reduce WNV].
- Effect of Ground Ultra Low Volume Insecticide Applications on Natural Mosquito Populations. (1982) by R.E. Parsons J. FL Mosq. Assoc. 53(1): 31-36. [Malathion and Naled were not effective (32-85% reduction in light traps) at controlling mosquito populations in test area, despite 6 treatments at different doses.].
Mosquito Adulticiding Human Health Effects Studies (Selected References)
- Toxicologic Information About Insecticides Used for Eradicating Mosquitoes (West Nile Virus Control) (2005) by US Dept Health and Human Services. [Analysis of methoprene, sumithrin, & permethrin show low mammalian toxicity & rapid rate of environmental degradation].
- Adult Mosquito Program – Final Environmental Impact Statement (2001). New York City Dept Health. [Analysis of 6 different active ingredients (incl. sumithrin) and certain inert ingredients revealed no significant adverse public health impacts expected from exposures to adulticides (at 25 ft. from spray truck). Adulticides not expected to significantly increase occurrence of asthma events or other respiratory health effects at the low exposure concentrations associated with mosquito control. Possibly some sensitive individuals may experience heath effects short-term in nature].
- Human Exposure to Mosquito Control Pesticides – Mississippi, North Carolina, and Virginia, 2002-2003. (2005) by CDC MMWR Weekly 54:529-532. [Assessment of human exposure to ULV naled, permethrin, and sumithrin did not show substantial pesticide exposures to humans].
- A Human-Health Risk Assessment for West Nile Virus and Insecticides Used in Mosquito Management (2005) by R.K.D. Peterson et al. Env. Health Perspectives. [Study of worst case risk assessments to evaluate human health risk for WNV and insecticides for adult mosquitoes. Results show that human health risks from residential exposure to adulticides are low and not likely to exceed levels of concern, but risks from WNV exceed risk to insecticide].
- Pesticide Spraying for WNV Control and Emergency Department Asthma Visits in New York City 2000. (2004) by A.M. Karpati et al. Env. Health Perspec. 112(11): 1183-1187.[Study of emergency hospital visits compared to adulticiding revealed no difference in asthma visits pre- and post-spraying. Spraying pyrethroids for WNV in NY City was not followed by increased hospital visits].
- Residue Studies of Ultra-Low Volume Applications of Permethrin in County Parks in Saginaw, Michigan. by R.G. Knepper et al. [ULV spraying for adult mosquito control presents minimal risk to humans].
Mosquito Adulticiding Non-Target Wildlife Effect Studies [Selected References]
- Non-Target Effects of ULV Mosquito Adulticides on Aquatic Insects and Fish. (1996) by S.P. Lawler et al. Univ. CA Mosq Ctrl. Res. Rept. 55-57 [Field studies show permethrin and pyrethrin ULV did not result in a residual surface water samples and did not cause significant mortality in mosquitofish or mosquito larvae. Treatment areas showed no decrease in abundance of aquatic invertebrates].
- A Census of Birds and Fish in Areas Treated with Mosquito Adulticides Versus Similar Untreated Areas (1981) by L.A. Webber. J. FL Mosq. Assoc 52: 52-55. [Twelve month study indicates no significant differences between bird and fish numbers in test plots from aircraft fenthion and malathion sprays].
- A review of the Effects of Ultra Low Volume Insecticide Treatments to Honey Bees (1980) by H.R. Stevenson et al. Proc. FL Mosq. Assoc 51: 11-14. [Except for chlorpyrifos, ULV insecticides, under ideal conditions, will not subject honeybees to lethal doses].
- Aquatic Effects of Aerial Spraying for Mosquito Control Over An Urban Area. (2006) by D.P. Weston et al. Am. Chem. Soc. on-line. [Aircraft dispensed pyrethrin over a metropolitan area of Sacramento, CA did not show any evidence of aquatic toxicity to amphipods].
Deet Efficacy and Safety [Selected References]
- Mosquitoes and Mosquito Repellents: A Clinician's Guide (1998) by M.S. Fradin. Ann. Am. Soc. Internal Med. 128:931-940. [Review of clinical & analytical data from peer-reviewed studies show DEET is most effective repellent on market. Shows remarkable safety profile].
- Laboratory Evaluation of Mosquito Repellents Against Ae. Albopictus, Cx. Nigripalpus, & O.triseriatus (2004) by D.R. Barnard et al. J. Med. Entomol. 41: 726-730. [Comparison of 4 synthetic & 8 natural repellents show DEET better than picaridin, IR3535, geranoil, and citronella in this order].
- Evaluation of the Sensitivity of Ae. Aegypti & An. Gambiae Complex Mosquitoes to Two Insect Repellents DEET and KR3023 (Picaridin) (2004) by A. Badalo et al. Trop. Med. & Int. Health 9: 330-334. [Relative potency of picaridin not significantly different than DEET for An. gambiae while picaridin was 1-2X better than DEET for Ae. aegypti].
- Field Efficacy of Commercial Anti-Mosquito Products in Illinois (2000) by T. Jensen et al. J.AMCA 16: 148-152. [DEET has consistently lower landing rates than sonic repellers, smoke coils, citronella candles, mosquito plant, DEET wrist bands, and UV killing light trap.].
- Evaluation of the Efficacy of 3% Citronella Candles and 5% Citronella Incense for Protection Against Field Populations of Aedes mosquitoes. (1996) by L.R. Lindsay et al. JAMCA 12:293-294. [Comparison of candles with and without citronella over controls (no candles) showed differences in landing counts but not bite counts. Plain candles offered 23% reduction of mosquitoes and citronella candles 42% reduction. Thus, citronella offered only a difference of 19% reduction difference in protection].
- Repellency of Two DEET Formulations and Avon Skin-So-Soft Against Biting Midges in Honduras (1991) by G.J. Magnon et al. JAMCA 7: 80-82. [DEET and Avon provided 97.9% and 71.4% protection, respectively against midges. The latter provide protection by trapping midges in the oily film and not by repelling the insects as did the DEET].
- Comparative Efficacy of Insect Repellents Against Mosquito Bites (2002) by M.S. Fradin et al. New England J. Med 347: 13-18. [DEET provided complete protection for longest duration over IR3535, repellent wrist bands, & repellent moisturizer].
- Mosquito Repellents by C. Roxanne Rutledge et al. Univ. FL Extension on-line [Nice chart comparison of different repellents in market and their average protection time].
- Pharmacokinetics, Formulation, and Safety of Insect Repellent DEET; A Review (1998) by H. Qui et al. JAMCA 14: 12-27. [DEET offers an inexpensive and practical means of preventing the attack of biting insects, and more importantly transmission of vector-borne diseases. In both humans and animals DEET skin penetration and biodistribution are rapid and extensive, and metabolism & elimination appear complete. DEET is generally safe for topical use if applied as recommended, although it has occasionally been related to side effects.]
- Follow Safety Precautions When Using DEET on Children (2003) Am Academy of Pediatrics online. [DEET at 10% appears to be safe when used as labeled. DEET is not recommended for children under 2 months of age. DEET is the most effective repellent available. DEET should not be used in a product combined with sunscreen.]
- DEET-based Insect Repellents – Safety Implications for Children and Pregnant and Lactating Women (2003) by G. Koren et al. Can Med Assoc J 169:209-212. [Evidence does not support the concerns of DEET increased risk to children. Evidence is reassuring that DEET has no fetal toxic effects or malformations in offspring of exposed animals. There is no evidence that DEET use by pregnant women or lactating women poses a health hazard to unborn babies or children who are breast-feeding].
- DEET Alternatives Considered to be Effective Mosquito Repellents (2005) Am Academy of Pediatrics online [Picaridin and oil of eucalyptus are comparable in effectiveness to DEET. Use of DEET and sunscreen products at same time is not recommended as may result in repeated applications of DEET.]
West Nile Virus Bibliography of Scientific Literature
- Check out a variety of references at Cornell's Environmental Risk Analysis Program.