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Congressional District # 02


EPA ID# MID980504716
Last Updated: April, 2013

Site Description

The 40-acre Duell & Gardner Landfill site, located in Dalton Township, Muskegon County, Michigan, was an operating municipal landfill from the 1940s to 1975. Before 1969, industrial waste and general refuse were accepted at the site. From 1969 to 1973, the landfill was operated as a licensed solid waste disposal facility. In 1971, the Michigan Department of Public Health (MDPH) stipulated that no liquid waste was to be disposed of in the landfill; however, in 1973, the MDPH noted that liquid waste disposal was occurring. The landfill ceased operations in 1975. Wastes were deposited on the soil surface and in surface depressions. 

Materials found on the site included: approximately 500 drums in various stages of deterioration, hundreds of laboratory bottles, areas of refuse and debris, and piles of unidentified sludge-like material. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, aniline, and N,N-dimethylaniline, have been detected in onsite groundwater. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), crystal violet, aniline, and N,N-dimethylaniline were detected in onsite soil. Potential health risks may exist for individuals who have direct contact with or ingest contaminated groundwater or soil. Approximately 140 people live within a one-mile radius of the site.

Site Responsibility

The site is being addressed through State response actions.

Threats and Contaminants

VOCs, including chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, aniline, and N,N-dimethylaniline, have been detected in onsite groundwater. PCBs, crystal violet, aniline, and N,N-dimethylaniline were detected in onsite soil. Potential health risks may exist for individuals who have direct contact with or ingest contaminated groundwater or soil. 

Cleanup Progress

In 1986, under Federal authority, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) removed approximately 550 drums, the laboratory bottles, sludge-like material, and general refuse and debris. The site was posted to reduce the potential for exposure to remaining contaminants.

In December 1986, the state began an investigation to determine the type and extent of groundwater and soil contamination which remained at the site and to identify alternative technologies for the cleanup. Based on the results of the investigation, a remedy, including low-temperature treatment of contaminated soil, carbon adsorption treatment of groundwater, and capping of the landfill, was selected in fall 1993. 

A Unilateral Administrative Order was issued by the EPA on June 22, 1994. The potentially responsible party (PRP), CPC International, began design of the remedy in 1994.  In July 1999, the PRP ceased all work, after receiving a favorable legal decision on the issue of its underlying liability at the site.  Currently, the EPA and the State of Michigan are addressing the remaining cleanup through fund-financed action.
Predesign work indicated that approximately 200 cubic yards of contaminated soil remains. Predesign groundwater investigations concluded that the contaminant concentrations had declined and had not migrated from the site. Based on these findings, a Record of Decision amendment was signed on June 29, 2001 to include soil excavation with offsite disposal, groundwater extraction and treatment, on-site consolidation and capping of contaminated soils. The Remedial Action was determined operational  and functional in August 2002.  The Long Term Remedial Action (LTRA) of groundwater extraction and treatment is currently on-going at the site under EPA oversight.   LTRA will continue until August 2012 at which time, Operation and Maintenance of the remedy under the State of Michigan's oversight will begin.

A Five Year Review was completed in September 2005.  This review found that the remedy was protective in the short-term.  However,  in order for the remedy to be protective in the long-term; institutional controls, such as a restrictive covenant on the property, needed to be implemented and enforceable.  On October 30, 2007, a Restrictive Covenant was signed by the property owners and filed in the Muskegon County Michigan Register of Deeds office.

Sitewide Ready for Anticipated Reuse was achieved on February 11, 2008.

In October 2009, a second Five Year Review began and was signed in March 2010.  The review determined that the remedy is protective of human health and the environment because impacted soils have been removed; wastes have been consolidted into a 4-acre landfill and covered with an impermeable cover; impacted groundwater is currently being recovered and treated on site; and Institutional Controls to restrict current and future use of the site have been implemented. 

Based on groundwater sampling analysis which showed that there were no groundwater contaminants detected above clean up levels, EPA and MDEQ determined that the groundwater treatment system could be shut down in accordance with the Groundwater Monitoring Plan.   The groundwater treatment system was shut down in June 2010 and the contaminant levels remain under clean up goals.  The next two sampling events in December 2011 and March 2012 continued to show non-detect for groundwater contaminants.  Therefore the groundwater remedy was considered complete.  The treatment system was decommissioned on May 24, 2012. On August 29, 2012, EPA formally transferred the Operations and Maintenance for the site to MDEQ.  The Final Close-out Report was signed on November 8, 2012. 

Success Story

The site remedy as implemented achieves the degree of cleanup as specified in the ROD for all pathways of exposure.  The selected remedial and removal actions; remedial action objectives; and associated cleanup goals are consistent with agency policy and guidance.  No further Superfund response is needed to protect human health and the environment.  Because the performance standards as set forth in the ROD and ROD Amendment have been achieved, the site is now eligible for deletion from the NPL.

Community Involvement

No digital information for this section.

Congressional Interest

No digital information for this section.

Property Reuse

No digital information for this section.


Remedial Project Manager, U.S. EPA
pamela molitor (molitor.pamela@epa.gov)
(312) 886-3543

Community Involvement Coordinator, U.S. EPA
cheryl allen
(312) 353-6196




Site Profile Information

This profile provides you with information on EPA's cleanup progress at this Superfund site.


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