EPA-Expo-Box (A Toolbox for Exposure Assessors)
- Fate & Transport
- Calculation Tools
Contaminated media to which people might be exposed include air, water and sediment, soil and dust, food, aquatic biota, and consumer products. Ambient air can become contaminated as a result of stationary (point) sources (e.g., power plants, industrial facilities); natural sources (e.g., forest fires, volcanoes, wind storms that generate dust); area sources (e.g., community of homes using woodstoves for heat); and mobile sources (e.g., automobiles, trucks, airplanes). Sources of indoor air pollution include combustion sources (e.g., oil, gas, wood, tobacco products), building materials, and consumer products.
Exposure to contaminants in air can occur from direct contact (e.g., inhalation) or indirect contact from transfer and subsequent contact with other media (e.g., deposition of atmospheric contaminants onto soil or water and subsequent uptake into terrestrial foods or aquatic biota). The concentrations of contaminants in air at the point of exposure may differ from the concentrations at the source as a result of fate and transport processes (e.g., dispersion or deposition). Various tools are available for evaluating sources and releases of contaminants to air, fate and transport processes, and potential exposure concentrations. Exposure factors, calculation tools, and guidance for assessing exposure to contaminants in air are also discussed in this module.
|1: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont||http://www.epa.gov/region1/topics/pollutants/airtox.html
|2: New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico , U.S. Virgin Islands||http://www.epa.gov/region02/air/|
|3: Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, District of Columbia||http://www.epa.gov/reg3artd/|
|4: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee||http://www.epa.gov/region4/air/airtoxic/|
|5: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Wisconsin||http://www.epa.gov/region5/air/|
|6: Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas||http://www.epa.gov/region6/air/|
|7: Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska||http://www.epa.gov/region7/air/|
|8: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, Wyoming||http://www.epa.gov/region8/air/|
|9: Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, territories of Guam and American Samoa||http://www.epa.gov/region9/air/|
|10: Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington||http://yosemite.epa.gov/R10/AIRPAGE.NSF/webpage/Air+Quality|