Skip common site navigation and headers
United States Environmental Protection Agency
Ruminant Livestock
Begin Hierarchical Links EPA Home > Global Warming Home > Methane > Ruminant Livestock > Ruminant Livestock End Hierarchical Links

 

Ruminant Livestock

LAM Tutorial: The Country of Mitocha

Introduction
Calibration
Evaluate the Proposed Dairy Improvement Program
Baseline Scenario
Intervention Scenario
Intervention Plus Increased Production Scenario
Mitocha Tutorial Summary Results
Additional Exercises


Introduction

This tutorial is intended to introduce new users to the LAM. A Case Study is presented using illustrative data for the hypothetical country of Mitocha.

Dorje, the Minister of Environment in Mitocha is considering establishing a dairy industry development program in the Topi Region of Mitocha. This program would be designed to promote economic development and improve milk production. As an additional benefit, the program may also reduce methane emissions. Minister Dorje has decided to use LAM to estimate what emissions reductions the program could achieve.


Calibration

To begin, Minister Dorje must calibrate the model to the current conditions in the Topi Region. First he gathered information about each sector of the livestock industry, including data on each animal category, their production levels and herd size. To gather this information, Minister Dorje contacted the Minister of Agriculture and several other livestock experts. They determined how to group animals based on management and production characteristics. The production levels of animals in each group, or sector, were determined. Using this detailed production data, Minister Dorje calculated the total current production levels for each sector and each industry in the Topi Region. Follow the instructions below to enter this information into the model:

What information is needed

Total Production Level:

LAM uses the total current or projected production levels of milk, meat, and draft to calculate herd size (draft production is the number of working adult animals). For the model calibration, we will enter the current total production levels that Minister Dorje calculated from the region's production sectors.

How to enter the information

  • In the LAM Targets Sheet,
  • Enter current production levels in the Production Target Table (see table below). The Topi Region currently produces 10,000 metric tons of milk, 1,500 metric tons of meat, and has 10,000 working draft animals.

Product

Target

Milk Production (1000 tons/yr)

10.0

Draft Production (1000 Head)

10.0

Meat Production (1000 tons/yr)

1.5

 

What information is needed

Distribution of Production by Sector:

When an industry is divided into different sectors, the total production level for each sector must be entered into LAM. LAM can recognize up to four separate milk herds, two separate draft power herds, and one meat producing herd, each with different production characteristics. The "distribution of production by sector" is the percentage of total production produced by that sector.

It is not necessary to use all of the columns provided for different sectors. For example, there are only 3 milk sectors in Topi Region, and LAM gives four columns. In this case, the fourth milk sector produces zero percent of the total milk production. If you enter zero for the sector in this table, LAM will calculate a herd of zero animals for that sector. Therefore, it is not necessary to enter or modify any other numbers in the model regarding that sector.

How to enter the information

  • Enter the distribution of production among the animal sectors. In the Topi Region, the dairy industry includes three sectors that have different production characteristics -- Urban, Rural Lowlands and Rural Hills. The Draft animals all fall in one sector, which we will label Buffalo. The animals raised specifically for meat also fall into one category, which we will call All. Enter the names for each sector and the proportion of total milk, draft, and meat production that comes from each sector (see table below). Enter a production percentage of zero for sector Milk_4 and Draft_2. Do not try to delete these columns in the LAM model

 

Distribution of Production Targets by Sector

(Each Row Must Equal 100%)

Milk_1

Milk_2

Milk_3

Milk_4

Draft_1

Draft_2

Meat

Total

Sector Label (Optional) ==>

Urban

Rural-Low

Rural-Hills

Blank

Buffalo

Blank

All

Milk Production (1000 tons)

40%

30%

30%

0%

NA

NA

NA

100%

Draft Production (1000 Head)

NA

NA

NA

NA

100%

0%

NA

100%

Meat Production (1000 tons)

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

100%

100%

What information is needed

Milk Production:

The milk per lactation, length of lactation, intercalving interval, percent of cows bred, and percent milk produced for humans must be entered in LAM for each sector to determine the herd size and composition that would be able to supply the milk target production level. The milk per lactation and the time between calves (intercalving interval) are strongly influenced by health and nutrition and can have a large impact on total herd size.

How to enter the information

  • Move to the Production Characteristics Sheet by clicking on the labeled button. On this sheet:
  • Enter the milk production data (see following table). Ignore the columns representing sectors with no production (Milk_4 and Draft_2). Note the differences in the three dairy sector characteristics. Also note that in Topi Region, 15% of the milk from buffalo goes to human consumption to meet the target production level.

Milk_1

Milk_2

Milk_3

Milk_4

Draft_1

Draft_2

Meat

Urban

Rural-Low

Rural-Hills

Blank

Buffalo

Blank

All

Cows: Milk Production

Milk per lactation (tons)

3.50

1.00

1.10

1.00

0.90

0.90

1.74

Length of lactation (days)

300

270

275

305

200

200

200

Intercalving interval (days)

450

660

650

365

600

600

365

Percent of Cows that are Bred

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

75.0%

50.0%

90.0%

Percent of milk produced for target

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

15.0%

0.0%

0.0%

Note: A non-zero value for "Milk per lactation" must be entered for each sector, even if that sector has a milk target of zero.



What information is needed

Bull to Cow Ratio and Draft Power Definitions:

LAM uses the ratio of bulls to cows in each sector to determine how many bulls are in the herd. In many regions males in the dairy sector are used as draft animals, substantially decreasing the herd size of the draft sector.

How to enter the information

  • Enter the Bull to Cow Ratio and Draft Power Definitions (see table below). Ignore any columns representing sectors with no production. Note the use of bulls from other sectors as draft animals.

Milk_1

Milk_2

Milk_3

Milk_4

Draft_1

Draft_2

Meat

Urban

Rural-Low

Rural-Hills

Blank

Buffalo

Blank

All

Bulls: Ratio to Cows

Bulls per cow

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

N/A

N/A

0.07

Draft Power Definitions

Pct adult males usable as draft

90%

90%

90%

90%

95%

95%

90%

Pct non-bred females usable as daft

0%

0%

0%

0%

50%

50%

0%

Pct "wet" females usable as daft

0%

0%

0%

0%

0%

0%

0%

Pct "dry" females usable as daft

0%

0%

0%

0%

0%

0%

0%

What information is needed

Meat Production Characteristics:

LAM uses information about the carcass weight to determine the size of the meat sector herd required to fulfill meat production target levels. An animal's carcass weight is significantly less than an animal's live weight. Minister Dorje consulted with slaughter facilities to determine the carcass weights of animals from each sector.

Excess young born in dairy or draft sectors are often transferred into the meat industry to be raised. This affects the meat herd size needed to achieve target production levels.

How to enter the information

  • Enter the Meat Production Characteristics (see table below). Ignore any columns representing sectors with no production. Note the different carcass weights for the dairy and meat sectors. Verify that the excess young from other sectors are transferred to the meat sector (indicated by the number 1 in the last row). 

Milk_1

Milk_2

Milk_3

Milk_4

Draft_1

Draft_2

Meat

Urban

Rural-Low

Rural-Hills

Blank

Buffalo

Blank

All

Meat Production Characteristics

Adult Male carcass wt (1000 kg)

0.200

0.180

0.180

0.180

0.180

0.180

0.180

Adult Female carcass wt (1000 kg)

0.160

0.150

0.150

0.150

0.150

0.150

0.150

Slaughter male carcass weight (1000 kg)

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

0.200

Slaughter female carcass weight (1000kg)

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

0.180

Transfer Young to Meat Sector? (1=Yes)

1

1

1

1

1

1

NA

What information is needed

Maximum Years in the Herd:

Years in the herd expresses the rate of growth in each sector. The higher the number of years spent in each development stage, the slower the growth of the animal.

After the "young" period, some animals are prepared and fed specifically for slaughter, sometimes in feedlots. The "years to slaughter for slaughterstock" number indicates the length of time used to prepare the animals for slaughter.

How to enter the information

  • Enter the maximum years in the herd (see following table). Ignore any columns representing sectors with no production. Note the differences in the dairy sector characteristics. Note the one year slaughterstock preparation time to slaughter.

 

 

Milk_1

Milk_2

Milk_3

Milk_4

Draft_1

Draft_2

Meat

Urban

Rural-Low

Rural-Hills

Blank

Buffalo

Blank

All

Maximum Years in the Herd: Adults, Replacements, Young

Yrs in herd -- adult males (Max = 10)

8

8

8

8

10

10

8

Yrs in herd -- adult females (Max = 10)

8

8

8

8

10

10

8

Yrs in herd -- repl males (Max = 4)

2

2

2

2

4

4

1

Yrs in herd -- repl females (Max = 4)

2

2

2

2

4

4

1

Yrs in herd -- young males (Max = 4)

1

2

2

2

2

2

1.5

Yrs in herd -- young females (Max = 4)

1

2

2

2

2

2

1.5

Yrs to slaughter for slaughterstk (Max = 4)

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

1

 

What information is needed

Annual Mortality Rates:

The annual mortality rates account for natural deaths in each animal category. Also included are the culling rates for adult male and female animals.

How to enter the information

  • Enter the Annual Mortality Rates (see table below). Ignore any columns representing sectors with no production. This table accounts for natural deaths and culling of herds. Reliable mortality rate data can be difficult to collect. An effort should be made to get a set of estimates that is as representative as possible.

 

Milk_1

Milk_2

Milk_3

Milk_4

Draft_1

Draft_2

Meat

Urban

Rural-Low

Rural-Hills

Blank

Buffalo

Blank

All

Annual Mortality Rates

Annual death rate -- adult males

2.0%

4.0%

4.0%

4.0%

4.0%

4.0%

2.0%

Annual death rate -- adult females

2.0%

4.0%

4.0%

4.0%

4.0%

4.0%

2.0%

Annual death rate -- repl males

2.0%

4.0%

4.0%

4.0%

4.0%

4.0%

2.0%

Annual death rate -- repl females

2.0%

4.0%

4.0%

4.0%

4.0%

4.0%

2.0%

Annual death rate -- young males

5.0%

10.0%

10.0%

10.0%

10.0%

10.0%

5.0%

Annual death rate -- young females

5.0%

10.0%

10.0%

10.0%

5.0%

5.0%

5.0%

Adult Male Cull Rate

2.0%

2.0%

2.0%

2.0%

0.0%

1.0%

10.0%

Adult Female Cull Rate

15.0%

5.0%

5.0%

5.0%

0.0%

1.0%

10.0%

Annual death rate -- slaughter stock

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

1.0%

 

What information is needed

Live Weight:

LAM uses the animal's live weight, which is much greater that the carcass weight, to help determine feed consumption and growth rates.

How to enter the information

  • Move to the Methane Characteristics Sheet by clicking on the labeled button. On this sheet:

Enter the animal's live weight in the weight column (see following table). Ignore any rows representing sectors with zero production. Note the different weights for the dairy and meat sectors.

What information is needed

Feeding Situation:

The options for feeding situations are given below the Methane Characteristics Table. The feeding situation indicates how much energy the animals use to get their food.

How to enter the information

  • Enter the feeding situation using the column labeled "Feeding Situation (1 - 3 below)" (or "above" in Quattro Pro version). Ignore any rows representing sectors with zero production. Use the table of feeding situation choices given in the model below the data entry field to find the number that represents the correct feeding situation (In the Quattro Pro version this table is above). The feeding situations for the animals in the Topi Region are given in the following table.

What information is needed

Feed Digestibility:

Feed digestibility indicates how much of the feed energy is available to the animal. Common feed digestibilities for cattle range from 50% to 60% for crop by-products and rangelands; 60% to 70% for good pastures, good preserved forages, and grain supplemented diets; and 75% to 85% for high quality feedlot grain diets.

How to enter the information

  • Enter the feed digestibility percentage for each animal type of each sector. Ignore any rows representing sectors with zero production. Note the different digestibilities for each animal type of all sectors. The feed digestibilities for the animals in the Topi Region are given in the following table.

What information is needed

Methane Conversion Rates:

The methane conversion rate is the percent of feed energy converted to methane. This varies with the type and quality of feed. The IPCC/OECD Emissions Inventory Guidelines provide "standard assumptions" to use for this factor.

How to enter the information

  • Enter the methane conversion rate using the column labeled "Methane Conversion (1-8 below)" (or "above" in Quattro Pro version). Ignore any rows representing sectors with zero production. Use the table of methane conversion choices given in the model below the data entry field to find the number that represents the correct methane emission rate (In the Quattro Pro version this table is above). The methane conversion rates for the animal types in Topi Region are given in the following table. For example, the conversion rate for an urban adult male dairy animal is 7%. The table in LAM tells us that a conversion rate of 7% ("poor quality") corresponds to the number 3. So we will enter the number 3 for that row. (You may edit the methane conversion rate table to assign alternative values. This may be required to match the inputs shown in this tutorial.)

We have now finished entering the calibration information into LAM. To run the model and move to the Results Sheet, click the Run button. This sheet displays details about the livestock herds in each sector and estimates the emissions by sector and per unit product. Note that sectors designated as producing zero percent of the product emit no emissions and have herd sizes of zero. The model estimates are shown in the following tables.

Minister Dorje should verify at this time that the herd information is accurate. The herd numbers by sector and category of animal should be compared to the data he collected earlier. If the herd numbers do not closely represent actual herd numbers, inputs such as milk per lactation, intercalving interval, mortality rates, culling rates, carcass weights, and maximum years spent in each developmental stage should be reevaluated. This will calibrate the model to the production practices of the Topi Region. Once the model is calibrated, the spreadsheet should be saved under a new name, such as "CALIB01.XLS" (or "CALIB01.WB1") to save the calibration settings.

As shown in the table below, the total herd size is 62,700. The three dairy sectors have populations of 2,500, 9,100, and 8,200 respectively, for a total dairy population of 19,700. Total methane emissions are estimated as 3,235 tons/year.

Methane

Feeding

Feeding

Feed

Methane

Methane

Sector

Emissions

Weight

Situation

Situation

Digest

Conversion

Conversion

Sector

Name

Animal Type

(kg/hd/yr)

(kg)

(1-3 below)

Selected

(%)

(1-8 below)

Selected

Milk_1

Urban

Adult Males

90.8

500

1

Stall Fed

55

3

7.0%

Milk_1

Urban

Adult Females

80.2

400

1

Stall Fed

60

1

6.0%

Milk_1

Urban

Repl Males

51.9

300

1

Stall Fed

55

3

7.0%

Milk_1

Urban

Repl Females

42.9

250

1

Stall Fed

55

3

7.0%

Milk_1

Urban

Young Males

12.9

200

1

Stall Fed

65

6

3.0%

Milk_1

Urban

Young Females

11.4

200

1

Stall Fed

65

6

3.0%

Milk_2

Rural-Low

Adult Males

83.9

450

1

Stall Fed

55

3

7.0%

Milk_2

Rural-Low

Adult Females

65.8

375

1

Stall Fed

55

3

7.0%

Milk_2

Rural-Low

Repl Males

48.8

300

1

Stall Fed

55

3

7.0%

Milk_2

Rural-Low

Repl Females

41.5

250

1

Stall Fed

55

3

7.0%

Milk_2

Rural-Low

Young Males

11.4

200

1

Stall Fed

65

6

3.0%

Milk_2

Rural-Low

Young Females

10.7

200

1

Stall Fed

65

6

3.0%

Milk_3

Rural-Hills

Adult Males

93.1

450

2

Pasture/Range

55

3

7.0%

Milk_3

Rural-Hills

Adult Females

75.5

375

2

Pasture/Range

55

3

7.0%

Milk_3

Rural-Hills

Repl Males

55.6

300

2

Pasture/Range

55

3

7.0%

Milk_3

Rural-Hills

Repl Females

47.4

250

2

Pasture/Range

55

3

7.0%

Milk_3

Rural-Hills

Young Males

13.1

200

2

Pasture/Range

65

6

3.0%

Milk_3

Rural-Hills

Young Females

12.4

200

2

Pasture/Range

65

6

3.0%

Milk_4 Sector omitted from this exhibit

Draft_1

Buffalo

Adult Males

78.3

400

1

Stall Fed

55

3

7.0%

Draft_1

Buffalo

Adult Females

58.6

300

1

Stall Fed

55

3

7.0%

Draft_1

Buffalo

Repl Males

38.8

250

1

Stall Fed

55

3

7.0%

Draft_1

Buffalo

Repl Females

26.9

150

1

Stall Fed

55

3

7.0%

Draft_1

Buffalo

Young Males

7.6

100

1

Stall Fed

65

6

3.0%

Draft_1

Buffalo

Young Females

5.5

75

1

Stall Fed

65

6

3.0%

Draft_2 Sector omitted from this exhibit

Meat

All

Adult Males

93.1

450

2

Pasture/Range

55

3

7.0%

Meat

All

Adult Females

84.8

375

2

Pasture/Range

55

3

7.0%

Meat

All

Repl Males

65.2

300

2

Pasture/Range

55

3

7.0%

Meat

All

Repl Females

55.6

300

2

Pasture/Range

55

3

7.0%

Meat

All

Young Males

13.6

200

2

Pasture/Range

65

6

3.0%

Meat

All

Young Females

13.6

200

2

Pasture/Range

65

6

3.0%

Meat

All

Male Slaught

81.3

500

1

Stall Fed

60

1

6.0%

Meat

All

Female Slaught

69.5

450

1

Stall Fed

60

1

6.0%

 

Results by Sector

Calibration Case

Milk_1

Milk_2

Milk_3

Milk_4

Draft_1

Draft_2

Meat

Urban

Rural-Low

Rural-Hills

Blank

Buffalo

Blank

All

Total

Milk Production (1000 tons/yr)

3.8

2.9

2.9

0.0

0.4

0.0

0.0

10.0

Draft Production (1000 Head)

0.1

0.5

0.4

0.0

8.8

0.0

0.1

10.0

Meat Production (1000 tons/yr)

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.0

0.2

0.0

1.0

1.5

Methane Emissions (tons/yr)

154

488

499

0

1,321

0

773

3,235


Detailed Results by Sector

Calibration Case

Milk_1

Milk_2

Milk_3

Milk_4

Draft_1

Draft_2

Meat

Urban

Rural-Low

Rural-Hills

Blank

Buffalo

Blank

All

Total

Total Herd (1000)

2.5

9.1

8.2

0.0

25.3

0.0

17.7

62.7

Bulls (1000)

0.1

0.5

0.5

0.0

8.5

0.0

0.2

9.7

Cows (1000)

1.4

5.2

4.7

0.0

6.5

0.0

2.4

20.1

Male Replacements (1000)

0.0

0.2

0.2

0.0

4.5

0.0

0.0

4.9

Female Replacements (1000)

0.6

1.9

1.7

0.0

3.4

0.0

0.5

8.1

Male Young (1000)

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.0

1.5

0.0

6.2

7.9

Female Young (1000)

0.3

1.2

1.1

0.0

1.0

0.0

3.3

6.9

Male Slaughters (1000)

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

3.8

3.8

Female Slaughters (1000)

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

1.3

1.3

Extra Young - Male (1000)

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Extra Young - Female (1000)

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Milk (1000 tons/yr)

3.8

2.9

2.9

0.0

0.4

0.0

0.0

10.0

Meat (1000 tons/yr)

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.0

0.2

0.0

1.0

1.5

Draft Male (1000)

0.1

0.5

0.4

0.0

8.0

0.0

0.1

9.2

Draft Female (1000)

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.8

0.0

0.0

0.8

Total Draft (1000)

0.1

0.5

0.4

0.0

8.8

0.0

0.1

10.0


Emissions per unit product

Calibration Case

Milk_1

Milk_2

Milk_3

Milk_4

Draft_1

Draft_2

Meat

Urban

Rural-Low

Rural-Hills

Blank

Buffalo

Blank

All

CH4/Milk (g/kg)

40.12

169.28

173.36

0.00

NA

NA

NA

CH4/Draft (kg/Head)

NA

NA

NA

NA

149.35

0.00

NA

CH4/Meat (g/kg)

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

752.11

Continue: Evaluate the Proposed Dairy Improvement Program

 

LAM TOC | LAM Introduction | Using the LAM | LAM Tutorial

 
Begin Site Footer

EPA Home | Privacy and Security Notice | Contact Us