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Radioactive Source Reduction and Management

Publications

Radiation Source Reduction & Management
 Source Reduction  Source Tracking   Orphan Source Detection
  and Response
 Orphan Source Recovery   Additional Information

These reports and publications provide both background information and the results of projects to develop non-nuclear alternative technologies, track existing sources through commerce, and recover orphan sources.

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Life-Cycle Assessment

The Material Flow for Radioactive Cesium-137 in the United States in 2000 (PDF) (61 pp, 789K About PDF)- Oct.8, 2004
materials cycle for Cs-137 and recommendations for improved controls

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Source Reduction

Initial Research

Radiation Source Alternative Initiative (PDF) (6 pp, 277K About PDF) September 30, 2001
report on sealed radiation sources that summarizes health risks and identifies possible alternative technologies

Radioactive Materials Product Stewardship (PDF) (96 pp, 1.06MB About PDF) June 11, 2003
technical evaluation of relevant issues associated with nuclear fixed gauges and tritium exit signs

Industrial Applications of Sealed Radiation Sources and Alternative Non Nuclear Technologies (39 pp, 427K About PDF) September 30, 2002
deals with the applications of sealed radioactive materials in industry.

Portable Gauges

Evaluation of Soil Compaction Measuring Devices (PDF) (132 pp, 3.5MB About PDF) March 2005
results of study of soil compaction measuring devices available in the market

Modification of the Clegg Hammer as and Alternative to Nuclear Density Gauge to Determine Soil Compaction (PDF) (36 pp, 1.4MB About PDF) February, 2006
final report on enhancement and modification of the Clegg-Hammer device to gain acceptance as an alternative to the Nuclear Density Gauge in soil compaction control.

EPA Transition to Portable Gauges, Fixed Gauges, and Other Devices

Fixed Gauges

Feasibility Study for Introduction of Alternatives to Fixed Industrial Gauging Devices Utilizing Radioisotopes (PDF) (45 pp, 249K About PDF) September, 2003
examines the potential for adoption of sensors that use alternative technologies

Feasibility of a Pilot Project, Gauging Devices Final Report (PDF) (23 pp, 232K About PDF) - June 30, 2006
potential pilot project partners and technical goals and requirements for a pilot project that will facilitate the research and development, validation, and adaptation of alternative gauging devices

Radiography Cameras

Demonstration of Pulsed X-ray Machine Radiography as an Alternative to Industry Radiography Cameras (PDF) (38 pp, 2.7MB About PDF) - November 2006
report on demonstration of pulsed, battery operated, portable x-ray source with a peak x-ray energy of 270 kV is an alternative radiography technology for inspection of pipe welds

Comparison of Imaging Capabilities Between Ultrasonics and Radiography (PDF) (37 pp, 2.165MB About PDF) - May 2004 Southwest Research Institute Draft Final Report
report on investigation of ultrasonic imaging systems versus radiography

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Source Tracking

Tracking Radioactive Sources in Commerce (PDF) (10 pp, 886K About PDF) March, 2005
This report describes EPA and DOE's investigation of technologies to improve tracking and monitoring of high-level radiological sources while in commerce.
-Companion Poster (PDF)

RadSTraM: Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring, Phase I Interim Final Report (PDF) (61 pp, 1.1MB About PDF) June, 2005
This report focuses on the technical information gained from the Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring (RadSTraM) investigation and its implications.

RadSTraM: Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring, Phase II Final Report (PDF) (40 pp, 2.1MB About PDF) January, 2007
This report focuses on the technical information gained from the Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring (RadSTraM) Phase II investigation and its implications.

Radio Frequency Tracking of Hazardous Waste Across International Borders (PDF) (2 pp, 68K About PDF) December, 2008
this fact sheet describes a verification study on combining RFID technology with hazardous waste electronic manifest capability
-Companion Poster (PDF) (1 pg, 2.75MB)

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Stakeholder Meeting Discussion Points, August 23, 2005 (PDF) (3 pp, 96K About PDF)
discussion points from stakeholder meeting on potential issues related to RFID tracking of radioactive materials

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Orphan Source Detection and Response

Identifying Radioactive Sources at the Demolition Site (PDF) (4 pp, 108K About PDF) March, 2005
This paper discusses the issue of unidentified radioactive sources at demolition sites and describes the training CD EPA has developed for contractors.
-Companion Poster (PDF) (1 pg, 1.1MB About PDF)

Response to Radiation Alarms at Metal Processing Facilities (PDF) (1 pg, 476.5K About PDF)
This poster provides an overview of EPA’s Interactive Training for

International Approach to Monitoring for Radioactively Contaminated Scrap Metal (PDF) (5 pp, 102K About PDF) March, 2005
This paper is a report on the activities of the UNECE and EPA on identifying and solving issues related to radioactive contamination of international scrap shipments.
-Companion Poster (PDF) (1 pg, 1.1MB About PDF)

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Orphan Source Recovery

NNSA Recovers More than 15,000 Radioactive Sources From Around the United States(PDF) (1 pg, 67K About PDF) press release, May, 2007
The Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has
recovered and secured more than 15,000 orphan sources in the United States

Proceedings: Monitoring and Response Procedures for Radioactive Scrap Metal (PDF) (130 pp, 2.38MB About PDF) June, 2006 Exit EPA Disclaimer
Appendix A presents the analysis of the survey of scrap metal industry.

Recommendations on Monitoring and Response Procedures for Radioactive Scrap Metal (PDF) (52 pp, 2.1MB About PDF) 2006 Exit EPA Disclaimer
contains recommendations on management of detected sources.

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Archival Documents

Note: EPA no longer updates this information, but it may be useful as a reference or resource.

Technical Support Document Potential Recycling of Scrap Metal from Nuclear Facilities (PDF)(file sizes range from 97-872K About PDF) September, 2001

Radiation Protection Standards for Scrap Metal: Preliminary Cost-Benefit Analysis, June, 1997

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