Previous Semiconductor Industry Winners
1998 Award Winners
IBM’s long-standing energy focus addresses both its operations and its products. In 1997, IBM’s energy conservation efforts saved 4% of its total energy use, avoiding 184,000 tons of carbon dioxide emissions. More than 100 personal computer models and 25 monitors IBM introduced last year met the Energy Star criteria, a program IBM helped create along with EPA. IBM recently qualified a new NF3 process that replaces perfluoroethane, a long-lived global warming gas used in semiconductor manufacturing. Part of IBM’s support of EPA’s voluntary program to reduce PFC emissions, this process will reduce IBM’s perfluoroethane emissions from the chamber clean process by 98%. And IBM’s new chip technology enables high performance products to use less energy.
World Semiconductor Council
The World Semiconductor Council (WSC) consists of the Semiconductor Industry Association, Electronic Industries Association of Japan, Korea Semiconductor Industry Association, and European Electronic Component Manufacturers Association. Established on the basis of cooperative efforts within the global industry, the WSC identified environmental, safety, and health related issues (ESH) as one of the key areas for cooperative effort. In particular, an ESH Task Force was chartered and PFC emissions reductions selected as the first challenge. Accomplishments to date include the adoption of voluntary agreements to reduce PFC emissions, sharing of technical information related to PFC emissions reduction technologies, consensus to utilize common metrics and measurement protocols, and formation of a PFC subgroup of technical experts to implement consensus programs.
1999 Award Winners
Applied Materials has developed a highly productive, environmentally superior technology called Remote Clean (RC). RC technology cleans semiconductor process chambers with minimal emissions of PFCs, which have long atmospheric lifetimes and global warming potentials (GWPs) that are thousands of times that of carbon dioxide. Applied Materials’ RC technology provides an efficient solution for virtually eliminating PFC emissions from chemical vapor deposition processing while also significantly increasing productivity. The RC technology uses a high-density, microwave-driven plasma discharge to dissociate NF3 molecules with an efficiency of better than 99%. NF3 was chosen as a source gas because it has a much lower lifetime than other PFC molecules. In addition, the near-complete dissociation of the source gas and high etch rates provided by the RC technology reduce the clean time in the chamber by up to 60% (compared to in situ cleaning processes). The MMTCE per wafer used to measure relative effects of cleaning processes on global warming can be reduced by two orders of magnitude with RC, when compared to traditional cleaning methods.
The semiconductor industry world-wide has made great strides toward solving the PFC challenge and developing long-term plans to reduce PFC emissions. Motorola is an environmental leadership company that has accelerated the industry’s progress. As a charter member of the EPA PFC Emission Reduction Partnership, Motorola is developing technical solutions to address emissions reduction. Having worked on this issue for nearly 6 years, Motorola was one of the first companies to develop and release a formal strategy to reduce emissions and has openly shared its technology developments, evaluation results, and strategies with its competitors in the industry. Additionally, Motorola co-chaired the Semiconductor Industry Association PFC Task Force and is a member of the World Semiconductor Council.
STMicroelectronics (ST), a global, semiconductor company, has been working to reduce greenhouse gas emissions since 1996. In particular, the company has focused on improving energy efficiency and reducing PFC emissions. ST spent several years characterizing the energy consumption of its plants and identified and implemented energy-efficiency projects. ST predicts a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions by a factor of 10 by 2010. It plans to achieve this carbon dioxide reduction by combining energy-efficiency projects with the implementation of alternative energy sources such as wind turbines, photovoltaic, thermal, solar, fuel cells, and cogeneration technologies. In an effort to establish consistent PFC reduction results ST is working with equipment and gas suppliers. In addition, ST leads the European Electronic Components Manufacturers Association task force and participates in the U.S. PFC Emission Reduction Partnership, the SEMATECH international program, and the World Semiconductor Council Environmental Health and Safety Task Force.
2000 Award Winners
Intel pioneered power management features that allowed customers to save energy when computers are left on but are not being used. However, when this power management feature is disabled, the computer remains at full power—wasting a lot of energy and money. Now, major personal computer manufacturers are shipping systems with Intel’s Instantly Available PC (IAPC), an improved sleep-state power management technology that allows PCs to go into a low-power sleep state when not in use, yet remain their capability to answer wake events such as keyboard and mouse movements. IAPC is an open platform developed by Inter Corporation.
Novellus Systems manufactures advanced wafer fabrication systems for the deposition of thin firms for semiconductor manufacturing. Since 1995, Novellus has undertaken a vigorous R&D program that has dramatically improved the environmental performance of its equipment and processes through three technical breakthroughs. First, Novellus succeeded in optimizing C2F6-based chamber clean processes and in the substitution of C3F8 for C2F6 leading to PFC emissions reductions of 40 to 60%. Second, the Novellus Joint Development Program with Guild Associates developed and demonstrated catalytic oxidation technology for PFC destruction. Third, Novellus developed an NF3-based chamber clean process that reduces PFC emissions by 90% or more. All Novellus 300mm platforms now use NF3, and most 200mm platforms will have NF3—based chamber cleans by the end of 2000.
2002 Award Winners
Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.
Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has made significant contributions in characterizing and reducing PFC emissions from the semiconductor industry. They developed analytical methods to accurately measure emissions from semiconductor processes and have used these techniques to characterize the vast majority of processes used in the industry. Air Products also developed and helped implement strategies for minimizing PFC emissions. Working with integrated circuit manufacturers and original equipment manufacturers, Air Products’ efforts in optimizing chamber-cleaning processes have resulted in PFC emission reductions of as much as 85%, where these optimized processes have been implemented.
Hitachi, Ltd. and Hitachi America, Ltd.
PFCs are powerful greenhouse gases with long lifetimes due to their molecular stability. In 1998 Hitachi successfully developed a way to decompose these molecules through catalysis, and that process is now being used widely by semiconductor and liquid crystal display manufacturing industries. Before this invention, there were no economical means of destroying PFCs. The Hitachi Super Catalytic Decomposition System is proven to be more than 99% efficient at decomposing all PFC gases while maintaining a low cost of ownership to the operational facility.
International SEMATECH’s PFC Emission Reduction Working Group
Since 1994, International SEMATECH’s PFC Emission Reduction Working Group has led the semiconductor industry in developing and mapping a comprehensive response to all facets of PFC emissions characterization and reduction. The World Semiconductor Council’s 10% emissions reduction goal would not have been set without the leadership and critical data provided by the working group, which directed many evaluations of PFC emission reduction solutions, involved tool and chemical suppliers in the initiative to reduce PFC emissions, and held numerous meetings on PFC emissions throughout the world.
Dr. Fabio R. Borri, STMicroelectronics
Fabio Borri led the Corporate Environment group of STMicroelectronics for 8 years and held leadership positions in the European Electronic Component Industry Association, European Semiconductor Industry Association, and the World Semiconductor Council (WSC). Under his leadership, ST established aggressive plans to reduce its PFC emissions to 10% below 1995 data by 2008, 2years before the WSC deadline. By 2010, these cumulative reductions will amount to the equivalent of 10.3 Million Metric Tons (MMT) of CO2. ST set the goal of environmental neutrality for CO2 emissions coming from electricity production by 2012. By meeting this goal, ST is predicted to prevent 11 MMT of CO2, bringing their total greenhouse gas reductions to 21.3 MMT of CO2 by 2010.
Yoshinobu Hayakawa, NEC Corporation
Since 1996, Mr. Hayakawa has been a strong leader in the semiconductor industry’s climate protection activities. As the head of the Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association (JEITA) delegation to the World Semiconductor Council (WSC) Environmental, Safety, and Health (ESH) Task Force, Mr. Hayakawa has been instrumental in development of NEC corporate, Japan national and WSC global strategies for PFC emission reductions. He was a key negotiator in the WSC effort to set a global industry PFC emissions reduction goal. He has also been an active advocate in the adoption of energy efficiency as an industry-wide program under the WSC Environmental, Safety and Health Task Force.