SmartWay Technology Program
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EPA has evaluated idle reduction technologies/devices as part of grants, cooperative agreements, emissions testing, engineering analyses, modeling, demonstration projects and external peer reviewed reports to study the effects of idling on air quality, fuel consumption and driver health. Based on this evaluation and research, EPA has determined that a variety of idle reduction technologies save fuel and reduce emissions when compared to idling the main engine.
Idle reduction technology allows engine operators to refrain from long-duration idling of the main propulsion engine by using an alternative technology. An idle reduction technology is generally defined as the installation of a technology or device that:
- is installed on a vehicle (e.g., bus, truck, locomotive, automobile, marine vessel, equipment, etc.) or at a location, and
- reduces unnecessary main engine idling of the vehicle or equipment, and/or
- is designed to provide services (e.g., heat, air conditioning, and/or electricity) to the vehicle or equipment that would otherwise require the operation of the main drive engine while the vehicle or equipment is temporarily parked or remains stationary.
Certain idle reduction devices are now exempt from the federal excise tax when purchased with a new truck. For a list of idling reduction technologies eligible for the federal excise tax exemption, please see Federal Excise Tax Exemption.
To date, EPA has verified devices in the following categories of idle reduction technologies:
- Electrified Parking Spaces (EPS) / Truck Stop Electrification (TSE)
An EPS system (also known as Truck Stop Electrification) operates independently of the truck’s engine and allows the truck engine to be turned off as the EPS system supplies heating, cooling, and electrical power. The EPS system provides off-board electrical power to operate either:
- an independent heating, cooling, and electrical power system, or
- a truck-integrated heating and cooling system.
In both cases, the EPS system reduces main engine idling by providing an alternative source of energy which results in lower emissions than the main engine.
SmartWay has verified technologies among the product lines of the following companies:
- Craufurd Manufacturing
- IdleAire Technologies Corporation
- Philips and Temro Industries
- Shorepower™ Technologies
- Xantrex Technology & Cab Comfort
- Shore Connection Systems and Alternative Maritime Power (SCS/AMP)
An SCS/AMP system allows maritime vessels to “plug into” an electrical power source instead of using its diesel auxiliary engines while at port. This system also includes various components such as cables, cable management systems, shore power coupler systems, distribution control systems, and power distribution.
SmartWay has verified technologies among the product lines of the following company:
- SAM Electronics
Note on Shore Connection Baseline and Offsetting Emissions: A method to determine baseline emissions of your project is available in the following publication: Rulemaking to Consider Adoption of Proposed Regulations to Reduce Emissions from Diesel Auxiliary Engines on Ocean-Going Vessels while at Berth at a California Port (Appendix B: Emission Inventory Methodology); California Air Resources Board (December 6, 2007). This report is available at http://www.arb.ca.gov/ports/shorepower/shorepower.htm. While this report provides information specific to California ports, the method used in this report can be used in other jurisdictions. To determine the offsetting emissions of electrical power use from shore-side power, EPA provides the following model to assess these emissions offsets: The Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID). This is a comprehensive inventory of electric power systems which uses available plant-specific data for all U.S. electricity generating plants that provide power to the electric grid and report data to the U.S. government. The eGRID contains air emissions data for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, and mercury. Download eGrid and directions at www.epa.gov/cleanenergy/energy-resources/egrid/index.html
- Shore Connection Systems for Locomotives (SCS)
An SCS system allows locomotives to “plug into” an electrical power source instead of using its diesel engines while at the rail yard.
SmartWay has verified technologies from the product lines of the following company:
- Kim Hotstart Manufacturing Company (Electric Driven Heating Systems)
Power Drives, Inc.- model DWS-120 (fuel operated heater )
- Auxiliary Power Units and Generator Sets (APU/GS)
An APU/GS device contains an EPA emission-certified engine (certified under 40 CFR Part 89). APU/GS devices supply cooling, heating, and electrical power to Class 8 trucks and other applications. EPA has determined through its own test program that these devices reduce emissions on long-haul, Class 8 trucks and locomotives when compared to a truck’s baseline emissions from the main propulsion engine.
The following APU/GS systems are SmartWay verified for long-haul, Class 8 trucks:
- ACEMCO Power Systems, LLC / Model: ACEMCO Power Unit Series 1
- Airworks Compressors Corp / Model: Fusion APU
- Big Rig Products / Model: Nite Hawk
- Carrier Transicold - ComfortPro
- Centramatic - Centramatic
- Diamond Power Systems, LLC - Diamond Power System
- Dunamis Power Systems - Promax
- Hodyon LP - Dynasys APU
- Kohler- 3APU, 7 APU
- Life Force - Life Force
- Mantis Metalworks, LLC - Model 175
- McMillan Electric Company / Model: IdleTime 4500-300
- McMillan Electric Company / Model: IdleTime 4500-400
- Midwest Power Generators - MPG702
- Navistar - Fleetrite APU, MaxxPower APU w/ HVAC
- Navistar Fleetrite by Mobile Thermo Systems Inc./ Models: INTAPU146 and INTAPUT46
- Parks Industries, LLC: Model Hp 2000
- Pony Pack, Inc. - Pony Pack
- Power Technology Southeast - PowerPac
- RigMaster Power by Mobile Thermo Systems Inc. / Model: MTS T4-6
- Star Class - GEN-STAR 4500, GEN-STAR 6000
- Thermo King Corp. - TriPac
- TRIDAKO Energy Systems - Power Cube
- Volvo - 971-003/4 (optional 82A-B1X)
- Willis Power Systems - Willis APU
SmartWay has verified APU/GS systems for locomotives among the product lines of the following companies:
- Kim Hotstart Manufacturing Company
- Power Drives, Inc. - model DWS-APU
- Teleflex Ecotrans L.P.
- Fuel Operated Heaters (FOH) aka Direct Fired Heaters (DFH)
A FOH provides heat (only) by combusting fuel drawn from the main engine or other fuel system. EPA has determined through its own test program that these devices reduce emissions on long-haul, Class 8 trucks when compared to the trucks baseline emissions. EPA has also determined that FOHs provide a similar idle reduction benefit when used on school buses and locomotives. In addition, the California Air Resources Board has approved certain FOHs for compliance with applicable California emissions standards.
The following FOHs are SmartWay verified for long-haul, Class 8 trucks:
- Automotive Climate Control - FFHD 2
- Espar Heater Systems - D1LC, D3LC, Airtronic D2/D4, Hydronic 5/8/10/12
- Teleflex - A2, A4, X45
- Volvo - 41-11
- Webasto - Air Top 2000, Air Top 3500, Thermo 90S
- Webasto - Air Top 2000 ST (new version of Air Top 2000)
- Webasto - Air Top Evo 3900 (new version of Air Top 3500)
- Webasto - Thermo 90 ST (new version of Thermo 90S)
- Webasto - Air Top Evo 5500 (new version of Air Top 5000)
- Webasto - TSL 17 (Thermo Top C/Z)
- Webasto - DBW 2010
The following FOHs are SmartWay verified for school buses:
- Espar Heater Systems - E-Guardian 5 (Hydronic D5)
- Espar Heater Systems - E-Guardian 8 (Hydronic D8)
- Espar Heater Systems - E-Guardian 10 (Hydronic D10)
- Espar Heater Systems - E-Guardian 12 (Hydronic D12), and Airtronic D2, Airtronic D4, Airtronic D5
- Teleflex Proheat - X45
- Webasto - TSL 17 (Thermo Top C/Z)
- Webasto - Scholastic Heater (DBW 2010)
The following FOH systems are SmartWay verified for locomotives:
- A.S.T. Group - 35kW, 50kW and 90kW LTP Systems (includes automatic Start/Stop capability)
- Battery Air Conditioning Systems (BAC)
A BAC system uses batteries to power an independent electric cooling system. Typically, these systems integrate a FOH to supply heating. EPA has evaluated BACs and finds that these systems reduce emissions on long-haul, Class 8 trucks when compared to the truck’s baseline emissions.
The following BAC systems are SmartWay verified:
- All Around Contracting LLC / Kool Rig System
- AuraGen - Inverter/Charger System
- Bergstrom, Inc - NITE
- Cool Moves / Models: Bycool Mochila and Bycool Revolution
- Cool Moves / Models: Minicool Compact and Minicool Dinamic
- Cool Moves - Rencool / Models: RDK4 and RTK5
- Crosspoint Solutions LLC - ClimaCab
- DC Power Solutions - APU/AC System
- Diamond Power Systems LLC/ Models: DPS 10K-DC and DPS 15KB
- Dometic Corp. - Sleeper AC
- Driver Comfort System - Driver Comfort System
- Energy Xtreme Independence Package Long-Haul Comfort System - battery APU/AC system
- Freightliner Cascadia - Park Smart System
- Hammond Air Conditioning, LTD - Artic Breeze
- Idle Free Systems - Reefer Link System I
- Indel B Sleeping Wel - Arctic 1000, Arctic 2000, Oblo
- NAS, LLC / Comfort Cab - Model: 100 M (Battery HVAC)
- Navistar - MaxxPower Battery HVAC System (with Espar E-Guardian Heater and insulated sleeper curtain)
- Paddock Solar - Paddock Solar
- Peterbilt - Comfort Class System
- Safer Corporation - VIESA
- Sobo Inc./ Kingtec Technologies (Heyuan) Co. Ltd. - Model: Sleeper AC 12K10F3-1
- Sun Power Technologies - Sleeper AC
- Thermo King TriPak - e
- Volvo - 971-001/2
- Thermal Storage Systems (TSS)
A TSS collects heat energy as a truck is driven, and uses it to provide air conditioning while the engine is off. These systems reduce emissions from Class 8 trucks.
The following TSSs are SmartWay verified:
- Autotherm Division Enthal Systems, Inc. - T-2500 Energy Recovery System
- Webasto - BlueCool Truck
- Automatic Shut-down/ Start-up Systems
An automatic engine shut-down/start-up system not only turns off the main engine while idling but can re-start the engine when necessary. Re-start of the main engine is typically based on a set time period, engine or ambient temperature, and other parameters (e.g., battery charge). To date, SmartWay has only verified AESS systems for locomotives.
SmartWay has verified AESS systems for locomotives among the product lines of the following manufacturers.:
- GE Transportation
- Motive Power model - Q Tron QEG-1000
- Motive Power model - Q Tron Engine Run Manager System (for use in conjunction with an auxiliary power unit)
- Motive Power model - Q Tron QES-III (micro processor locomotive control with integrated AESS functionality)
- ZTR Control Systems/Hotstart - Integrated AESS+APU model DDHSJR-111
- ZTR Control Systems - model SmartStart IIe
- ***List of Idle Reduction Technologies No Longer Verified***
Notice: On March 1, 2013 the verification status of the following device changed:
- Due to a change in ownership the Glacier BayClimaCab (BAC) is now sold by Crosspoint Solutions LLC and renamed Crosspoint Solutions LLC ClimaCab.
Notice: On March 21, 2012 the verification status of the following devices changed:
- Due to a change in ownership the Comfort Master (APU) has been renamed "ACEMCO Power Unit 1" and is now sold by ACEMCO Power Systems, LLC.
Notice: On August 18, 2011 the verification status of the following device(s) changed:
1. Teleflex, Inc.; no longer manufactured
2. Navistar/Bergstrom - 12V Aux No-Idle HVAC; no longer manufactured
Notice: On May 12, 2011 the verification status of the following devices changed:
- Idle Solutions - Idle Solutions; business status unavailable
- Kool Gen - KG-1000; business status unavailable
- Stark Mfg., LLC/ Parks Industries , LLC - HP2000; duplicate listing
- Truck Gen - UCT 2-5.5, UCT-APU; no longer manufactured nor providing service
Notice: On April 05, 2011, the verification status of the following devices changed:
- Aux Generators Inc. - Idle Hawk; business status unavailable
- Cummins - Comfort Guard; no longer manufactured
- Cummins Onan - Quiet Diesel; no longer manufactured
- Double Eagle Industries - Gen-Pac; business status unavailable
- Flying J Inc - Cab Comfort System; no longer manufactured
- Frigette Truck Climate Systems - APU, Gen Set 1, Gen Set 2; out of business and no longer manufactured
- Idlebuster - Idlebuster; suspended all operations
- Gates Corporation - Cab Runner; no longer manufacturing nor providing service.
Notice: On June 17, 2010, the verification status of the following devices changed:
- Auxiliary Power Dynamics, LLC; is now Willis Power systems - the Willis APU is listed
- Black Rock System - Black Rock; is out of business and is no longer listed
- Mechron Power Systems - CCS Lighting Cab Comfort; Mechron discontinued the CCS Lighting Cab Comfort subsequently it is no longer listed.
Notice: On November 23, 2010, the verification status of the following device changed:
- EnergyXtreme - PPEX60, PPEX80; discontinued,no longer available for class 8,heavy duty, long haul trucks
"You will need Adobe Reader to view some of the files on this page. See EPA's PDF page to learn more."
It is common for drivers to run their engines to stay warm or cool in their trucks while resting after long hauls. And, of course, driver comfort is essential to the job.
Yet long-duration idling is costly to the driver, to the fleet owner, and to the environment. Some surveys show that trucks idle from six to eight hours a day for as many as 250 to 300 days each year. At current fuel prices, this can result in truck owners paying $6000 or more per year in fuel costs per truck.
Each year, long-duration idling of truck and locomotive engines consumes over one billion gallons of diesel fuel and emits 11 million tons of carbon dioxide, 200,000 tons of oxides of nitrogen, and 5,000 tons of particulate matter. Also, idling can increase engine maintenance costs, shorten engine life, harm driver well-being, and elevate noise levels
However, there are many alternatives to long-duration engine idling: they range in cost from a minimal investment to several thousand dollars. The alternatives can be divided into two broad categories: (Click on the blue text links below to learn more.)
- Idling Reduction through Behavior Change
Here are some examples of ways to affect driver behavior:
- State and Local Policy: Approximately 22 states and dozens of counties have promulgated laws that restrict the amount of time that a vehicle can idle its main engine. For a current list of state and local laws, see the American Transportation Research Institute's (ATRI's) list of state and local laws.
- Driver/Operator Training: Educating drivers and operators about the impacts and adverse effects of long-duration idling can help change their behavior.
- Financial Incentives: Fleet owners can offer financial incentives to drivers to reduce idling. Many large trucking companies already offer these incentives and have reported success in reducing idling times below national averages.
Instituting a company "no-idling" policy, and investing in education and incentives isn't enough, however, to deter a driver or operator from idling in extreme weather conditions. That's where technology solutions come into play.
- Idling Reduction through Technology
There are five categories of technology-based idling reduction alternatives.
- Automatic engine shut down/start up (locomotive)
An automatic engine shut down/start up system controls the engine by stopping or starting it without operator action, based on a set time period or ambient temperature, and other parameters (e.g., battery charge).
- Fuel Operated Heaters -aka Direct-Fired Heaters (truck only)
These are small, lightweight heaters that burn fuel from the main engine fuel supply or a separate fuel reserve. They provide heat only and can be used in conjunction with cooling systems depending upon the cab comfort needs.
- Diesel-Driven Heating System (locomotive only)
Designed to heat the coolant and oil to allow main engine shutdown in cold temperatures, the system does not use a generator to produce auxiliary power. Instead, it circulates and heats the engine coolant and oil to a target temperature of 120 F.
- Auxiliary Power Units/Generator Sets (truck and locomotive)
These are small, diesel-powered engines (5 to 10 horsepower) that are installed on the truck to provide air conditioning, heat, and electrical power to run accessories like lights, on-board equipment, and appliances.
Electrification refers to a technology that uses electricity-powered components to provide the operator with climate control and auxiliary power without having to idle the main engine. This can be on-board equipment (e.g., power inverters, plugs), off-board equipment (e.g., electrified parking spaces or systems that directly provide heating, cooling or other needs) or a combination of the two.
On October 27, 2003, EPA and the US Department of Transportation held the first national workshop on developing consistent truck stop electrification codes and electrical standards. Following this workshop, EPA published a Notice of Data Availability (NODA) in the Federal Register requesting comments and suggestions which would be used to better develop a national consensus. Truck Stop Electrification Codes and Electrical Standards; Notice of Data Availability (PDF) (13 pp, 157 KB, EPA420-R-05-002, January 2005) About PDFs) and related materials are available in the Federal Docket Management System.(NOTE: To access the docket from this link, select Advanced Search, then Docket Search, and then enter EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0226 as the Docket ID.)
- Automatic engine shut down/start up (locomotive)
When companies adopt alternatives to long-duration idling, they can save money on fuel expenses, reduce engine maintenance costs, and reduce health effects from emissions and engine noise.
In addition to these company-level behavioral and technology alternatives, state and local governments are doing their part to help develop national strategies to promote alternatives to long-duration idling:
- State and Local Idling Law Guidance
For the states, reducing idling translates into substantial reductions of air pollutants. For the trucking industry, reducing idling results in considerable fuel savings. According to EPA studies, long duration truck idling annually consumes more than one billion gallons of diesel fuel at considerable costs to the trucking industry. As a result, truck idling annually emits more than 11 million tons of carbon dioxide and more than 180,000 tons of nitrogen oxides, as well as fine particulate matter and other harmful air toxics.
Approximately 22 states and dozens of local counties have laws that limit the amount of time that a vehicle can idle its main engine.. To learn more, see the American Transportation Research Institute's (ATRI's) current list of state and local laws.
At the 2004 National Idle-Reduction Planning Conference hosted by the federal government, the trucking industry expressed concern about the inconsistent coverage and impractical design among existing state and local idling restriction laws. According to the trucking industry, truck drivers and owners lack knowledge and understanding of these laws, which decreases their ability to comply. In response to these concerns, EPA hosted a series of five public workshops.
The goal of the workshops was twofold: (1) to develop a model for a state idling law that would foster greater compliance through common understanding of requirements and ease of implementation; and (2) to raise awareness among the trucking industry, states, and environmental groups about each other's needs. For example, states and environmental groups want to reduce diesel emissions, and truck drivers need to rest comfortably and avoid fatigue-related vehicle accidents.
Below is a summary of each of the workshops.
- May 6, 2005 - Baltimore, MD (PDF) (13 pp, 319 KB, EPA420-S-05-008, August 2005)
- June 16-17, 2005 - Atlanta, GA (PDF) (13 pp, 330 KB, EPA420-S-05-010, September 2005)
- June 28, 2005 - Chicago, IL (PDF) (11 pp, 138 KB, EPA420-S-05-011, September 2005)
- July 14, 2005 - San Francisco, CA (PDF) (8 pp, 80 KB, EPA420-S-05-012, September 2005)
- July 26, 2005 - Hartford, CT (PDF) (13 pp, 109 KB, EPA420-S-05-009, September 2005)
The product of these public workshops was a model state idling law (PDF) (15 pp, 312K, EPA420-S-06-001, April 2006) for states to consider adopting. EPA is not issuing any regulations about vehicle idling; the Agency's role is limited to that of a facilitator to help create more consistent idling laws across the country in hopes of achieving greater fuel savings, emission reductions, and increased compliance with such laws.
- Air Quality Guidance for Idling Reduction
Reducing long-duration idling reduces emissions of nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide, and particulate matter. For state and local air quality planners and transportation officials, these emission reductions can be used in air quality plans such as state implementation plans, transportation and general conformity, and new source review offsets. EPA has published three guidance documents about quantifying and using truck and locomotive idle emission reductions in air quality plans.
- Truck guidance: "Guidance for Quantifying and Using Long-Duration Truck Idling Emission Reductions in State Implementation Plans and Transportation Conformity (PDF)" (33 pp, 379 KB, EPA420-B-04-001, January 2004)
- Locomotive guidance: "Guidance for Quantifying and Using Long-Duration Switch Yard Locomotive Idling Emission Reductions in State Implementation Plans (PDF)" (25 pp, 343 KB, EPA420-B-04-002, January 2004)
- New Source Review: Information about using idling emission reductions as new source review offsets.
In 2004, Beaumont, Texas successfully used an idle reduction project to meet the transportation conformity lapse for oxides of nitrogen. Presentation from the Southeast Texas Regional Planning Commission (PDF) (14 pp, 272 KB)
- Currently Available Sources of Idling Technology Solutions
EPA's list of verified technologies contains detailed information about currently available idle reduction technologies.
Note, the inclusion of company names and descriptions of their products is not an endorsement of the product, nor a certification or verification of the technology, and is intended for informational purposes only.
If you would like to list your company's product on this web site list please contact us.
Additional SmartWay Idling-Reduction Resources