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Substitutes for ODS in Aerosol Solvents and Propellants

Substitutes are reviewed on the basis of ozone depletion potential, global warming potential, toxicity, flammability, and exposure potential. Lists of acceptable and unacceptable substitutes are updated several times each year. A chronological list of SNAP updates is also available.

Note: SNAP Notices and Final Rules published in the Federal Register take precedence over all information on the web site.

Substitutes for Aerosol Solvents

Substitute ODS Being Replaced Decision Conditions or Restrictions Comments
HCFC-225ca/cb CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform Acceptable None EPA recommends observing the manufacturer’s recommended exposure guidelines of 50 ppm for the -ca isomer, 400 ppm for the -cb isomer, and 100 ppm for the commercial mixture of HCFC-225ca/cb.

EPA encourages users to consider other alternatives that do not have an ozone depletion potential.

HFC-4310mee CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform, HCFC-141b Acceptable subject to use conditions Subject to a 200 ppm time-weighted average workplace exposure standard and a 400ppm workplace exposure ceiling. None
Monochlorotoluene / benzotrifluorides CFC-113, CFC-11, Methyl Chloroform, HCFC-141b Acceptable subject to use conditions Subject to a 50 ppm workplace standard for monochloro-toluenes and a 100 ppm acceptable exposure limit (AEL) for benzotrifluoride. None
Chlorobromomethane CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform, HCFC-141b Unacceptable N/A Other alternatives exist with zero or much lower ODP.
Perfluorocarbons CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform, HCFC-141b Acceptable subject to narrowed use limits Acceptable only where reasonable efforts have been made to ascertain that other alternatives are not technically feasible due to performance or safety requirements. PFCs have extremely long atmospheric lifetimes and high GWPs. This decision reflects these concerns and is patterned after the SNAP decision on PFCs in the solvent cleaning sector.
Perfluoropolyethers CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform, HCFC-141b Acceptable subject to narrowed use limits Acceptable only where reasonable efforts have been made to ascertain that other alternatives are not technically feasible due to performance or safety requirements. PFPEs have extremely long atmospheric lifetimes and high GWPs. This decision reflects these concerns and is patterned after the SNAP decision on PFCs in the solvent cleaning sector.
HFE-7200 (C5F9OCH3) CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform Acceptable None The Agency expects that any exposures will not exceed any acceptable exposure limits set by any voluntary consensus standards organization, including the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) threshold limit values (TLVs) or the American Industrial Hygiene Association's (AIHA) workplace environmental exposure limits (WEELs).
C5-C20 Petroleum hydrocarbons CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform, CFC-11, HCFC-141b Acceptable None Petroleum hydrocarbons are flammable. Use with the necessary precautions. Pesticide aerosols must adhere to FIFRA standards.
Chlorinated solvents (trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, methylene chloride) CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform, CFC-11, HCFC-141b Acceptable None Extensive regulations under other statutes govern use of these chemicals, including VOC standards, workplace standards, waste management standards, and pesticide formulation and handling standards. Should be used only for products where nonflammability is a critical feature.
Oxygenated organic solvents (esters, ethers, alcohols, ketones) CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform, CFC-11, HCFC-141b Acceptable None These substitutes are flammable. Use with the necessary precautions.
Terpenes CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform, CFC-11, HCFC-141b Acceptable None These substitutes are flammable. Use with the necessary precautions.
Water-based formulations CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform, CFC-11, HCFC-141b Acceptable None None
Trans-1,2-dichloroethylene CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform, CFC-11, HCFC-141b Acceptable None The OSHA set exposure limit is 200 ppm.
Hydrofluoroether (HFE) 7100: C4F9OCH3 (methoxynona-fluorobutane, iso and normal) CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform, CFC-11, HCFC-141b Acceptable None None
HCFC-141b and its blends CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform, CFC-11 Acceptable None All aerosol solvent uses of HCFC-141b, either by itself or blended with other compounds, were prohibited as of January 1, 1994 under Section 610(d) of the Clean Air Act. Limited exemptions exist. These are described in the section on aerosol substitutes in 59 FR 13044.
HFC-365mfc CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform, HCFC-141b Acceptable None None
HFC-245fa CFC-113, HCFC-141b Acceptable None EPA expects that the workplace environmental exposure will not exceed the Workplace Environmental Exposure Limit of 300 ppm and that users will observe the manufacturer’s recommendations in MSDSs.
HFE-7000 (heptafluoropropyl methyl ether) CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform Acceptable None EPA expects that the workplace environmental exposure will not exceed the workplace environmental exposure limit of 75 ppm and that users will observe the manufacturer's recommendations in MSDSs.
The Mini-Max Cleaner® CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform Acceptable None None
HFE-347pcf2 CFC-113, methyl chloroform, HCFC-141b, HCFC-225ca, HCFC-225cb, and blends thereof Acceptable None HFE-347pcf2 has a 100-yr GWP of 580. Its CAS Reg. No. is 406-78-0.

 The manufacturer recommends an acceptable exposure limit of 50 ppm (8-hr TWA) for this substitute. EPA recommends a ceiling limit (maximum concentration) of 150 ppm for HFE-347pcf2.

Observe recommendations in the manufacturer’s MSDS and guidance for using this substitute, particularly with respect to proper ventilation and other industrial hygiene practices.
Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene CFC-113, methyl chloroform, HCFC-141b, HCFC-225ca, HCFC-225cb, and blends thereof Acceptable None Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene has an ODP of approximately 0.00024 to 0.00034. It has a 100-year GWP of 4.7 to 7. Its CAS Reg. No. is 102687-65-0.

The manufacturer recommends an acceptable exposure limit of 300 ppm (8-hr TWA) for trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene.

Observe recommendations in the manufacturer’s MSDS and guidance for using this substitute.

Substitutes for Aerosol Propellants

Substitute ODS Being Replaced Decision Conditions or Restrictions Comments
C3-C6 Saturated light hydro-carbons (e.g., propane, n-butane, isobutane) HCFC-22, CFC-11, HCFC-142b Acceptable None Hydrocarbons are flammable. Use with the necessary precautions.
Dimethyl Ether HCFC-22, CFC-11, HCFC-142b Acceptable None Hydrocarbons are flammable. Use with the necessary precautions. Blends of DME with HCFCs are subject to section 610 restrictions.
HFC-152a, HFC-134a, HFC-125 HCFC-22, CFC-11, HCFC-142b Acceptable None HFC-152a, HFC-134a, and HFC-125 are potential greenhouse gases.
HFC-227ea HCFC-22, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-114, HCFC-142b Acceptable None Despite the relatively high global warming potential of this compound, the agency has listed this substitute as acceptable since it meets a specialized application in metered dose inhalers where other substitutes do not provide acceptable performance.
Alternative processes (pumps, mechanical pressure dispensers, non-spray dispensers) HCFC-22, CFC-11, HCFC-142b Acceptable None None
Compressed Gases (carbon dioxide, air, nitrogen, nitrous oxide) HCFC-22, CFC-11, HCFC-142b Acceptable None None
HFO-1234ze(E) (trans-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-1-ene) CFC-11; HCFC-11, HCFC-142b, and blends thereof Acceptable None HFO-1234ze is non-flammable and has a 100-year global warming potential of 6.  Its CAS Reg. No. is 29118-24-9. It has a recommended workplace exposure limit of 1000 ppm and a preliminary recommended acute consumer exposure limit of 420 ppm.
SF6 HCFC-22, CFC-11, CFC-12, HCFC-142b Unacceptable N/A SF6 has the highest GWP of all industrial gases, and other compressed gases meet user needs equally well.
HCFC-22, HCFC-142b CFC-11 Acceptable None All aerosol propellant uses of HCFC-22 and HCFC-142b are already prohibited as of January 1, 1994, under Section 610(d) of the Clean Air Act. Only one exemption exists. It is described in the section on aerosol substitutes in 59 FR 13044. It is illegal to manufacture or sell aerosols containing HCFC-22 or HCFC-142b as the propellant as of January 1, 2010, as per 40 CFR 82.15(g)(2).

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