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Phased Approach for Ground Water Cleanups

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"Presumptive Response Strategy and Ex-Situ Treatment Technologies for Contaminated Ground Water at CERCLA Sites, Final Guidance," October 1996. OSWER Directive 9283.1-12, NTIS Order Number PB96-963508, 39p. Available on-line from OSWER PDF (39 pp, 157K)

This guidance outlines the "phased approach" strategy for addressing contaminated ground water. The strategy integrates the site characterization, early actions, remedy selection, design, implementation, and performance monitoring phases. The strategy emphasizes ways to select acheivable remedial objectives and ways to optimize the selected remedy so that it is more effective, less costly, and takes less time. The guidance also identifies presumptive technologies for treatment of extracted ground water, which are to be used to streamline the Feasibility Study for sites which evaluate pump and treat remedies.

"Considerations in Ground-Water Remediation at Superfund Sites and RCRA Facilities - Update," May 27, 1992.
OSWER Directive 9283.1-06, NTIS Order Number PB92-963358, 13p. Available on-line from OSWER PDF (13 pp, 81K)

This directive clarifies and expands OSWER's general policy concerning remediation of contaminated ground water, especially with regard to nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPLs) contaminants. It summarizes actions that should be included at sites with NAPL involving site investigation, early or interim actions, and remedy implementation, including findings of Technical Impracticability.

"Suggested ROD Language for Various Ground Water Remediation Options," October 10, 1990.
OSWER Directive 9283.1-03, NTIS Order Number PB91-921325, 9p. Available on-line from OSWER PDF (9 ppm, 43K)

This directive provides guidance for Superfund Records of Decision (RODs) concerning ground water. The guidance recommends remedies be defined as final actions where there is little uncertainty that the remedy will be able to achieve remediation goals; contingency measures or goals where there is high to moderate uncertainty, potential ARARs waivers, or a potential containment goal; and interim actions where there is moderate to substantial uncertainty or early action containment measures. The guidance includes sample ROD language for all options.


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