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Kane & Lombard Street Drums Case Study

Note: EPA no longer updates this information, but it may be useful as a reference or resource.

Photo of site before redevelopment

The site borders the heavily used softball fields of a high school.

Photo of site after redevelopment

Double Eagle Enterprises is developing the site into a golf driving range providing "good clean fun...by the bucket."

site map


  • Nearly 1,200 drums of flammable solids
  • Groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds
  • Soil contaminated with PCBs and lead
  • Removed drums and contaminated soil
  • Installed a protective multi-layer cover
  • Constructed a drainage system and underground barrier system
  • Monitored groundwater
  • Placed restrictions on future land use
  • U.S. EPA
  • Maryland Department of the Environment
  • Private investment group, Double Eagle Enterprises
  • Local community
  • 117 jobs supported during ten months of cleanup and redevelopment
  • $2.7+ million in estimated annual income associated with cleanup jobs
  • 12 permanent/full-time jobs with $290,000 in total annual income and $232,000 in total annual spending
Tax Revenue
  • $9,300 annual sales tax revenue from spending by driving range employees
  • $10,100 in annual state income tax revenue from driving range employees
Property Value
  • Roughly $8.5 million potential increase in residential property values within two miles of the site
  • Protected public health in heavily populated, multi-use area
  • Prevented the spread of contamination to surrounding area
  • Enhanced the aesthetic quality of the area
  • Created a family-oriented recreational facility available to the community
  • Improved the potential to attract new businesses to area
Last Updated March 1999

Kane & Lombard Street Drums
Baltimore, Maryland

An open dump where demolition, municipal, and industrial wastes were disposed of for more than 20 years

A 20-tee golf driving range

Community resource serving golf enthusiasts and area youth, local jobs and income, increased local spending and public revenues, and increased property values

Site Snapshot

For 22 years, the 10-acre property on Kane Street in Baltimore was used for dumping, burning, and disposing of drummed waste. It is next to Patterson Senior High School and an industrial and commercial area, and more than 14,000 households lie within two miles. For years, children playing on the heavily used softball fields of the high school climbed the fence around the dump to retrieve balls. At the request of the Maryland Department of the Environment, EPA investigated the site in 1984 and found a large number of drums and extensive soil and groundwater contamination.

From Superfund...

Concerned about the hazardous materials buried on-site, and the residue seeping into the groundwater, EPA added the Kane & Lombard site to its list of hazardous waste sites needing cleanup. The Agency removed drums and contaminated soil from the property to keep the residents and the high school students from coming into contact with the hazardous materials. EPA covered the area with clean soil and clay, and landscaped the cover to prevent erosion. Responsible parties paid for the cleanup and are studying the area to determine the extent of groundwater contamination. EPA is identifying options for restoring groundwater to the community.

...To Super Fun

Because of the site's proximity to the business district, several East Baltimore investors approached EPA about purchasing the Kane & Lombard site to build a 20-tee golf driving range. The investment company, Double Eagle Enterprises, entered into a Prospective Purchaser Agreement (PPA) with EPA. Under the PPA, EPA agreed not to hold the developers liable for pre-existing contamination so long as the driving range does not undermine the cleanup. For $200,000, Double Eagle Enterprises bought an 8.4-acre parcel of the property and began constructing the driving range. Construction was completed in December 1998 and the driving range opened for business in March 1999.

"This piece of land was left for dead...[a driving range] is a terrific way to rejuvenate the ground without affecting the remedy." - Richard Sandza, Double Eagle Enterprises

Community Benefits

EPA determined that the driving range would not cause additional contamination, interfere with current cleanup efforts, or pose a health threat to the community. In fact, cleanup of the site and the construction of the driving range will result in positive economic impacts and environmental and social benefits to the community. Residential property values surrounding the site are expected to increase, and renewed interest in the neighborhood may attract more businesses. The driving range improves the appearance of the site, and provides a family-oriented entertainment center for the community. It is also expected to attract golf enthusiasts from downtown Baltimore.

Keys to Success

A key ingredient of the successful redevelopment is the partnership among EPA, the Maryland Department of the Environment, and Double Eagle Enterprises. They worked together to clean up the site and redevelop it into a business that is beneficial to the community, the developer, and the environment. The use of the PPA was also key to this successful redevelopment. It is one of several legal tools EPA uses to encourage the reuse of Superfund sites.

For more information about the cleanup and redevelopment of the Kane & Lombard site, contact:

Lesley Derascavage, Remedial Project Manager

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Mail Code 3HS23
1650 Arch Street
Philadelphia, PA 19103-2029
(215) 814-3239

Vance Evans, Community Involvement Coordinator
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Mail Code 3HS43
1650 Arch Street
Philadelphia, PA 19103-2029
(215) 814-5526

For more information about Prospective Purchaser Agreements, contact:

Tessa Hendrickson, Office of Site Remediation Enforcement
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Mail Code 2273
401 M Street, SW
Washington, DC 20460
(202) 564-6052