Superfund sites can support many kinds of reuse, although generally reuse falls into one of six categories: green space; commercial; residential; public service; industrial; military/federal use; and mixed use. Each of these categories is defined below.
Every type of Superfund site reuse can have multiple purposes and benefits for site owners, community members, and others. For EPA's purposes, a reuse is defined by its dominant purpose. For instance, a new housing development may include a small amount of open space and a playground for recreational opportunities; however, the predominant use is residential. At some sites, no one reuse is dominant. For example, a large site may be reused for housing, retail stores, and ball fields. EPA refers to these as mixed-use developments.
Superfund sites that are being reused as "green space" encompass a wide range of reuse activities including: agricultural reuse (growing crops, pasture land for livestock); recreational reuse (golf courses, ballfields, open space); and ecological reuse (wildlife sanctuaries, nature preserves, wetlands).
While all types of reuse provide some level of economic benefit, most is generated by commercial reuse. Retail shops, grocery stores, offices, restaurants, and other businesses bring employment, shopping, and other opportunities to residents in these communities, and can spur related development projects in the area.
Residential use refers to use for residential purposes, including single-family homes, town homes, apartment complexes and condominiums, and child/elder care facilities.
Public service use refers use by a local or State government agency or a non-profit group to serve citizens' needs. This can include transportation services such as rail lines and bus depots, libraries and schools, government offices, public infrastructure such as roads, bridges, utilities, or other services for the general public.
Industrial use refers to traditional light and heavy industrial uses, such as processing and manufacturing products from raw materials, as well as fabrication, assembly, treatment, and packaging of finished products. Examples of industrial uses include factories, power plants, warehouses, waste disposal sites, landfill operations, and salvage yards.
Military or Other Federal
Military use refers to use for training, operations, research and development, weapons testing, range activities, logistical support, and/or provision of services to support military or national security purposes. Other Federal use refers to use to support the Federal government in Federal agency operations, training, research, and/or provision of services for purposes other than national security or military.
Mixed use refers to areas at which uses cannot be differentiated on the basis of acres. For example, a condominium with retail shops on the ground floor and residential use on the upper floors would fall into this category.