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Sites in Reuse in Washington

Alcoa Smelter

The 300-acre Alcoa (Vancouver Smelter) Superfund site is located next to the Columbia River in Vancouver, Washington. The former Aluminum Company of America (Alcoa) constructed an aluminum smelter on the western portion of the site in 1940. Alcoa operated the entire facility for about 45 years, until 1985. From 1973 until 1981, operators dumped about 66,000 tons of potliner containing cyanide and fluoride outside the smelter on the ground. Potliner is a special lining material used to protect steel pots where molten aluminum is processed. The dumping contaminated the soil and ground water. In 1990, EPA added the site to the National Priorities List (NPL). The state worked with Alcoa to remove 50,000 tons of potliners and place them in a hazardous waste landfill, making this valuable riverfront property available for use. EPA deleted the site from the NPL in 1996. The state continues to oversee the site. In 1985, Vanalco Corporation purchased the smelter from Alcoa and operated the facility until 2000. That year, the firm filed for bankruptcy due to a sharp rise in energy costs. In 2002, Evergreen Aluminum (Glencore) purchased the facility, though Alcoa retained ownership of some of the land. In 2009, the Port of Vancouver completed the purchase of about 218 acres formerly owned by Evergreen Aluminum and Alcoa Aluminum. This allowed the Port to develop its newest marine terminal, Terminal 5. Less than a month after closing on the property acquisitions, the Port had graded and surfaced a 30-acre area and began handling wind energy cargo on the new terminal. In 2010, BHP Billiton, the world’s largest mining company, selected Terminal 5 as its preferred site for a new potash export facility. The proposed facility is expected to handle eight million tons of potash annually at its peak.
Updated 12/2012

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American Crossarm & Conduit Co.
Site photo

The sale of the American Crossarm & Conduit Co. Superfund site in Chehalis, Washington, for $20,000 at a county tax auction was not just a good deal; it also marked the end of a legacy of contamination and the beginning of a new chapter for the property. During its operation, American Crossarm & Conduit Co. dumped wastewater contaminated with wood treating chemicals into an unlined pit on the 16-acre site. This activity combined with periodic flooding from nearby rivers, spread hazardous wastes to nearby properties and contaminated the ground water. In 1989, EPA listed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL). Cleanup actions included removing contaminated soil, demolishing structures, removing oil from ground water, and covering excavated areas with clean soil. Despite the site’s favorable location, a $15.5 million EPA cleanup lien against the site presented a barrier to developers. The owner at the time approached EPA about building on the site. EPA agreed to remove its lien on the condition that the owner add fill so the property would be above the flood plain. The owner also agreed not to dig into the site’s cap, use the ground water or sell the property without passing on the land use restrictions. This agreement made redevelopment a reality at the site. The owner built one structure in 1998. Following construction, the owner sold the building for use as a machine shop. A business continues to use the building as a machine and repair shop. Completed in 2002, a second two-story building on site currently houses a fitness center.
Updated 12/2012

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American Lake Gardens/McChord Afb

The American Lake Gardens/McChord AFB Superfund site, commonly referred to as the American Lake Garden Tract/Area D site, is located about 7 miles south of downtown Tacoma, Washington. The site lies in the southwestern portion of McChord Field, where several disposal areas operated at various times from the mid-1940s to the early 1970s. Site operators disposed of unknown amounts of trichloroethylene (TCE) in Area D. Built in the late 1960s, the Whispering Firs Golf Course (and driving range) overlies several of the former Area D disposal areas. A large on-base residential area is also located in the southwestern portion of Area D. Immediately southwest of Area D lies the off-base residential housing of the American Lake Garden Tract. McChord Field withdraws drinking water from deeper aquifers and has no extraction wells in the shallow, unconfined aquifer. The off-base residential area had drinking water wells installed in the shallow aquifer at the time investigators discovered ground water contamination. Following this discovery, the U.S. Air Force connected the residential area to the Lakewood Water District Water Supply System. This system draws drinking water from a source away from the site. EPA listed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1984. The U.S. Air Force signed a Federal Facilities Agreement with EPA and the state to address the site contamination in 1989. The selected cleanup plan included connecting American Lake Garden Tract residents to a public water system, installing a ground water pump-and-treat system and implementing institutional controls. Operation of the ground water pump-and-treat system continues. In 2010, Fort Lewis merged with McChord Air Force Base to become Joint Base Lewis-McChord. The former McChord AFB is now referred to as Joint Base Lewis McChord – McChord Field or JBLM McChord Field.
Updated 12/2012

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Asarco Inc.

The Asarco Inc. (Asarco Tacoma Smelter) site is located in Ruston and Tacoma, Washington on Commencement Bay. It is part of the Commencement Bay/Nearshore Tideflats Superfund site. Like many other ports across the country, the shores of Commencement Bay have long been home to industry. The cleanup and redevelopment of the 67-acre Asarco Tacoma Smelter site is a model of cooperation among EPA, the local community and a land development company. From 1890 to 1985, Asarco used the site to smelt and refine lead and copper. This resulted in the release of metals into the soil, air, bay and ground water. In 1983, EPA listed the site to the National Priorities List (NPL). After public meetings, Asarco and EPA developed a comprehensive plan for cleanup that incorporated local redevelopment ideas. In 2005, after filing for bankruptcy, Asarco entered into an agreement with MC Construction Consultants to sell the site and other nearby Asarco property. MC Construction Consultants then assigned its purchase rights to Point Ruston, LLC in order to develop a large-scale residential and mixed-use community called Point Ruston. After finalizing agreements with EPA, Point Ruston, LLC purchased the property and agreed to take over the cleanup of the site and some other outlying areas in 2006. EPA required Point Ruston, LLC to clean up the Asarco smelter, cap slag, cleanup offshore sediments and excavate shallow sediments in a nearby basin. As part of the cleanup approach, EPA allowed Point Ruston to combine the development of the site with site capping. The buildings and hard surfaces of the development would become the cap. Point Ruston, LLC started construction of the foundations of two condominiums on the site in 2008. Once complete, Point Ruston will also include retail shopping, a hotel, community activity plaza, and shoreline recreational opportunities.
Updated 5/2014

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Bangor Naval Submarine Base
Site photo

The Bangor Naval Submarine Base Superfund site is a 7,000-acre facility located along Hood Canal near Silverdale, Washington in Kitsap County. From the early 1940s until 1973, the U.S. Navy used the facility to store, process and ship munitions. In 1977, the U.S. Navy re-commissioned the facility as a submarine base to support the Trident submarine fleet in the Pacific. Detonation, demilitarization and disposal of explosive ordnance, as well base mission support activities, contributed to past releases of chemicals to the environment at the base. The U.S. Navy conducted an initial assessment study at Bangor in 1983, identifying 42 potential contaminant source areas that might need further investigation. Of those, 20 were later determined to present no concern. EPA listed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1990 because of contaminated ground water, soil, sludge and surface water. That same year, the U.S. Navy, EPA, and the state signed a Federal Facilities Agreement to address site contamination. The U.S. Navy has since undertaken a number of investigation and cleanup actions. Some cleanup actions and monitoring continue. In 2004, Naval Station Bremerton merged with Naval Submarine Base Bangor, forming Naval Base Kitsap. As of January 2011, Naval Base Kitsap is the third-largest Navy base in the U.S., with 13,000 active-duty personnel, 13,000 Department of Defense civilian employees and 10,000 contractors. The Bangor portion of the base includes one of the country's four nuclear shipyards and one of two nuclear-weapons facilities. The base supports over half of Kitsap County residents directly or indirectly.
Updated 12/2012

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Bonneville Power Administration Ross Complex (USDOE)

The 250-acre Bonneville Power Administration Ross Complex (USDOE) Superfund site is located north of Vancouver, Washington. The site is an active facility. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has owned and operated the facility since 1939. BPA coordinates the distribution of hydroelectric power generated by the Federal Columbia Power System to regions throughout the Pacific Northwest. Since its construction, the site has provided research and testing facilities, maintenance and construction operations, and waste storage and handling operations for BPA. Improper storage and handling of materials on site resulted in the contamination of soil and ground water. EPA listed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1989. PBA undertook early cleanup actions beginning in 1991 and completed long-term cleanup actions by 1995. Cleanup actions included excavation and off-site disposal of contaminated soil, bioremediation and capping of contaminated soils, and ground water monitoring. EPA deleted the site from the NPL in 1996. BPA later enacted institutional controls to restrict digging in areas of the site with residual contamination in soils and limit future uses of these areas.
Updated 12/2012

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Boomsnub/Airco

The Boomsnub/Airco Superfund site is located in a light industrial and residential area of Vancouver, Washington. The site includes two facilities, the former Boomsnub Corporation (Boomsnub) chrome plating facility and the Linde facility. Linde owns and operates an industrial gas production facility next to the Boomsnub property. Air Liquide America Corporation (Airco) constructed the gas production facility in 1963. In 1994, Boomsnub relocated its business and went bankrupt soon after. An area of contaminated ground water extends from the two properties about 0.5 miles to the west of the properties, underlying industrial, commercial and municipal facilities. In 1995, EPA listed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) because of contaminated ground water and soil. Efforts to clean up ground water and soil began in the early 1990s and included the removal of more than 6,000 tons of contaminated soil. Cleanup efforts continue. In 2011 and 2012, the City of Vancouver established the 20-acre Luke Jensen Sports Park over a portion of the site. The park includes Little League sports fields, batting cages and a walking trail. Commercial businesses, residential development and other industrial operations are also located within the site.
Updated 12/2012

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Commencement Bay/Nearshore Tideflat Green Infrastructure
Photo of Commencement Bay

The Commencement Bay, Nearshore/Tide Flats Superfund site is located in the City of Tacoma and the Town of Ruston, Washington. The site encompasses an active commercial seaport at the southern end of Puget Sound, with 10 to 12 square miles of shallow water, shoreline and adjacent land. In addition, the site includes the former Asarco Tacoma Smelter, contaminated sediments offshore of the smelter, and areas of Tacoma and Ruston contaminated by smelter emissions. Most of the area is highly developed and industrialized. Located within a tribal Usual and Accustomed fishing area, the tidal areas of the site support important recreational and tribal fisheries. Beginning in the late 1800s, shipbuilding, oil refining, chemical manufacturing and storage, and other industrial activities occurred at the site. These activities resulted in contamination of soils, shallow sediments and waterways within Commencement Bay. In 1983, EPA added the site to the National Priorities List (NPL). EPA began working with the state and the Port of Tacoma to design and begin a cleanup for the Sitcum Waterway portion of the bay. By using a slip as a confined disposal site for contaminated sediments, cleanup activities resulted in newly available land on the Milwaukee Waterway. This additional space allowed an existing land-sea marine terminal facility to expand and increase the volume of its business. This expansion helped make the Port of Tacoma the seventh largest container port in the nation. As part of remediation of the St. Paul Waterway, potentially responsible parties restored 11 acres of shallow marine habitat for ecological reuse. Remedial activities also allowed for the construction of the colorful Chihuly Bridge of Glass public art project and the restoration of 70 acres of estuarine habitat In 2009, the site received about $5.2 million in American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) funds. These funds supported activities at the Ruston/North Tacoma study area, the area contaminated by the Asarco Tacoma Smelter. These resources helped complete residential, parkland and right-of-way cleanups. In 2006, a development company purchased the property formerly occupied by the Asarco Tacoma Smelter, which encompassed 67 acres along Ruston Way on Commencement Bay. The company began construction on a project called Point Ruston. Redevelopment at Point Ruston is underway with the ultimate goal of completing over 200 residences, including single-family homes, apartments and condominiums. Most Point Ruston residences will incorporate green building principles. EPA continues to work with landowners and local governments to coordinate cleanup plans with local goals and priorities for future land use.
Updated 12/2012

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Commencement Bay, South Tacoma Channel

The Commencement Bay, South Tacoma Channel Superfund site is located in Tacoma, Washington and is comprised of three separate and discrete areas: the South Tacoma Field, the Tacoma Landfill and Well 12A. EPA added the site to the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1983. South Tacoma Field is a 260-acre area historically used by Burlington Northern Railroad for rail car manufacturing, repair and maintenance activities from 1892 to 1974. Additionally, two foundries operated at this site in support of the railroad. Tacoma City Light has continuously operated on the north end of South Tacoma Field since 1953. All of these activities caused soil contamination throughout the site, as well as localized ground water contamination. Cleanup activities included soil removal and soil capping, land use restrictions and monitoring of natural processes to clean up ground water. Residents use the western side of the South Tacoma Field for casual recreation (biking, dog walking and flying model airplanes). Businesses operating on the southern half of the South Tacoma Field include Pioneer Builders Supply, General Plastics and Industrial Properties, which leases warehouse, office and yard space to businesses. The City of Tacoma operates the Tacoma Landfill, which covers approximately 210 acres. Since 1960, operators accepted municipal, industrial, construction, demolition and bulk wastes on site. Soil and ground water are contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and heavy metals. Landfill gas also contains VOCs. Cleanup activities included construction of a landfill cap, management of landfill gas and treatment of ground water. After discovery of contamination in Well 12A (a City of Tacoma drinking water well) in 1981, EPA began pumping and treating the water in 1983. Additional cleanup activities included excavation of contaminated soil and sludge and installation of a soil vapor extraction system. Additional cleanup activities to thermally treat remaining soil contamination are currently underway. Western Moving and Storage and Sine Communications currently use the Well 12A area for storage and office space.
Updated 10/2013

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Fairchild Air Force Base (4 Waste Areas)

The Fairchild Air Force Base (4 Waste Areas) Superfund site is located in Spokane County, Washington. In 1942, the U.S. Air Force established the base as an aircraft repair depot. The base’s primary mission transitioned to supporting heavy bomber and associated air refueling aircraft in 1947. In 1994, the U.S. Air Force realigned the base to create the largest air refueling wing in the U.S. Air Force. Past base activities included the disposal of solvents, paint wastes, plating sludge and industrial wastes at various locations across the base. The site includes four wastes areas covering 85 acres. Ground water, soil and sediment are contaminated with volatile organic compounds, semi-volatile organic compounds and inorganic compounds. EPA added the site to the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1989. Cleanup activities have included providing an alternate water supply to residents with contaminated water supply wells, well monitoring, installation of a landfill cap, and ground water containment and treatment. The U.S. Air Force continues to use the base.
Updated 10/2013

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FMC Corporation (Yakima Pit)
Site photo

The 4-acre FMC Corp. (Yakima Pit) Superfund site is located in Yakima, Washington. The site operated as a pesticide formulation facility from 1951 until 1986. From 1952 to 1969, FMC disposed of agricultural pesticides in a pit on site. A 6-foot chain link fence limits access to the pit area. EPA listed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1983 following the discovery of ground water and soil contaminated with pesticides. Under an EPA order, FMC disposed of about 850 tons of contaminated soil in a federally approved facility in 1988 and 1989. In 1990, EPA selected a cleanup plan that included the excavation and on-site incineration of contaminated soils. FMC completed the site cleanup in December 1993. Institutional controls are in place on a portion of the site to prevent exposure to remaining soil and ground water contamination. The site currently contains a former metal fabrication facility, parking lot and equipment storage yard owned by Stephens Metal Products (the property is for sale). Country Farm & Garden True Value Hardware store and Butlers Welding and RV Accessories have purchased parts of the former FMC-leased property west of Stephens Metal Products and erected buildings. These businesses have been located there for several years now.
Updated 12/2012

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Fort Lewis Logistics Center
Site photo

The 650-acre Fort Lewis Logistics Center Superfund site is located near Tacoma, Washington, on the southeastern shore of Puget Sound. The site is part of the 86,000-acre Fort Lewis military installation. In 2010, Fort Lewis merged with McChord Air Force Base to become Joint Base Lewis-McChord. The installation has been a U.S. Army facility since 1917. Site operations include maintaining aircraft and vehicles, repairing and refurbishing weapons, and neutralizing caustic paint stripping waste and battery acids. Site operation activities resulted in the contamination of ground water, soil, sludge and surface water. In 1989, EPA listed the Fort Lewis Logistics Center site on the National Priorities List (NPL). In 1990, the U.S. Army signed a Federal Facilities Agreement with EPA and the state to address site contamination. The U.S. Army began the bulk of cleanup actions beginning in the mid-1990s. Ground water in one portion of the site continues to be treated. Ground water monitoring also continues. The site is mainly an industrial facility, with some limited commercial use.
Updated 12/2012

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Hanford 1100 Area (USDOE)

The 120-square-mile Hanford 1100-Area (USDOE) Superfund site is located about one mile north of Richland, Washington. The site is one of the four areas listed on EPA’s National Priorities List (NPL) located within the larger U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-managed Hanford Site. Past practices contributed to soil and ground water contamination in the area. In 1989, EPA listed the Hanford 1100-Area site on the National Priorities List (NPL). That same year, DOE, EPA and the state entered into the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (also known as the Tri-Party Agreement). This agreement established the framework for cleaning up the Hanford Site. DOE then undertook site investigations and cleanup actions at the Hanford 1100-Area site. DOE completed all necessary cleanup actions and EPA deleted the site from the NPL in 1996. DOE continues to monitor the site. In 1998, DOE leased a portion of the Transportation Maintenance Building and rail yard to the Livingston Rebuild Center for a locomotive maintenance and repair facility. Soon after, DOE transferred 1.2 square miles of the Hanford 1100-Area site to the Port of Benton, with 26 buildings and 16 miles of rail track at the southern end of the Hanford railroad. Today, this area is the Port of Benton’s Richland Innovation Center. Various organizations along with the Port of Benton are working to develop the center into a high-end commercial/mixed use research park. Nearly 20 companies lease facilities at the center.
Updated 12/2012

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Hanford 200-Area (USDOE)

The 75-square-mile Hanford Site 200-Area (USDOE) Superfund site is located 17 miles north-northwest of the City of Richland, Washington. The site is one of the four areas listed on EPA’s National Priorities List (NPL) located within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-managed Hanford Site. The Hanford Site 200-Area site is located in the Central Plateau portion of the Hanford Site. The federal government used the Central Plateau for managing waste and reprocessing spent nuclear fuel to recover special nuclear materials for use in the national defense. The federal government built about 1,000 facilities, structures and buildings on the site. These facilities supported the processing of irradiated fuel from plutonium production reactors and the treatment, storage and disposal of waste. On-site waste disposal activities created approximately 1,000 waste areas on the site. Underground storage tank farms, buried solid waste, contaminated inactive soil areas and contaminated ground water are the legacy of the old production operations. EPA listed the Hanford 200-Area site on the NPL in 1989. That same year, the DOE, EPA and the state entered into the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (also known as the Tri-Party Agreement). This agreement established the framework for cleaning up the Hanford Site. Since then, DOE has undertaken many site investigations and cleanup actions at the Hanford 200-Area site. Cleanup activities included the 1996 construction of the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility, a massive landfill built to provide safe disposal of waste generated by on-site remediation efforts. Investigations and cleanup actions continue today. However, limited funding and higher priorities along the river corridor portion (100 and 300 Areas) of the Hanford site have resulted in a delay of a few years in completing 200 Area waste site investigations. The federal government terminated chemical processing of nuclear materials in the Hanford 200-Area in the early 1990s, but waste management activities continue and will likely continue into the future. Radioactive and mixed waste treatment and disposal will likely continue at least until 2050 or beyond.
Updated 12/2012

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Harbor Island

The Harbor Island (Lead) Superfund site is an industrial island located in Seattle’s Elliott Bay. Built in the early 1900s, the 420-acre island supports businesses that conduct commercial and industrial activities, including ocean and rail transport operations. Site operations contaminated ground water, sediment and soil with lead and other contaminants. In 1983, EPA listed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL). In 1991, the Port of Seattle began buying industrial properties on Harbor Island in order to expand Terminal 18, which lies on the east side of the island. Before the expansion could take place, EPA required the Port and other responsible parties to clean up the contaminated media. Under an agreement with EPA, the Port excavated and treated the most contaminated soils and paved much of the site to minimize spreading of contamination. In 1996, the Port and other responsible parties entered into a legal agreement to cleanup soils and ground water in the upland. The Port, in coordination with other responsible parties, also demolished a lead smelter and metal processing facility, removed paint and dust that contained lead and instituted ongoing ground water monitoring. The redevelopment project also created a 1.1-acre public park with 380 feet of shoreline access, walking paths and benches. Other upgrades on Harbor Island included road improvements, new sidewalks and bike paths. The cleanup allowed the Port to move ahead with a $300-million, 90-acre expansion of Terminal 18. The expansion included a new dockside intermodal rail yard, two new truck gates, a larger container storage yard and other amenities to improve cargo-handling capabilities. In 2004, the site received a prestigious Phoenix Award for achievement of excellence in Superfund site reuse. A ship repair, construction and conversion facility that began operating on the island in 1916, as well as separate tank-farm facilities, continue to operate on the island. The ship construction facility employs over 400 workers. The responsible parties conduct, under EPA oversight, long-term ground water monitoring, cap inspections and maintenance at the site. Also under EPA oversight, responsible parties have dredged contaminated marine sediments and subtidal debris and created extensive beach habitat. Additional studies of the remaining uncharacterized marine sediments are underway and cleanup of these sediments in expected before 2020.
Updated 12/2012

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Jackson Park Housing Complex (USNAVY)
Site photo

The Jackson Park Housing Complex (USNavy) Superfund site is located in eastern Kitsap County, approximately 2 miles northwest of Bremerton, Washington. Also known as the Jackson Park Housing Complex/Naval Hospital Bremerton (JPHC/NHB), the site occupies about 206 acres along Ostrich Bay. A large portion of JPHC/NHB includes high-density residential housing for U.S. Navy personnel and dependents. The naval hospital occupies the rest of the site. JPHC/NHB is the site of the former Naval Magazine Puget Sound (Naval Magazine), established in 1904 as an ammunition depot to store ordnance. In 1959, the federal government placed the ammunition depot and the area under caretaker status. The federal government then conveyed portions of the former depot property to Kitsap County, the City of Bremerton, and the state. Beginning around 1965, the U.S. Navy converted a portion of the remaining property to military housing, renamed the Jackson Park Housing Complex. As housing construction continued in the early 1970s, the U.S. Navy demolished most of the remaining depot structures at the site. Construction of additional housing at the site continued into the 1990s. Historical site operations left metals, explosive-making substances and abandoned ordnance on site, resulting in contaminated surface water, soil and sludge in this environmentally sensitive area. The U.S. Navy undertook a series of removal actions in 1993. EPA listed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1994. In 2004, the U.S. Navy and EPA signed an interagency agreement to address site contamination. Cleanup actions and monitoring are ongoing. Naval Base Kitsap is the current owner of JPHC.
Updated 12/2012

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Lockheed West Seattle
Site photo

The Lockheed West Seattle Superfund site is located in Elliott Bay near the mouth of the West Waterway in Seattle, Washington. The site is located next to the upland areas of the Port Terminal 5, including the former upland shipyard support operations area (designated as Remediation Area 5). The 40-acre site includes approximately 7 acres of aquatic tidelands owned by the Port of Seattle and 33 acres of state-owned aquatic lands. Historic industrial practices at the former shipyard released contaminants into the bay. Before its transfer to the Superfund program, the State of Washington listed the site (then referred to as Lockheed Shipyard No. 2) as a sediment cleanup priority project under State of Washington clean up authority. EPA placed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 2007. In 2012, EPA issued a proposed plan describing EPA’s preferred approach for cleaning up contaminated sediments at the site. The northern area of the site currently does not support significant port-related or other commercial activities. The West Waterway portion of the site includes a federal navigation channel. The Port envisions expanding one of its terminal facilities (Terminal 5), including pier structures, as a container terminal along the West Waterway sometime in the future. Natural areas of the site support birds, crabs and multiple fish species including salmon.
Updated 12/2012

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Lower Duwamish Waterway Green Infrastructure

The Lower Duwamish Waterway Superfund site is a 5-mile stretch of the Duwamish River that flows into Elliott Bay in Seattle, Washington. The South Park and Georgetown neighborhoods and industrial corridors flank the waterway. A century of heavy industrial use left the waterway contaminated with toxic chemicals from many sources, including industries along its banks; storm water pipes; and runoff from upland activities, streets and roads from a 32 square mile drainage basin. In response to contamination in sediments, fish and shellfish, EPA added the site to the National Priorities List (NPL) in 2001. Various parties have undertaken or completed a number of early cleanup actions. Following site investigations, EPA will issue a proposed cleanup plan to address long-term cleanup at the site. The City of Seattle, King County, Port of Seattle, and the Boeing Company, collectively known as the Lower Duwamish Waterway Group, are currently leading investigation and early cleanup activities under oversight by EPA and the state. The Lower Duwamish Waterway supports considerable commercial navigation. Recreational enthusiasts use the water for various recreational activities, such as boating, kayaking, fishing and beach play. Native American tribes also use the Lower Duwamish frequently as a fishing resource and for cultural purposes.
Updated 9/2014

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McChord Air Force Base (Wash Rack/Treatment Area)

McChord Air Force Base is an active military base south of Tacoma, Washington, covering almost 4,600 acres. In 2010, Fort Lewis merged with McChord Air Force Base to become Joint Base Lewis-McChord. The base provides airlift services for troops, cargo, equipment, passengers and mail. The McChord Air Force Base (Wash Rack/Treatment Area) Superfund site is located within an active industrial and operational complex in the northern portion of the base. The site sits within portions of aircraft parking areas (Ramps C and D). This site previously functioned as a paved aircraft washing facility where operators reportedly used chemical solvents to remove oil, grease and other foreign materials from airplanes. Two unlined leach pits (backfilled in 1986) within the site also received runoff from this paved area. In 1987, EPA listed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) because of contaminated ground water. In 1989, the U.S. Air Force signed a Federal Facilities Agreement with EPA and the State of Washington to address site contamination. The U.S. Air Force began treating contaminated ground water in 1992. In 1994, EPA agreed to allow contaminated ground water to recover naturally. In 1996, EPA deleted the site from the NPL. The ground water throughout the site has generally met the cleanup goals. To ensure continued protection of human health, the state conducts ground water monitoring at the site.
Updated 12/2012

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Midway Landfill
Site photo

The 60-acre Midway Landfill Superfund site is located in King County, Washington, between Interstate 5 (I-5) and Highway 99, and between South 252nd Street and South 246th Street in Kent. The former gravel quarry operated as a municipal solid waste landfill from 1966 to 1983. Local officials created Midway Landfill primarily to accept demolition materials, wood waste and other slowly decomposing materials. However, operators also put other industrial wastes in the landfill. In 1983, the operators covered the landfill with silt and fine sands. In l985, investigations identified combustible gas in structures around the landfill. Investigations also identified contaminated ground water beyond the landfill boundary. EPA added the site to the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1986. In 1992, the City of Seattle constructed interim cleanup measures, including a final cap over the site, refined landfill gas control, and a stormwater and drainage control system. These measures continue to function as planned. The Washington Department of Transportation is using a portion of the site located in a right of way for an Interstate 5 road-widening project. The other portion of the site remains a closed landfill and is otherwise unused open space.
Updated 12/2012

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Moses Lake Wellfield Contamination

The Moses Lake Wellfield Contamination Superfund site is located in the City of Moses Lake in eastern Washington. The site includes parts of the former Larson Air Force Base, Grant County Airport and some areas south of the airport. The U.S. government established the Larson Air Force Base in 1942 and closed the base in 1965. During this period, the Air Force, Boeing Company and the Strategic Air Command and Titan Missile program used the base at various points. Potential sources of site contamination are scattered throughout the area and about 1,000 acres of ground water is contaminated. In 1966, the Port of Moses Lake acquired most of the former base and has since operated the property as the Grant County Airport. In addition, the Grant County housing authority purchased housing associated with the base, which remains in use. The U.S. Air Force transferred other facilities to Big Bend Community College. In 1968, Boeing returned to the airport by purchasing 130 acres, including the Three-Place Hangar. Industrial activities are continuing around the airport today. EPA listed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) because of soil and ground water contamination. Since 1992, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has worked to determine the extent of contamination at the site on behalf of the federal potentially responsible parties. After detecting contamination in ground water, between 1989 and 1993, the city fixed three contaminated city water-supply wells south of the airport. The Port of Moses Lake, and later USACE, provided the nearby Skyline residential community with bottled water from 1997 to 2003. In 2003, USACE completed construction of a replacement water-supply well for the residential water system. This well continues to provide reliable, clean drinking water to the Skyline community. In 2008, EPA issued a site cleanup plan to address contaminated soil and ground water. In 2010, EPA negotiated a settlement agreement to pay for the cleanup. Design of the cleanup systems for two contaminated soil waste sites and the south ground water contamination area is underway. The Base program that is responsible for whole house water filters and sampling residential wells has transitioned from the USACE to EPA.
Updated 12/2012

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Naval Air Station, Whidbey Island (Ault Field)
Site photo

Naval Air Station (NAS) Whidbey Island is located just north of the City of Oak Harbor on Whidbey Island, Washington. NAS Whidbey Island has two separate but nearby operations: Ault Field and the Seaplane Base. EPA listed both Ault Field and Seaplane Base separately on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1990, but is addressing them together. Current mission support activities at the air station include the maintenance and operation of Navy aircraft and aviation facilities and related support activities. Since the 1940s, operations at the air station have generated a variety of hazardous wastes. EPA listed NAS Whidbey, Ault Field on the NPL because of soil, sediment and ground water contamination. In 1990, the U.S. Navy signed a Federal Facilities Agreement with EPA and the state to address site contamination. Since the mid-1990s, the U.S. Navy has performed a number of cleanup actions at the site. Cleanup activities are complete at all of the project areas. Monitoring and maintenance activities at Ault Field continue. EPA deleted Seaplane Base from the NPL in 1995.
Updated 12/2012

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Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station (4 Waste Areas)

The 340-acre Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station (4 Waste Areas) Superfund site is located on a peninsula 15 miles west of Seattle, Washington. The U.S. Navy acquired the Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division, Keyport (also referred to as Naval Base Kitsap Keyport) in 1913 to develop a still-water torpedo testing range. The center's activities have included torpedo maintenance, fuel storage, welding, painting, carpentry, plating and sheet metal work. On-site operations resulted in a range of environmental contamination concerns. EPA listed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1989. In 1990, the U.S. Navy entered into a Federal Facilities Agreement with EPA and the state to address site contamination. Since then, the U.S. Navy has undertaken a number of cleanup actions. Monitoring programs continue and further investigations are underway to determine if additional cleanup actions are necessary. Operations currently include engineering, fabrication, assembly and testing of underwater weapons systems. Approximately 1,800 people work at the center.
Updated 12/2012

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North Market Street

The 50-acre North Market Street Superfund site is located in Spokane, Washington. The Phillips Petroleum Company, the Tosco Refining Company, and Chevron operated a petroleum refining and distribution complex at the site since the 1980s. Industrial activities and mishandling led to major oil spill incidents in 1985, 1989 and 1990 that contaminated on-site soil and ground water with petroleum and chemicals. The EPA added the site to the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1990 and outlined remediation standards in a cleanup plan. The remedy included soil excavation, on-site soil remediation, soil vapor venting and passive ground water remediation techniques. Construction reached completion in December 2002. Spokane County set land use limitations on the site to protect remedial components. Holly Energy Partners now operates an on-site industrial fuel distribution facility and commercial companies also reuse parts of the site.
Updated 10/2013

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Northside Landfill
Site photo

The Northside Landfill Superfund site is located on a 345-acre parcel of land in northwestern Spokane, Washington. Established as a city landfill in 1931, the landfill was the largest refuse disposal operation in Spokane County. Open burning took place at the landfill until the mid-1950s, when operators began shallow excavation and fill operations. In the 1960s, operators began the process of covering refuse-filled trenches and canyons with soil. In the mid-1970s, operators started an area fill technique using 20-foot lifts (20-foot thick layers) on previously buried refuse. In 1986, EPA listed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) because of contaminated ground water and sludge. In 1989, EPA selected a cleanup approach for the landfill that included closing and capping the old landfill units, treating and monitoring ground water, collecting landfill gas and implementing land use restrictions. The City of Spokane closed the old landfill units and completed the landfill caps by 1993. That same year the city began long-term treatment of ground water. The city has since constructed a waste disposal cell that meets all new state requirements for landfills. The city plans to continue landfill operations at this site until all remaining landfill cells reach capacity. Ground water treatment continues. Institutional controls are in place through a 2011 environmental covenant enacted under the state’s Uniform Environmental Covenants Act.
Updated 12/2012

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Northwest Transformer (South Harkness Street)
Photo - New parking lot at NorthWest Transformer

The Northwest Transformer (South Harkness Street) is located in Everson, Washington. The Northwest Transformer Service Company operated a transformer reclamation, storage and manufacturing facility on the site until its bankruptcy in 1987. The firm left behind a property contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In 1990, EPA added this site to the National Priorities List (NPL). In 1992, EPA began working closely with local government officials, the parties potentially responsible for the contamination and nearby residents to develop a cleanup and reuse plan for the 1-acre property. By 1995, the potentially responsible parties had removed the PCB-contaminated soil and covered the site with a new asphalt parking lot. EPA deleted the site from the NPL in 1997. Today, the site is providing much needed parking space for the nearby town hall and an adjacent senior center.
Updated 12/2012

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Oeser Company
Site photo

The Oeser Co. Superfund site is located in a mixed residential and industrial area of Bellingham, Washington. The site includes the Oeser Company (Oeser) property (an active wood-treating facility) and the Little Squalicum Creek Area located south of the Oeser property within Little Squalicum Park. Oeser prepares and treats wood poles for utility companies on a 26-acre property. A sugar beet processing facility first began operating on the Oeser property in 1925. Oeser took ownership of the property in 1943 and began using the site for wood treatment operations. Past treating practices resulted in soil and ground water contaminated with various chemicals, including dioxin. In 1997, EPA listed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL). EPA undertook initial cleanup actions in 1997 and 1998. In 2003, EPA approved the site’s long-term cleanup plan. The plan included excavating or capping contaminated soils, institutional controls to limit ground water use and non-industrial use, ground water monitoring and long-term maintenance of the caps. Oeser completed the cleanup actions in 2009. In 2010, EPA required cleanup actions to address soil contamination in the creek area. Oeser initiated cleanup of the creek area in 2010. Due to a lack of funds, EPA took over and completed the cleanup action of the creek area in 2011. Ground water and surface water monitoring continues.
Updated 12/2012

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Pacific Sound Resources
Photo - The New Port of Seattle at Pacific Sound Resources

The Pacific Sound Resources Superfund site, formerly known as the Wyckoff West Seattle Wood Treating facility, is located on the south shore of Elliott Bay on the Puget Sound in Seattle, Washington. The site encompasses 83 acres, 58 acres of which are marine sediments. The surrounding areas are primarily commercial and industrial. From the turn of the century until 1994, a wood treating facility operating on site released creosote and related hazardous contaminants into the ground and marine environment. Upland contaminants eventually seeped into the tidal sediments. EPA listed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1994. Cleanup actions included soil excavation and sediment dredging, construction of an upland slurry wall, placing a low permeability 25-acre asphalt cap in the upland and a 58-acre marine sediments cap. The Port of Seattle purchased the upland property in 1994 and included it as part of the Port’s efforts to construct a modern container terminal facility in West Seattle. During this period, the Port implemented several upland early cleanup actions, under EPA oversight, to stabilize releases from the site and to prepare it for reuse. The Port is currently using the southern portion of the upland property as part of the Port’s container terminal facility. EPA and the Port worked together to redevelop the northern portion into a Port of Seattle waterfront park, known as Jack Block Park. Routine monitoring of the marine sediment cap and ground water continues. EPA evaluates the protectiveness of the cleanup system every five years as required by law.
Updated 12/2012

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Palermo Well Field Ground Water Contamination

The Palermo Well Field Ground Water Contamination Superfund site is located in Tumwater, Washington. The Palermo Well Field consists of six water supply wells that serve the City of Tumwater. In 1993, routine sampling detected trichloroethylene, a common industrial solvent, in three of the city’s drinking water wells. Sources of the trichloroethylene include former and current Washington Department of Transportation facilities. Sampling also detected tetrachloroethylene from a dry cleaning facility in the ground water in an upgradient commercial area. EPA added the site to the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1997. Cleanup activities included installation of a soil vapor extraction system beneath the dry cleaning facility, treatment of ground water, construction of an underground drainage system and air monitoring in houses above the contaminated ground water. EPA is working with the Washington State Department of Transportation on additional investigations that will inform additional cleanup actions. These additional actions may include in-home vapor treatment systems to mitigate vapor intrusion risks, as well as additional ground water pumping to clean up contaminated ground water. Current land use at the site includes mixed commercial and residential development within the city limits of Tumwater.
Updated 10/2013

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Pesticide Lab (Yakima)
Site photo

The 40-acre Pesticide Lab (Yakima) Superfund site is located in Yakima, Washington. The site formerly housed an agricultural research laboratory affiliated with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Over time, site operators disposed of wastes in a septic tank system with leaking drains. Officials began sampling of ground water and soil in 1990 to determine the extent of contamination. The investigation led to the immediate removal of the septic tank and connected drainage lines. The EPA added the site to the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1983, but because the site was an active federal facility, it fell under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulations and standards. The EPA and the State of Washington oversaw septic tank and contaminated soil removal, and the installation of a water treatment system. Construction reached completion in 1992 and the EPA deleted the site from the NPL one year later. Currently, the Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory is located on the site. The research laboratory complex consists of numerous office and laboratory research buildings, warehouses, storage sheds, maintenance buildings and greenhouses. In addition, fruit trees and crops grow on the site property as a part of the research laboratory’s operations.
Updated 2/2014

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Port Hadlock Detachment (USNAVY) Green Infrastructure
Site photo

The Port Hadlock Detachment (USNavy) Superfund site is located on Indian Island, a 2,700-acre island southeast of Port Townsend, Washington. The U.S. Navy purchased Indian Island in 1939 to store explosives, seaplanes and antisubmarine cable nets. The site operated as the primary landfill for Indian Island from about 1945 until the mid-1970s. Historical operations on the island resulted in soil, ground water, sediment and shellfish contamination. In 1994, EPA added the site to the National Priorities List (NPL). As part of the cleanup, the U.S. Navy contained and capped the portion of the landfill that had leaked into the surrounding beaches. This action prevents contamination from migrating and helps protect the surrounding ecosystem. As a result, several beaches on the east side of the island and Crane Point on the west side of the island have been reopened. Cleanup has also enabled a local Native American tribe to regain access to its tribal fishing grounds on the island. EPA deleted the site from the NPL in 2005. Today, Port Hadlock Detachment receives, stores, maintains and issues naval ordnance, and the U.S. Navy’s current operations span the entire island. Formerly named Port Hadlock Detachment, the U.S. Navy now refers to this active munitions storage and logistics center as Naval Magazine Indian Island. The U.S. Navy continues to conduct monitoring and maintenance related to the cleanup.
Updated 12/2012

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Puget Sound Naval Shipyard Complex
Site photo

The Puget Sound Naval Shipyard Complex Superfund site is located in Bremerton, Washington. The site lies along the Sinclair Inlet on Puget Sound, about 15 miles west of Seattle. The complex covers about 350 acres of land and an additional 340 acres of tidelands along 11,000 feet of shoreline. The U.S. Navy has owned and operated facilities at this location since 1891. The Puget Sound Naval Shipyard (PSNS) located on site, also known as the Bremerton Naval Complex, is responsible for overhaul, maintenance, docking and decommissioning of ships. The complex employs over 12,000 people and contains over 300 buildings and structures, six deep water piers, six dry docks and numerous moorings. These activities generate large amounts of hazardous waste. EPA listed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1994 to address contaminated ground water, soil, sludge and sediments. The U.S. Navy signed an Interagency Agreement in 1998 with the state and EPA to address site contamination. The U.S. Navy has since completed the major cleanup actions. However, ground water and sediment monitoring continue. In 2006 and 2007, the U.S. Navy transferred a portion of the site to the City of Bremerton for use as a city park. The U.S. Navy completed necessary cleanup actions on the transferred property and the City of Bremerton completed and opened the Bremerton Harborside Fountain Park in May 2007. Sinclair Inlet provides a habitat for a variety of marine life and supports commercial fishing and recreational activities.
Updated 12/2012

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Silver Mountain Mine
Site photo

The 5-acre Silver Mountain Mine Superfund site is abandoned silver and gold mine located in Horse Springs Coulee, six miles northwest of Tonasket, Washington. From 1902 until the 1960s, the Silver Mountain Mine operated from time to time, producing small amounts of silver and gold. In the early 1980s, speculators returned to the mine and used chemicals to extract precious metals from the old ore tailings. When this operation was no longer profitable, the speculators departed. They left behind more than 7,000 tons of cyanide-laced mine tailings and a basin filled with 20,000 gallons of cyanide-contaminated water. In November 1981, the Washington State Department of Ecology (ECY) investigated the site. ECY took an emergency action to treat the cyanide-contaminated water in 1982. EPA then listed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1986. EPA closed the mine entrance and placed the contaminated mine tailings under a protective cap. With the capped area fenced off, EPA revegetated the land around the mine. A partnership between EPA, the State of Washington, the local community and a local rancher resulted in a cleanup that made it possible to once again use portions of the site as grazing land for cattle. In 1997, EPA deleted the site from the NPL. Use of the site for grazing continues. The state continues to perform annual inspections and maintenance of the site’s cap.
Updated 12/2012

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Spokane Junkyard and Associated Properties
Site photo

The 16-acre Spokane Junkyard/Associated Properties Superfund site is located in Spokane, Washington. The Spokane Junkyard accepted military surplus items, automobiles, heavy equipment, appliances and electrical transformers from the 1940s until the 1980s. In 1987, an explosive fire destroyed the junkyard. During an investigation, EPA found heavy metals and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the soil. EPA listed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1994. EPA and the site’s responsible parties removed contaminated soil, hazardous liquids, solid waste and asbestos and then covered the area. Parties completed these activities in 1997 and EPA deleted the site from the NPL. The Bemiss Neighborhood Council then set out to identify how the site property could best serve the needs of the Spokane community. The Spokane Youth Sports Association headed a team to plan, fund and build a multi-use sports complex for area youth. The association coordinated redevelopment with EPA to make sure that the site’s remedy remained protective of human health and the environment, in accordance with the site’s land use restrictions. Completed in 2002, the Andrew Rypien Field sports complex includes a baseball field and soccer fields. Recipient of the national Phoenix Community Impact Award in 2004 for achievement of excellence in Superfund site reuse, the complex serves over 4,500 neighborhood children.
Updated 12/2012

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Toftdahl Drum Site

The 15-acre Toftdahl Drums Superfund site is located in Brush Prairie, Washington. In the early 1970s, the property owner cleaned drums for resale, and reportedly had drums of industrial waste delivered to his property. Unsalvageable drums buried at the site contaminated soil, surface water and ground water. In 1986, EPA listed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL). EPA and the state investigated the site, removed all contaminated soils and disposed the soils at a federally approved hazardous waste facility. Following cleanup, EPA deleted the site from the NPL in 1988. Since that time, developers have built eight single-family homes at the former waste site.
Updated 12/2012

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Vancouver Water Station #1 Contamination

The Vancouver Water Station #1 Contamination Superfund site is located in Vancouver, Washington, just north of Portland. This water station supplies drinking water to the City of Vancouver from several well fields on site. In 1988, the City of Portland discovered traces of chemical dry-cleaning liquids in wells at the station. An initial inspection to identify the contamination source occurred in 1990, but the source remains undetermined. The EPA added the site to the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1994. The City of Vancouver took action by building a ground water treatment system that uses air stripping techniques to separate contaminants from water. Construction reached completion in 1998. The City of Vancouver continues to own and operate a water station at the site, with new ground water wells and storage reservoirs.
Updated 10/2013

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Vancouver Water Station #4 Contamination

The Vancouver Water Station #4 Superfund site is located in Vancouver, Washington. Station #4 is one of several well fields that provide drinking water to Vancouver and surrounding areas. In 1988, Washington State Department of Health well sampling found volatile organic compounds. The City of Vancouver took Station #4 out of service in 1989. Dry cleaners are a suspected source of contamination, but additional investigation was unable to confirm the actual source of contamination. EPA added the site to the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1992. Cleanup activities have included treating ground water. Cleaned water from Station #4 supplies drinking water to the Vancouver region.
Updated 10/2013

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Wyckoff-Eagle Harbor Green Infrastructure
Photo - Bainbridge Island at Wyckoff-Eagle Harbor

The Wyckoff Co./Eagle Harbor Superfund site is located on Bainbridge Island in Puget Sound, Washington. For nearly a century, a wood treatment facility and a shipyard operated at the site. Years of site operations contaminated the area’s sediments. In 1987, EPA listed the site to the National Priorities List (NPL). EPA proposed separate cleanup plans for the east and west areas of Eagle Harbor. EPA, working with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, obtained clean silt from a river dredging project and placed a cap over contaminated East Harbor areas in 1994. This sediment cap stopped the release of toxins into Puget Sound and made the area safe for crabs, starfish and other marine life. For the West Harbor cleanup, EPA worked with the state to dismantle on-site buildings and remove polluted sediments. Remedial workers placed the most polluted sediments inside a partially submerged containment facility. Crew later paved over this containment facility to provide additional parking at the Washington State Ferries Maintenance Terminal. After removing contaminated sediments, EPA and state officials lined submerged portions of the containment facility with gravel to attract mussels and barnacles and created a 2-acre estuarine habitat. The shoreline on the southeast side of Eagle Harbor is home to Pritchard Park. Cleanup activities included capping the shore with a clean beach cover. As a result, the shore is once again safe for kayaking, wading, swimming and strolling. The East and West Harbor cleanups have ensured that Puget Sound will continue to be one of the world's most beautiful estuaries, a rich fishing ground and home to diverse wildlife. EPA is currently investigating additional contaminant removal options for the old wood treating process area. Once additional cleanup actions are completed in the old process area, this area will also become part of Pritchard Park. The City of Bainbridge Island bought the entire site in three parcels between December 2004 and February 2006. The Bainbridge Island World War II Nikkei Exclusion Memorial Committee undertook the creation of a memorial on the site in honor of the many Japanese-Americans forced into internment camps during World War II. The Wyckoff Acquisition Task Force, a citizen committee formed to acquire the site for a public park, allocated about eight acres of the site for the memorial. In 2008, Congress and President Bush approved the Bainbridge Island Nidoto Nai Yoni “Let it not happen again” Japanese American Memorial as a satellite unit of Minidoka National Historic Site in Idaho. The memorial opened with a dedication ceremony on August 6, 2011. It includes several walkways through the site and a 276-foot memorial wall, one foot for each relocated resident. In 2009, the site received $2.4 million in American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) funds to help address soil and ground water cleanups that would further prepare the site for reuse. A new ground water treatment plant opened in April 2009. ARRA funds supported the demolition of the old outdated ground water treatment plant and the upgrading of the ground water extraction system.
Updated 12/2012

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Yakima Plating Co.

The Yakima Plating Co. Superfund site covers two acres in Yakima, Washington. Since 1962, the company has electroplated car bumpers and other objects. Yakima Plating discharged wastewaters from its operations to an on-site drainfield from the beginning of plant operations. Site operations left heavy metal contamination in ground water and subsurface soils. As a result, EPA listed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1989. In 1991, EPA excavated 2,500 cubic yards of contaminated soils for off-site disposal. Because of this early action, EPA selected a “no further action” remedy for the site. EPA deleted the site from the NPL in 1994. An automobile painting and body works facility currently operates on the site.
Updated 12/2012

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