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Sites in Reuse in South Carolina

Atlantic Phosphate Works

The 30-acre Atlantic Phosphate Works Superfund site is located on Hagood Street in Charleston, South Carolina. From the late 1800s to the early 1900s, Virginia Carolina Chemical Company (VCC) produced phosphate fertilizer at several sites throughout the southeastern United States, including the Atlantic Phosphate Works site. Fertilizer manufacturing operations took place at the site from 1900 until 1943. Manufacturing at the site involved combining phosphate ores with sulfuric acid to produce phosphoric acid, the building block of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium agricultural fertilizers. Operators produced sulfuric acid at the site and stored it in lead-insulated chambers. Site investigations in the late 1990’s found lead and arsenic contamination, as well as low pH conditions, associated with former phosphate fertilizer manufacturing in site ground water, soil and sediment. While ExxonMobil never owned or operated facilities at the site, the company accepted responsibility for site cleanup by way of a corporate merger in 1999. EPA’s 2004 cleanup plan included the excavation and treatment of contaminated soil, the treatment of contaminated ground water and the capping of on-site treated soil. ExxonMobil successfully cleaned up the site’s contaminated soil and sediment, and ground water monitoring is anticipated for a 5 to 10-year period, or until the State and Federal ground water standards have been achieved. In 1946, parties constructed a power plant on site. South Carolina Electric & Gas (SCE&G) currently operates the 100-megawatt Hagood Steam Plant, which provides energy during periods of high demand and storm emergency periods. In 2008, SCE&G installed two new gas turbines at the plant. The main structures currently located on site include gas turbine generator buildings and large aboveground storage tanks associated with the steam plant. By continuing to monitor ground water, EPA, the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and ExxonMobil continue to protect human health and the environment from site contamination.
Updated 1/2013

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Calhoun Park Area
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The 18-acre Calhoun Park Area site is located on the east side of the Charleston peninsula near the Charleston Harbor, South Carolina. A wood treating facility operated at the site from the early 1800s until 1855, when a manufactured gas plant on the property began producing gas for heating, lighting and cooking. Operations heated coal or oil to separate the flammable gas and stored the gas in large holding tanks before distributing to homes and businesses. In 1991, EPA and the State of South Carolina identified contamination in soil, sediment and ground water at the site from plant operations. Remedial activities began in 2004, and the remedy included removal of contaminated soil, the treatment of contaminated ground water, and sediment capping in the Cooper River. Recognizing that the remediation of the site provided the opportunity for the redevelopment of several waterfront properties on the east site of the Charleston peninsula, EPA, the State of South Carolina and South Carolina Electric & Gas (SCE&G) worked together to conduct remedial activities that would support future redevelopment activity at the site. Their cooperation, as well as the efforts of the National Park Service, resulted in the redevelopment of the site and the entire shoreline. Today, the site is home to a 1,100-car parking garage, soccer fields, a playground, the "Spirit of South Carolina" (a wooden ocean vessel designed after a pilot schooner originally built in 1879, constructed by volunteers), a former IMAX theater, the Charleston Aquarium, the National Park Service boat service, and Charlotte Street Park, which is currently under construction. Additionally, SCE&G owns and operates an electrical substation at the site, which provides electricity to most of downtown Charleston. The available green space on the site also hosts various civic events.
Updated 1/2013

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Carolawn, Inc.
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The 60-acre Carolawn property in Fort Lawn, South Carolina, housed a solvent waste storage and disposal facility from 1970 until 1979. The property changed ownership a number of times prior to its abandonment in 1980. More than 1,000 leaking tanks, 4,500 drums of hazardous chemicals, and numerous lagoons filled with toxic sludge remained on the abandoned site. Between 1981 and 1982, EPA removed over 1,000 drums of hazardous waste and several tons of contaminated soil. In 1983, EPA added the site to the National Priorities List (NPL). EPA also provided all nearby residences with an alternative water source until a water line connected residents to the public water supply in 1985. Additional EPA cleanup activities included the excavation and backfilling of lagoons and the removal of additional contaminated soil, tanks and drums. In 1996, Circle S Farms bought a portion of the site, as well as an adjacent property, and built a large regional turkey feed mill, which supplies feed to area farmers. In the heart of South Carolina's turkey farm belt, turkey farming provides jobs and income to local residents. The mill has become a needed service for many local turkey farmers. EPA continues to address ground water contamination at the site.
Updated 1/2013

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Golden Strip Septic Tank
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The Golden Strip Septic Tank site is located on a 55-acre parcel near Simpsonville, South Carolina, in a semi-rural area surrounded by residential subdivisions. An industrial/septic waste hauling and disposal service operated on the site from 1960 to 1975. During this time, industrial and septic wastes discharged into five unlined wastewater lagoons located on site, contaminating surrounding soils with cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and cyanide. In 1987, EPA added the site to the Superfund National Priorities List (NPL). EPA's remedy, selected in 1991, included the excavation of soil and sludge that exceeded residential cleanup goals, and stabilization of these soils with cement in an on-site landfill. In 1996, the finished landfill capping occurred with clean soil and a vegetative cover, and in 1998, EPA deleted the site from the NPL. Currently, a restrictive easement limits land and ground water use within the area of conservation control. The Golden Strip YMCA purchased this property in 2002 and initiated redevelopment of the site as a multi-use recreational complex that includes preserving green space and the former family farm structures as an interactive environmental education center. Current redevelopment also includes YMCA soccer fields, nature trails and a campground.
Updated 1/2013

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Helena Chemical Co. Landfill
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The 13.5-acre Helena Chemical Co. Landfill Superfund site is located in the city of Fairfax, South Carolina. Formerly owned by the Atlas Chemical Company and the Blue Chemical Company, the facility operated under the Helena Chemical Company from 1971 to 1978. The company produced agricultural insecticides at the facility. In 1980, a former employee informed state officials about illegal dumping on the site. The South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) conducted an investigation and discovered elevated levels of pesticides in soil samples. Additional testing revealed heavily contaminated areas of the site. EPA began working with SCDHEC in 1985 to determine the extent of the contamination and added the site to the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1990. Initial cleanup activities began in 1993 and included excavating contaminated soils and the installation of a ground water pump and treat system. Contaminated ground water continues to be treated at the Site. Helena Chemical Company still owns the property and operates a retail sales outlet for agricultural fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides and seed on site.
Updated 10/2013

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Independent Nail Company

EPA and State collaboration led to the successful cleanup of the Independent Nail Company Superfund site in Beaufort, South Carolina, allowing the on-site business to remain productive. The original owner of the property, the D. Blake and Johnson Company, began manufacturing metallic screws and fasteners in 1969. From 1969 to 1980, the facility disposed of wastewater containing cyanide, chromium and other wastes generated during the manufacturing process in an on-site lagoon. The company discharged approximately 33,000 gallons of plating wastewater per day into this lagoon. A study performed in 1975 by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SC DHEC) revealed that a break in the side of the lagoon allowed wastewater to enter a drainage ditch north of the lagoon area. Site investigations in the mid-1970s verified soil and ground water contamination. In April 1980, the D. Blake and Johnson Company ceased operations at the site. Two months later, Independent Nail purchased the plant and began paneling nail coating processes. In 1983, EPA added the site to its National Priorities List (NPL). EPA issued a cleanup plan for site soils in 1987; cleanup activities included the excavation and treatment of contaminated soil and sediment, the backfilling of the excavated areas with the treated soil and the capping and re-vegetation of the area. In 1988, EPA determined that the low level of contaminants in the ground water posed no risk to human health or the environment. Following the successful completion of cleanup activities, EPA deleted the site from the NPL in 1995. Currently, the Independent Nail Company continues to operate its facility at the site.
Updated 1/2013

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Lexington County Landfill Area Alternative Energy
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Lexington County has gone above and beyond to transform a local disposal area into a community asset. From the 1940s until 1988, the 160-acre Lexington County Landfill Area Superfund site accepted municipal waste at three on-site dumping areas: the Highway 321 Landfill, the Bray Park Dump and the Old Cayce Dump. Until 1969, the local community used Old Cayce Dump as an uncontrolled waste disposal area. From the mid-1960s until 1970, a landfill operated at the Bray Park Dump. Lexington County acquired the Highway 321 Landfill property in 1971 and operated the landfill until 1988 when it reached capacity. EPA and South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) found that disposal practices had resulted in ground water contamination at the site. EPA placed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1989 and began cleanup in 1996. With future reuse opportunities in mind, Lexington County decided to lead and fund site cleanup activities, with oversight provided by EPA and SCDHEC. This lead position allowed Lexington County to work directly with the existing on-site businesses, Par Tee Driving Range and the Bray Park Road Ball Park, and plan cleanup activities in a way that would allow the facilities to remain open during the cleanup of the site. Site cleanup activities consisted of consolidating waste, placing a cap over the site, re-grading the site, and installing a landfill gas recovery system and a ground water treatment system. Lexington County used green cleanup practices and local businesses whenever feasible, and incorporated green cleanup activities into future business plans. Par Tee Driving Range utilized the vegetated landfill cover to construct a new tee box and Lexington County constructed a collection and recycling center on the western side of the site. EPA and SCDHEC assisted Palmetto Falls Mini-Golf with the design and approval of a new mini-golf course on the western side of the site as well. EPA, SCDHEC, Richardson Smith Gardner and Associates, Inc. and Lexington County also collaborated with University of South Carolina to redevelop the northern area of the site into a new golf practice facility for the university’s golf team. In May 2012, EPA Region 4 awarded Lexington County the Region 4 “Excellence in Site Reuse” award in recognition of the County’s extraordinary efforts to build partnerships with local businesses, explore green remediation options and conduct cleanup in a way that would facilitate the safe and appropriate reuse of this site.
Updated 1/2013

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Macalloy Corporation
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The 125-acre Macalloy Corporation Superfund site is located in a primarily industrialized area of North Charleston, South Carolina. From 1941 until 1998, the facility manufactured ferrochromium alloy, used for the production of high quality stainless steel. Under a succession of owners, including the Macalloy Corporation from 1979 until 1998, the facility produced the alloy by smelting chromite ore, coke, silica gravel and bauxite in submerged electric arc furnaces. Surface water discharge to Shipyard Creek, a tributary of the Cooper River, and to adjacent wetlands during operations led to ground water, soil and sediment contamination both on and off site. The primary contaminants of concern at the site include hexavalent chromium, trivalent chromium and other metals. EPA added the site to the Superfund National Priorities List (NPL) in 2000. EPA required the potentially responsible parties (PRPs) to perform site cleanup activities including ex-situ soil mixing, ground water treatments and monitoring, sediment excavation, tidal creek restoration and implementation of a storm water management system. EPA and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) worked with the PRP and a local developer to coordinate the site’s cleanup with plans for an industrial park on the site. Once the PRPs completed remedial construction activities in 2006, the developer purchased the property and began the construction of a business park. The developer relocated three businesses onto the site property, a paper stock recycler, a liquid sea container business and container tank cleaning business to begin the industrial park. These businesses employ 60 people full time on site, and provide over $2.5 million in annual employment income to the community. In 2012, the paper stock recycling company finished an expansion of their facility on the site, increasing the company’s recycling handling capacity by 1.5 tons each month. EPA will continue to work with interested purchasers, tenants and developers to ensure the continued safe reuse of the site.
Updated 1/2013

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Palmetto Wood Preserving

The 5-acre Palmetto Wood Preserving Superfund site in Dixiana, South Carolina, operated as a wood preserving facility. Operations lasted from 1963 to 1985. During this time, wood treating solutions containing chemicals spilled, leading to soil and ground water contamination. In response to complaints from neighboring residents and property owners in 1981 and 1982, the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) inspected the site. SCDHEC found high levels of metals in the soil. As a result, EPA listed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1984. In 1986, EPA found contamination in surface water, sediments, soil and ground water on site and in the surrounding area. EPA began cleanup work in 1988. Cleanup included an extensive soil cleanup and building a full-scale ground water extraction and treatment system. Crews also connected a sewer line to the City of Cayce’s wastewater treatment plant. Additionally, EPA removed the original wood preserving facility from the property. Crews completed soil cleanup work in 1989. The waste water treatment plant became operational in 1997, and continued until 2004. In 2004, EPA switched to long-term ground water monitoring. EPA determined the site ground water met cleanup standards in 2009. The SCDHEC continues annual monitoring to ensure ground water remains safe. Currently, South Carolina Electric and Gas (SCE&G) owns the northern portion of the site, which SCE&G uses for equipment storage. Other portions of the site remain undeveloped. EPA Region 4 remains committed to site reuse and will provide key information to prospective purchasers and stakeholders interested in reuse.
Updated 5/2014

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Para-Chem Southern, Inc.
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The 134-acre Para-Chem Southern, Inc. Superfund site is located in Simpsonville, South Carolina. A manufacturing facility has operated on site since 1965. The facility produces acrylic polymers, thickeners, latex coatings and adhesives. In 1985, Para-Chem notified EPA and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control about areas where potential plant waste burial occurred between 1975 and 1979. Wastewater disposal practices and spills resulted in the contamination of surface water, soil, sludge and ground water. EPA added the site to the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1990. Cleanup activities include extraction and treatment of ground water, extraction and treatment or removal of soil and sludge, and use of a soil vapor extraction system. EPA deleted Waste Burial Area No. 1, located in the northwestern corner of the site, from the NPL in 1997.The manufacturing facility continues to operate on site.
Updated 10/2013

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Rock Hill Chemical Co.
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The 4.5-acre Rock Hill Chemical Co. site is located next to U.S. Highway 21 (Cherry Road) and Farlow Street in Rock Hill, South Carolina. From 1960 through 1964, the site was the location of the Rock Hill Chemical Company (RHCC), a facility that distilled paint solvents. During its operation, RHCC accepted waste oils and solvents from generators, separated them, and sold the extracted solvents and oils back to the generators. Paint sludge, textile dye products, still bottoms and other wastes generated during the reclamation process were stored in piles placed directly onto the ground, and sometimes even buried on site. In October 1964, a tire at the facility caused oil and chemical drums to explode, releasing their contents into the environment. In 1984, First Federal Savings Bank began to construct a branch office on the western portion of the site, on lots that it had purchased in 1972. The discovery of site contamination occurred during construction activities. At the time of the 1984 discovery, First Federal Savings Bank promptly notified the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and employed consultants to analyze the property and determine the extent of the contamination. In 1986 and 1987, First Federal Savings Bank and SCDHEC conducted cleanup activities to remove contaminated soil from the site. Following the cleanup activities, EPA determined that no further action for soil was necessary. In 1990, EPA added the site to the Superfund National Priorities List (NPL).The site’s potentially responsible parties began operating a ground water treatment system in 1995 to address site-wide ground water contamination. Ground water contamination remains confined to the site’s boundary. However, a water line connects the site to the public water supply and people do not use ground water on or near the site for drinking water purposes. A Speedee Cash check-cashing business currently operates on the southern portion of the site.
Updated 1/2013

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Savannah River Site (USDOE) Alternative Energy Green Infrastructure

The Savannah River (USDOE) Superfund site includes about 310 square miles of land along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina. Originally constructed in the early 1950s, the site served as a nuclear weapons fabrication plant. The main buildings at the site contained reactors, chemical separation plants and waste management facilities. In 1981, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) identified contamination on site. Studies revealed contaminated ground water, surface water, soils and former disposal areas. In 1988, nuclear materials production at the site ended. In November 1989, EPA added the site to the Superfund program’s National Priorities List (NPL). USDOE, with EPA and South Carolina as regulators, leads site investigations and cleanup activities. To date, USDOE has treated billions of gallons of ground water and removed over one million pounds of contaminants. USDOE contracts Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC to manage the site. Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC employs about 10,000 workers at the site. The Savannah River (USDOE) site is the first site in the nation to completely close nuclear weapons materials production reactors under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Additional remedial efforts continue at the site. The United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service manages about 90 percent of site property. This largely forested area also includes pine plantations. Industrial developments occupy the remaining 10 percent of the land. In 2008, Ameresco, Inc. developed a 20-megawatt biomass project at the site. The project provides steam and helps power general on-site operations. Site stakeholders are actively seeking to use site properties as they become available. The United States Department of Defense uses closed reactor areas and an area near the Savannah River for training. The Department of Homeland Security has used a former industrial area for research. Future options for reuse may include a solar farm.
Updated 9/2014

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Townsend Saw Chain Co.
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The 50-acre Townsend Saw Chain Co. Superfund site is a small manufacturing facility located approximately two miles south of Pontiac, South Carolina. Starting in 1971, Textron Inc. began utilizing the facility for manufacturing the saw chain component of chain saws. Between 1964 and 1981, under both Textron, Inc. and a previous owner, Dictaphone Inc., waste rinse waters from on-site plating and parts-assembly processes were discharged to the ground surface in a low-lying area adjacent to the facility. These discharges are the origin of site ground water and soil contamination. Discovery of ground water contamination occurred during a 1982 site investigation by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). EPA placed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1990. EPA’s cleanup plan for the site included the excavation and disposal of highly contaminated surface soil, soil treatment and ground water treatment and monitoring. The successful cleanup of the site enabled widespread commercial redevelopment of the property. Of the original 50 acres, 35.5 acres of the Site have been sold for commercial development and Centerline Development, LLC retains ownership of the remaining 14.5 acres. Currently AMBAC International (formerly American Bosch), a manufacturer and supplier of fuel injection equipment, operates at the former Townsend manufacturing facility. In 2010, site reuses included a veterinary hospital, a kennel, a hotel, an auto-body shop, a professional/industrial park, two retail stores, a gas station and restaurants.
Updated 1/2013

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