Sites in Reuse in Arizona
The Apache Powder Co. Superfund site is located in Cochise County, Arizona, about 7 miles southeast of the incorporated town of Benson and 2.5 miles southwest of the unincorporated town of St. David. The site study area covers about 9 square miles and includes 1,100 acres of land owned by Apache Nitrogen Products, Inc. (ANPI), formerly known as the Apache Powder Company. In 1922, ANPI began manufacturing industrial chemicals and explosives. Presently, ANPI manufactures chemical products primarily for agricultural and mining customers. Historically, these operations produced both solid and liquid wastes, which were disposed of on the property owned and operated by ANPI. In 1980, EPA found high levels of heavy metals in some of the on-site ponds. Additionally, investigators found shallow on-site wells and nearby residential wells to have elevated nitrate levels. Later, in 1998, investigators also discovered perchlorate in the shallow aquifer ground water only in the Southern Area of the site. EPA added the site to the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1990. EPA’s 1994 cleanup plan, including later modifications, called for pumping and treating perched ground water by forced evaporation together with monitored natural attenuation (MNA). For the Northern Area ground water, EPA’s selected cleanup was pumping and treating the nitrate-contaminated shallow aquifer by use of constructed wetlands, as well as MNA for the leading edge of the ground water contamination. The cleanup also included the on-site containment and capping of soils in the inactive ponds, and excavation and off-site disposal of contaminated soils from other on-site areas. Since 1994, parties have performed many cleanup actions and completed additional investigative studies. Ground water treatment and long-term monitoring continues. Constructed in 1997, the wetlands serve as ecological habitat for the San Pedro River and provide environmental education opportunities for local schools. ANPI has used solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind energy to enhance aspects of the ground water cleanup operations. For the first five years of the wetlands startup, ANPI re-circulated contaminated water through the wetlands cells for further treatment using solar power from a 1.4-kilowatt (kW) PV panel. The PV panel powered a pump that re-circulated the water at 5 gallons per minute. Now that the wetlands are continually removing the nitrate to well below the drinking water standard for nitrate and the treated water no longer needs to be recirculated, operators have stopped use of the PV system. However, a mini-solar PV panel powers a flow meter to measure the volume of water moving through the wetlands system. In the Southern Area, operators used a windmill to extract contaminated perched water from a localized area of ground water underneath formerly used evaporation ponds. In recent years, a PV panel replaced the small windmill for powering a pump for continuing this de-watering operation.
For more information:
- 2009 Return to Use Demonstration Project (PDF) (2 pp, 100K, About PDF)
- Evaluating Renewable Energy Opportunities at the Apache Powder Superfund Site, Benson, AZ (PDF) (14 pp, 9.1MB, About PDF)
- CERCLIS Superfund Site Profile
Luke Air Force Base
The 4,198-acre Luke Air Force Base (LAFB) Superfund site is located in Glendale, Arizona. About 4,900 people live and work at the active fighter pilot training base, which also includes runways, airfields and aircraft maintenance facilities. In 1987, ground water tested positive for numerous hazardous contaminants including solvents, paint, waste oil, petroleum and radiological waste. About 32 areas of the base were subject to investigation. EPA added the site to the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1990. The LAFB site participated in the Installation Restoration Program, a program established by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) in 1978 to identify, investigate and control the migration of hazardous contaminants at military facilities. In 1990, the DoD signed a Federal Facilities Agreement to conduct the site cleanup plan. The remedy targeted soil remediation through excavation, installation of a soil vapor extraction system and a concrete landfill cover, and land use restrictions. EPA deleted the site from the NPL in 2002. The LAFB remains an active military base with housing, recreational fields, administrative buildings and military personnel support facilities.
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Motorola, Inc. (52nd Street Plant)
The Motorola, Inc. (52nd Street Plant) Superfund site is located in a highly urbanized region in east-central Phoenix, Arizona. EPA defines the site generally by the extent of impacted ground water that underlies a 7-mile stretch spanning from downtown Phoenix (at 7th Avenue) to just east of Sky Harbor Airport (around 52nd Street). Land use includes a mixture of residential, commercial and industrial uses. Two large facilities located within the site include the former Motorola 52nd Street Plant, a 90-acre closed semiconductor manufacturing plant, and the Honeywell International facility, a 118-acre aerospace manufacturing plant located on 34th Street. In 1982, Motorola discovered an underground storage tank leaking at its facility. Further investigations identified soil and ground water contaminated with a variety of chlorinated solvents that Motorola used in its semiconductor manufacturing operations. EPA added the site to the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1989. Motorola (now Freescale Semiconductor) began operating one ground water treatment system in 1992. Motorola and Honeywell began operating another ground water treatment system in 2001. Motorola also treated contaminated soil in 1996 and 1997. EPA, the state and potentially responsible parties are evaluating and planning for additional cleanup actions. The parties are also evaluating other potential sources of contamination.
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Phoenix-Goodyear Airport Area
The Phoenix-Goodyear Airport (PGA) Area Superfund site is located in Maricopa County, Arizona about 17 miles west of downtown Phoenix. The site includes two areas: PGA-North and PGA-South. PGA-North is the location of the former Unidynamics facility and includes three unused parcels owned by the Crane Company zoned for industrial/commercial use in the City of Goodyear. PGA-South includes the Phoenix-Goodyear Airport (property of the City of Phoenix) and adjacent commercial and industrial properties, owned by JRC Goodyear. Lockheed-Martin continues to operate on one of the properties and a manufacturer of prefabricated homes is located on another. More recent airport tenants include two airline flight schools and an aircraft maintenance company. In 1981, the state identified contaminated ground water and soil near the airport. The contamination resulted from years of industrial activities, including maintaining and operating military aircraft at the former Naval Airfield, and researching and manufacturing military detonators and explosives at the Unidynamics facility. In 1983, EPA added the site to the National Priorities List (NPL). Site cleanup includes ground water treatment, extraction of the soil vapor, and removal and capping of the contaminated soil (PGA-South only). Cleanup activities on various portions of the site continue. The Phoenix-Goodyear Airport contributes an estimate of nearly $200 million a year to the local economy.
For more information:
Tucson International Airport Area
The 10-square-mile Tucson International Airport Area (TIAA) Superfund site is located in Tucson, Arizona. The site includes the Tucson International Airport, portions of the Tohono O’odham Indian Reservation, residential areas of Tucson and South Tucson, and the Air Force Plant #44 Raytheon Missile Systems Company (AFP44). At least 20 facilities have operated on the site area since 1942, including aircraft and electronics facilities, fire drill training areas and unlined landfills. Industrial use and disposal of metals, chlorinated solvents and other wastes began in 1942 at facilities on the western portion of the airport property. Waste disposal at AFP44 began during the 1950s. Because of widespread ground water and soil contamination, EPA added the site to the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1983. Parties have treated ground water at AFP44 since 1987 and at the airport since 1994. Ongoing soil cleanup addresses metal-contaminated soils and sludges. Ongoing soil vapor extraction has removed 100,000 pounds of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the soils. Tucson International Airport remains operational. Other activities on the TIAA site include machining, surface preparation, surface coating, metal plating and missile parts assembly.
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