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HRS Rule, Section 2.4.1, page 51589

2.4.1:Selection of substance potentially posing greatest hazard. For all pathways (and threats), select the hazardous substance potentially posing the greatest hazard for the pathway (or threat) and use that substance in evaluating the waste characteristics category of the pathway (or threat). For the three migration pathways (and threats), base the selection of this hazardous substance on the toxicity factor value for the substance, combined with its mobility, persistence, and/or bioaccumulation (or ecosystem bioaccumulation) potential factor values, as applicable to the migration pathway (or threat). For the soil exposure pathway, base the selection on the toxicity factor alone.

Evaluation of the toxicity factor is specified in section 2.4.1.1. Use and evaluation of the mobility, persistence, and/or bioaccumulation (or ecosystem bioaccumulation) potential factors vary by pathway (or threat) and are specified under the appropriate pathway (or threat) section. Section 2.4.1.2 identifies the specific factors that are combined with toxicity in evaluating each pathway (or threat).

2.4.1.1:Toxicity factor. Evaluate toxicity for those hazardous substances at the site that are available to the pathway being scored. For all pathways and threats, except the surface water environmental threat, evaluate human toxicity as specified below. For the surface water environmental threat, evaluate ecosystem toxicity as specified in section 4.1.4.2.1.1.

Establish human toxicity factor values based on quantitative dose-response parameters for the following three types of toxicity:

  • Cancer ­ Use slope factors (also referred to as cancer potency factors) combined with weight­of­evidence ratings for carcinogenicity. If a slope factor is not available for a substance, use its ED10 value to estimate a slope factor as follows:

    • Slope factor = 1 / 6 (ED10)

  • Noncancer toxicological responses of chronic exposure ­  use reference dose (RfD) values.

  • Noncancer toxicological responses of acute exposure ­  use acute toxicity parameters, such as the LD50.

Assign human toxicity factor values to a hazardous substance using Table 2-4, as follows:

  • If RfD and slope factor values are both available for the hazardous substance, assign the substance a value from Table 2-4 for each. Select the higher of the two values assigned and use it as the overall toxicity factor value for the hazardous substance.

  • If either an RfD or slope factor value is available, but not both, assign the hazardous substance an overall toxicity factor value from Table 2-4 based solely on the available value (RfD or slope factor).

  • If neither an RfD nor slope factor value is available, assign the hazardous substance an overall toxicity factor value from Table 2-4 based solely on acute toxicity. That is, consider acute toxicity in Table 2-4 only when both RfD and slope factor values are not available.

  • If neither an RfD, nor slope factor, nor acute toxicity value is available, assign the hazardous substance an overall toxicity factor value of 0 and use other hazardous substances for which information is available in evaluating the pathway.

Table 2­4.­Toxicity Factor Evaluation

Chronic Toxicity (Human)
Reference dose (RfD) (mg/kg-day) Assigned value
 
RfD < 0.0005 10,000
0.0005 =< RfD < 0.005 1,000
0.005 =< RfD < 0.05 100
0.05 =< RfD < 0.5 10
0.5 RfD 1
RfD not available 0

Carcinogenicity (Human)
Weight-of-evidencea/slope factor
(mg/kg-day)-1
Assigned
value
A B C
 
0.5 =< SFb 5 =< SF 50 =< SF 10,000
0.05 =< SF < 0.5 0.5 =< SF < 5 5 =< SF < 50 1,000
SF < 0.05 0.05 =< SF < 0.5 0.5 =< SF < 5 100
­ ­ ­ SF < 0.05 SF < 0.5 10
Slope factor not available. Slope factor not available. Slope factor not available. 0

a A, B, and C refer to weight-of-evidence categories. Assign substances with a weight-of-evidence category of D (inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity) or E (evidence of lack of carcinogenicity) a value of 0 for carcinogenicity.

b SF = Slope factor.

Acute Toxicity (Human)
Oral LD50 (mg/Kg) Dermal LD50 (mg/Kg) Dust or mist LC50 (mg/L) Gas or vapor LC50 (ppm) Assigned value
 
LD50 < 5 LD50 < 2 LC50 < 0.2 LC50 < 20 1,000
5 =< LD50 < 50 2 =< LD50 < 20 0.2 =< LC50 < 2 20 =< LC50 < 200 100
50 =< LD50 < 500 20 =< LD50 < 200 2 =< LC50 < 20 200 =< LC50 < 2,000 10
500 =< LD50 200 =< LD50 20 =< LC50 2,000 =< LC50 1
LD50 not available LD50 not available LC50 not available LC50 not available 0

If a toxicity factor value of 0 is assigned to all hazardous substances available to a particular pathway (that is, insufficient toxicity data are available for evaluating all the substances), use a default value of 100 as the overall human toxicity factor value for all hazardous substances available to the pathway. For hazardous substances having usable toxicity data for multiple exposure routes (for example, inhalation and ingestion), consider all exposure routes and use the highest assigned value, regardless of exposure route, as the toxicity factor value.

For HRS purposes, assign both asbestos and lead (and its compounds) a human toxicity factor value of 10,000.

Separate criteria apply for assigning factor values for human toxicity and ecosystem toxicity for radionuclides (see sections 7.2.1 and 7.2.2).

2.4.1.2:Hazardous substance selection. For each hazardous substance evaluated for a migration pathway (or threat), combine the human toxicity factor value (or ecosystem toxicity factor value) for the hazardous substance with a mobility, persistence, and/or bioaccumulation (or ecosystem bioaccumulation) potential factor value as follows:

  • Ground water migration.

    • Determine a combined human toxicity/mobility factor value for the hazardous substance (see section 3.2.1).

  • Surface water migration-overland/flood migration component.

    • Determine a combined human toxicity/persistence factor value for the hazardous substance for the drinking water threat (see section 4.1.2.2.1).

    • Determine a combined human toxicity/persistence/bioaccumulation factor value for the hazardous substance for the human food chain threat (see section 4.1.3.2.1).

    • Determine a combined ecosystem toxicity/persistence/bioaccumulation factor value for the hazardous substance for the environmental threat (see section 4.1.4.2.1).

  • Surface water migration-ground water to surface water migration component.

    • Determine a combined human toxicity/mobility/persistence factor value for the hazardous substance for the drinking water threat (see section 4.2.2.2.1).

    • Determine a combined human toxicity/mobility/persistence/bioaccumulation factor value for the hazardous substance for the human food chain threat (see section 4.2.3.2.1).

    • Determine a combined ecosystem toxicity/mobility/persistence/bioaccumulation factor value for the hazardous substance for the environmental threat (see section 4.2.4.2.1).

  • Air migration.

    • Determine a combined human toxicity/mobility factor value for the hazardous substance (see section 6.2.1).

Determine each combined factor value for a hazardous substance by multiplying the individual factor values appropriate to the pathway (or threat). For each migration pathway (or threat) being evaluated, select the hazardous substance with the highest combined factor value and use that substance in evaluating the waste characteristics factor category of the pathway (or threat).

For the soil exposure pathway, select the hazardous substance with the highest human toxicity factor value from among the substances that meet the criteria for observed contamination for the threat evaluated and use that substance in evaluating the waste characteristics factor category.

 

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