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Waste and Cleanup Risk Assessment

Superfund Risk Assessment: Human Health: Exposure Assessment

  1. Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund, Volume I - Human Health Evaluation Manual
    Part A: Baseline Risk Assessment (1989)
    Supplement to Part A: Community Involvement in Superfund Risk Assessments (1999)
    The purpose of this guidance document is to provide the site team—risk assessor, remedial project manager (RPM), and community involvement coordinator—with information to improve community involvement in the Superfund risk assessment process
    Part B: Development of Risk-based Preliminary Remediation Goals (1991)
    Part C: Risk Evaluation of Remedial Alternatives (1991)
    Part D: Standardized Planning, Reporting and Review of Superfund Risk Assessments (2001)
    Part E: Supplemental Guidance for Dermal Risk Assessment (2004)
    Part F: Supplemental Guidance for Inhalation Risk Assessment (2009)

    Beginning in 1989, the EPA Superfund Program began releasing its Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) in three volumes. Volume I addressed human health, and continues to be used. Parts D, E and F were subsequently released to supplement Parts A, B and C of Volume I. RAGS Volume III provides guidance on Probabilistic Risk Assessment, which can be used for both human health and ecological risk assessment, and also continues to be used. RAGS Volume II addressed ecological risk. RAGS Volume II is not provided on this website because it has been replaced by other guidance addressing ecological risk for Superfund Sites.

  2. Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) Volume III - Part A: Process for Conducting Probabilistic Risk Assessment (2001)
  3. Land Use in the CERCLA Remedy Selection Process
    OSWER Directive No. 9355.7-04. This directive presents additional information for considering land use in making remedy selection decisions under CERCLA at NPL sites.
  4. Standard Default Exposure Factors for Superfund sites (28 pp, 203K,)
  5. National Center for Environmental Assessment, "Guidelines for Exposure Assessment"
  6. National Center for Environmental Assessment, "Exposure Factors Handbook"
    1. New Policy on Evaluating Health Risks to Children (October 20, 1995)
  7. Summary Report of a Peer Involvement Workshop on the Development of an Exposure Factors Handbook for the Aging, February 2007
  8. EPA National Center for Environmental Assessment, Guide to Current Literature on Exposure Factors.
    1. Web site summarizing sources of latest information on exposure factors.
    2. The EPA National Center for Environmental Assessment's 2008 Child-Specific Exposure Factors Handbook
  9. Johnson and Ettinger (1991) Model for Subsurface Vapor Intrusion into Buildings
  10. OSWER Draft Guidance for Evaluating the Vapor Intrusion to Indoor Air Pathway (178 pp, 1.92MB, About PDF)
  11. The Department of Defense (DoD) 2009 Vapor Intrusion Handbook (PDF) (171 pp, 1MB, About PDF) is a tool to assist with evaluating and investigating the vapor intrusion pathway at DoD sites.
    NOTE: The document is stored on DOD's Defense Environmental Network and Information Exhange (DENIX) server. DENIX uses a secure web server using HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure). After clicking on the link, continue to the server to access the document.
  12. The EPA/OSWER Office of Solid Waste (OSW) has developed an approach for conducting multi-pathway, site-specific human health risk assessments on hazardous waste combustion facilities. The technical approach presented in the combustion guidance may be useful when combustion risk is assessed on a Superfund site.
  13. Additional Information from EPA's National Center for Environmental Assessment on Probabilistic Risk Assessment
  14. EPA Superfund's "Process for Conducting Probabilistic Risk Assessment", RAGS Volume III, Part A
  15. Cumulative Risk Assessment Guidance-Phase I- Planning and Scoping Guidance on Cumulative Risk Assessment, (Part 1)
  16. Superfund’s "Soil Screening Guidance", 1996, and 2002
    1. Calculator for site-specific chemical soil screening levels
  17. The following link contains information on addressing asbestos at Superfund sites
  18. For lead risk assessment documents, please visit this webpage
  19. EPA Radiation Risk Assessment Guidance for CERCLA Sites
  20. The EPA Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics has developed software in its Estimation Program Interface ("EPI") which provides physical and chemical properties on contaminants.
  21. Determining Groundwater Exposure Point Concentrations (PDF) (20 pp, 3.85MB, About PDF)
  22. Update of Standard Default Exposure Factors (PDF) (7 pp, 1MB, About PDF)
  23. FAQs About Update of Standard Default Exposure Factors (PDF) (4 pp, 171KB, About PDF)

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