Remediation And Treatment
These pages provide information on the remediation and treatment of oxygenate contamination. Additional resources are available regarding the remediation of ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) on other pages. For additional oxygenates topics, return to the oxygenates main page.
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- A Circle Vicious: What Do We Know About the Other Oxygenates?
(PDF) (5 pp, 286K, About PDF) Undated.
Published in L.U.S.T. Line, a technical newsletter for underground storage tank stakeholders, this article presents information on ether oxygenates and ethanol. Remediation technologies are discussed.
- Achieving Clean Air and Clean Water: The Report of the Blue Ribbon Panel on Oxygenates in Gasoline (PDF) (119 pp, 481K, About PDF) 1999. EPA420-R-99-021.
Prepared by the Blue Ribbon Panel on Oxygenates in Gasoline, this report studies the impacts of fuel oxygenates on human health and the environment. Remediation, water contamination, air quality, and release prevention are discussed. Impacts of ethanol and MTBE are compared.
- Guidelines for Investigation and Cleanup of MTBE and Other Ether-Based Oxygenates (PDF) (20 pp, 72K, About PDF) 2000.
Prepared by California's State Water Resource Control Board, this document provides guidance to California regulatory agencies on overseeing the investigation and cleanup of sites with MTBE contamination.
- Publications on Remediation 2009.
Prepared by EPA, this Web page provides links to resources on remediation, including the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable remediation abstracts.
Bioremediation, Phytoremediation, And Natural Attenuation
- Anaerobic Biodegradation of Gasoline Oxygenates: Extrapolation of Information to Multiple Sites and Redox Conditions 1994.
Published in Environmental Science & Technology, this paper presents the results of a study on the susceptibility to anaerobic decay of alcohol, ketone, ester, and ether oxygenates in sediment environments.
- Anaerobic Biodegradation of Known and Potential Gasoline Oxygenates in the Terrestrial Subsurface 2003.
Published in Environmental Science & Technology, this paper presents research results exploring the susceptibility of oxygenates to anaerobic decay and structural features that favor or retard this decay in an effort to identify oxygenates that may be more acceptable than currently-used additives.
- Anaerobic Biotransformation of Fuel Oxygenates under Sulfate-Reducing Conditions 2001.
Published in Microbiology Ecology, this paper presents the results of research on the anaerobic biotransformation of MTBE, ETBE, and TAME under different anoxic electron-accepting conditions.
- Biodegradation of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether and Other Fuel Oxygenates by a New Strain, Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012 2002.
Published in Applied Environmental Microbiology, this paper presents research results on the effect of a methylotrophic bacterium on the biodegradation of MTBE and other oxygenates.
- Bioremediation of Groundwater Contaminated with Gasoline Hydrocarbons and Oxygenates Using a Membrane-Based Reactor 2006.
Published in Environmental Science & Technology, this paper presents the results of a study on the use of a field-scale aerobic bioreactor in the ex-situ treatment of ground water contaminated with gasoline from a leaking underground storage tank in Pascoag, Rhode Island.
- Clu-In Technology Focus: Natural Attenuation 2006.
Prepared by EPA's Technology Innovation Program, this Web page provides links to numerous reports related to natural attenuation.
- Rate of Natural Attenuation of Tert-Butyl Alcohol at a Chemical Plant 2003.
Published in Soil and Sediment Contamination, this paper presents evidence of natural attenuation of TBA in ground water at a chemical plant in Pasadena, Texas.
- Relationship Between Subsurface Biodegradation Rates and Microbial Density 1989.
Published in Environmental Science & Technology, this paper presents the results of research on the rates and patterns of biodegradation of methanol, phenol, and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) in surface and subsurface soils.
- Technical Protocol for Evaluating the Natural Attenuation of MTBE (PDF) (186 pp, 2.8MB, About PDF) 2007.
Prepared by the American Petroleum Institute, this protocol addresses data collection, evaluation, and interpretation procedures that consider the physical, chemical, and biological properties of MTBE and other oxygenates and degradation byproducts.
- Using Phytoremediation to Control Fuel Oxygenate Plumes in Northern Climates 2008.
Prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), this Web page provides information on work conducted by USGS scientists and their partners on the use of phytoremediation to contain and remediate a subsurface plume of gasoline located on the Flathead Indian Reservation near Ronan, Montana. Links to reports and additional resources are included.
- Demonstration and Evaluation of an Automated Infiltration Gallery System at Port Hueneme, CA (PDF) (109 pp, 4.5MB, About PDF) 2008. EPA/600/R-08/068.
This EPA paper presents the results of research on the treatment of fuel components using a remotely operated infiltration gallery.
- High Voltage Environmental
Applications, Inc. Electron Beam Technology: Innovative Technology Evaluation Report (PDF) (66 pp, 206K, About PDF) 1997. EPA/540/R-96/504.
Prepared by EPA's Office of Research and Development, this report evaluates the ability of high-voltage electron beam (E-beam) technology to destroy volatile organic compounds (VOC) and other contaminants present in liquid wastes.
- In-line Ozone and Hydrogen Peroxide Treatment for Removal of Organic Chemicals 1992.
Published in by the Water Research Foundation, this report presents the results of a study on the effectiveness of an in-line application of ozone and hydrogen peroxide to remove organic chemicals at much higher pressures than those in conventional ozone and hydrogen peroxide dissolution and contacting systems.
- In-Situ Chemical Oxidation (PDF) (60 pp, 2.6MB, About PDF) 2006. EPA/600/R-06/072.
One of a series of EPA Engineering Issue Papers, which summarize the latest available information on specific technical issues. This paper provides an overview of in-situ chemical oxidation remediation technology and fundamentals.
- Removing Organics From Groundwater Through Aeration Plus GAC 1984.
Published in the journal of the American Water Works Association, this paper presents the details on the design, operation, and performance of GAC and aeration systems employed at a site in New Jersey.
- Technologies for Treating MtBE and Other Fuel Oxygenates (PDF) (106 pp, 2.26MB, About PDF) 2004. EPA 542-R-04-009.
Prepared by EPA's Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation, this report provides information on technologies used in the remediation of MTBE and other oxygenate contamination.
- Treatment of Groundwater Contaminated with PAHs, Gasoline Hydrocarbons, and Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether in a Laboratory Biomass-Retaining Bioreactor 2006.
Published in Bioremediation, this paper presents the results of a study investigating use of an ex-situ aerobic biotreatment system in the treatment of co-mingled ground water contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), gasoline hydrocarbons, and MTBE.
Workshops And Symposia
- ASTSWMO 2002 State Symposium on Fuel Oxygenates; Analysis, Assessment, and Remediation 2002.
These session highlights from an Association of State and Territorial Solid Waste Management Officials (ASTSWMO) symposium include a workshop summary and links to presentations.
- Oxygenate Contamination: Workshop Report (PDF) (228 pp, 10.3MB, About PDF) 2000.
This report prepared by National Water Research Institute, presents the outcome of a workshop to identify, prioritize, and discuss the most important issues in oxygenate contamination and remediation.
- Wilson, R.D., M. Schirmer, C.N. Naas, A. Smith, C. Smith, K.M. Scow, M.R. Hyman, and D.M. Mackay. Laboratory-Scale Evaluation of In Situ Aerobic MTBE Biodegradation Options for Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. 1999. Proceedings of the 2000 Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Organic Chemicals in Ground Water: Prevention, Detection, and Remediation. Houston, Texas November 17-19, 1999.