Tertiary-Amyl Methyl Ether (TAME)
These resources provide information on tertiary-amyl methyl ether (TAME) (synonyms: tert-pentyl methyl ether, butane, 2-methoxy-2-methyl, 2-methoxy-2-methyl butane, methyl 1,1-dimethyl propyl ether, methyl tert-amyl ether, and methyl 2-methyl-2-butyl ether), including its chemical properties, fate and transport, handling, and health impacts. For information on other oxygenates, return to the oxygenates main page.
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- Reference Outline: Toxicological Review of Tertiary Amyl Methyl Ether (CAS No. 994-05-8) (PDF) (21 pp, 127K, About PDF) Undated.
This outline provides summary data and references related to a variety of TAME-related issues, including chemical and physical properties, toxicokinetics, and human health studies.
Assessment, Characterization, And Analysis
- A Simple Gas Chromatographic Method for the Analysis of Oxygenates in Gasoline 1995.
Published in Chromatographia, this paper presents the research results related to the use of a packed column gas chromatographic method in the analysis of C1-C4 alcohols, MTBE, and TAME in gasoline.
- GC/MS Analysis of MTBE, ETBE, and TAME in Gasolines 1994.
Published in Analytical Chemistry, this paper presents the results of research on the use of analysis of MTBE, ETBE, and TAME in gasoline.
- Laboratory Method for Analysis of Small Concentrations of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether and Other Ether Gasoline Oxygenates in Water 1998.
Prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey, this fact sheet presents a method using purge-and-trap capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the analysis of nanogram-per-liter concentrations of MTBE, TAME, DIPE, and ETBE.
Characteristics And Chemical Properties
- Identification of Environmental Hazards of Gasoline Oxygenate Tert-Amyl Methyl Ether (TAME) 1997.
This Elseveier Science Ltd. paper presents information on the physico-chemical and environmental properties of TAME.
- Tert-Amyl Methyl Ether Information Undated.
Prepared by ChemicalLand21, this Web page provides general information on TAME.
Handling And Use
- Oxygenate Compatibility and Permeability Report (PDF) (18 pp, 61K, About PDF)1999.
This UST Team 1 report presents the results of a literature review and industry survey to explore the compatibility of oxygenates including methanol, ethanol, MTBE, ETBE, TAME, and DIPE with materials used in underground storage tank systems.
Health And Safety
- A Physiological Model for Tert-Amyl Methyl Ether and Tert-Amyl Alcohol: Hypothesis Testing of Model Structures 1999.
Published in Toxicological Sciences, this paper presents the results of a study using a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model to describe the disposition of TAME and its major metabolite, TAA, in male Fischer-344 rats.
- Customer Exposure to MTBE, TAME, C6 Alkyl Methyl Ethers, and Benzene During Gasoline Refueling 1999.
Published in Environmental Health Perspectives, this paper presents the results of a study on the exposure to customers during refueling.
- Developmental Toxicity Evaluation of Inhaled Tertiary Amyl Methyl Ether in Mice and Rats 2003.
Published in Applied Toxicology, this paper presents the results of a developmental toxicity hazard identification study on TAME vapor inhalation exposure in two pregnant rodent species.
- Rat Olfactory Mucosa Displays a High Activity in Metabolizing Methyl tert-butyl Ether and Other Gasoline Ethers (PDF) (6 pp, 457K, About PDF)1997.
Published in Applied Toxicology, this paper presents the results of research on the ability of the olfactory mucosa of rats to metabolize MTBE, ETBE, and TAME.
- Toxicokinetics of Ethers Used as Fuel Oxygenates 2001.
This Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. paper summarizes the toxicokinetics and biotransformation of MTBE, ETBE, and TAME in rats and humans.
- Toxicology and Human Health Effects Following Exposure to Oxygenated or Reformulated Gasoline 2001.
Published in Toxicology Letters, this paper reviews the current understanding of the toxicology and health impacts of MTBE, ETBE, TAME, and ethanol. Environmental exposure, compound fate and health risks, epidemiological and clinical studies, animal studies, metabolic and kinetic studies, and regulatory classification/response are discussed.
Remediation And Treatment
- Carbon Isotopic Fractionation During Anaerobic Biotransformation of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether and Tert-Amyl Methyl Ether 2004.
Published in Environmental Science & Technology, this paper presents the results of a study on the potential of applying carbon isotope fractionation as an indicator for in situ biodegradation of MTBE and TAME.
Transport And Fate
- Anaerobic Biotransformation of Fuel Oxygenates under Sulfate-Reducing Conditions 2001.
Published in Microbiology Ecology, this paper presents the results of research on the anaerobic biotransformation of MTBE, ETBE, and TAME under different anoxic electron-accepting conditions.
- Evaluation of the Impact of Fuel Hydrocarbons and Oxygenates on Groundwater Resources 2004.
Published in Environmental Science & Technology, this paper presents the results of a study evaluating the potential for ground water resource contamination by fuel hydrocarbons and oxygenates, including TBA, TAME, DIPE, ETBE, and MTBE. Occurrence, distribution, and spatial extent in ground water beneath leaking underground storage tanks are discussed.
- Cowan, R.M., and K. Park. Biodegradation of the Gasoline Oxygenates MTBE, ETBE, TAME, TBA, and TAA by Aerobic Mixed Cultures. 1996. Proceedings of the 28th Mid Atlantic Industrial and Hazardous Waste Conference, Buffalo, New York, July 15-17, 1996. 523-530.