Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Program

2012 TRI National Analysis: Indian Country and Alaska Native Villages

TRI facilities that reported Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) codes to TRI in 2012.* View Larger Map



         Quick Facts for 2012

Number of TRI Facilities: 37
Total On-site and Off-site Disposal
or Other Releases:
10.3 million lbs
Total On-site: 10.1 million lbs
• Air: 723 thousand lbs
• Water: 1,544 lbs
• Land: 9.4 million lbs
Total Off-site: 247 thousand lbs

View definitions of Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) terms

Congress has delegated authority to EPA to ensure that environmental programs designed to protect human health and the environment are carried out throughout the United States, including on tribal lands. EPA's policy is to work with tribes on a government-to-government basis to protect the land, air, and water in Indian country and to support tribal assumption of program authority.

Presented here is an analysis of 2012 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data relating to federally-recognized tribes in the lower 48 states and Alaska Native Villages (ANVs) as depicted by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management’s Alaska State Office. This analysis shows facilities that believe their facility is in Indian country and reported Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) codes to EPA for 2012.

The 2012 TRI data show:*

  • There were 37 TRI facilities located on lands of 16 federally-recognized Indian tribes in 2012.
  • These 37 facilities disposed of or otherwise released 10.3 million pounds of toxic chemicals in 2012.
  • Two electric utilities located on the Navajo Nation Reservation accounted for almost half of the total disposal or other releases in Indian country and Alaskan Native villages.
  • On-site land disposal accounted for 91% of total disposal or other releases, and 78% of this was due to releases from the two electric utilities on the Navajo Nation Reservation and one metal mine on the Tohono O'odham Nation of Arizona.
  • One of the electric utilities on the Navajo Nation land accounted for 33% of all air releases from facilities located on lands of federally-recognized Indian tribes.

The table below lists the 16 Indian tribes and Alaska Native Villages that had at least one TRI facility reporting 2012 data, and shows which industry sector and chemicals accounted for the majority of disposal or other releases in each area. Click on the number of facilities for more information about those facilities including chemicals released, quantities released, parent company, and facility contacts.

Indian Tribes and Alaska Native Villages State(s) Number of Facilities Total On-site and
Off-site Disposal or
Other Releases (lbs)
Primary Industry
Sector(s) (% of disposal or other releases)
Primary Chemical(s)
(% of disposal or
other releases)
Navajo Nation Arizona and New Mexico 2 5,009,222 Electric Utilities (100%) Barium and Its compounds (65%)
Tohono O'odham Nation Arizona 1 3,117,042 Metal Mining (100%) Lead and Its compounds (81%)
Ute Indian Tribe of the Uintah & Ouray Reservation Utah 1 1,591,567 Electric Utilities (100%) Barium and Its compounds (84%)
Cherokee Nation Oklahoma 1 224,522 Transportation Equipment (100%) Nitric Acid (85%)
Puyallup Tribe of the Puyallup Reservation Washington 9 173,707 Petroleum (73%) Ammonia (49%)
Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation Washington 3 161,264 Plastics and Rubber (100%) Styrene (94%)
Coeur D'Alene Tribe Idaho 2 39,302 Wood Products (100%) Methanol (99%)
Sisseton-Wahpeton Oyate of the Lake Traverse Reservation South Dakota 1 11,059 Chemicals (100%) Acetaldehyde (70%)
Rincon Band of Luiseno Mission Indians of the Rincon Reservation California 1 6,669 Transportation Equipment (100%) Styrene (100%)
Arapaho Tribe of the Wind River Reservation and Shoshone Tribe of the Wind River Reservation Wyoming 1 1,644 Chemicals (100%) Sulfuric acid (100%)
Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe Michigan 1 1,415 Machinery (100%) Chromium (62%)
Tulalip Tribes of Washington Washington 1 1,280 Primary Metals (100%) Nickel Compounds/Chromium Compounds (80%)
Oneida Tribe of Indians Wisconsin 4 526 Chemicals (99%) Methanol (95%)
Gila River Indian Community of the Gila River Indian Reservation Arizona 7 295 Primary Metals (100%) Cooper (97%)
Colorado River Indian Tribes of the Colorado River Indian Reservation Arizona 1 30 Hazardous Waste Management (100%) 1,2-Dichloroethane/Benzene/Toluene (100%)
Quapaw Tribe of Indians Oklahoma 1 0 Chemicals (100%) Chlorine (100%)

Although there are 37 TRI facilities on the lands of federally-recognized Indian tribes reported, there are 1,587 facilities on or within a 10-mile buffer of these lands. For more information about facilities in or near Indian country and ANVs, you can use TRI Explorer's facility report feature and choose "On or Near All Tribal Land" or "On or Near Selected Tribal Land" within the tool’s Geographic Location drop-down menu.

*Please note: Some data quality issues may affect this analysis. This is the first year that EPA has required facilities located in Indian country to submit TRI reporting forms to the appropriate tribal government and EPA, instead of to the state and EPA. As a part of this requirement, facilities located within Indian country must report the corresponding Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) three-digit code to identify them with a tribe.

EPA is currently working to identify and resolve any data quality issues associated with this new requirement. For example, some facilities in Indian country may not have reported a BIA code, and so they would not appear in this analysis. Facilities may, however, revise their TRI submissions at any time and EPA is currently working to address these issues.

For the most current version of the TRI data, see the Envirofacts TRI Search tool. As of the release of the RY 2012 National Analysis, tribal filter options for this tool are still under development. You may filter the TRI data, at the tribal level, in a variety of ways using TRI Explorer. Tribal options appear under the geography filter for several of the report types. Typically, TRI Explorer will be updated two to three months after the National Analysis is released.

Note: This page was published in February 2014 and uses the TRI National Analysis dataset made public in TRI Explorer in November 2013.