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Technology Transfer Network - Air Toxics Web Site

Rule and Implementation Information for the Pulp and Paper Sector

Announcements

 

This website focuses on the air regulations associated with the pulp and paper industry, particularly the subpart S National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (i.e., the pulp and paper production MACTs [MACT I and III]), the subpart MM NESHAP (i.e., the chemical recovery MACT [MACT II]), and the subpart BB New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for kraft pulp mills. Additionally, this website references the effluent limitations guidelines, pretreatment standards, and NSPS developed by the EPA's Office of Water, as appropriate. The effluent standards, etc. are available on the Cluster Rule Website.

  • Subpart S NESHAP: Controls HAP emissions from the pulp and paper production areas of mills using kraft, sulfite, semichemical, and soda pulping processes (i.e., MACT I sources) and from mills using mechanical, secondary fiber, and non-wood pulping, and paper making systems at all mills (i.e., MACT III sources).
  • Subpart MM NESHAP: Controls HAP emissions from the chemical recovery combustion areas of the mills (i.e., MACT II sources).
  • Subparts BB and BBa NSPS: Controls particulate matter and total reduced sulfur (TRS) compounds from sources at kraft pulp mills.

On this page:


Rule Information

The pulp and paper MACT standards and amendments are available in the Code of Federal Regulations in Title 40 CFR Part 63. Standards for both MACT I and III are integrated into one subpart (subpart S). MACT II standards are in a separate subpart (subpart MM). The NSPS and amendments are available in the Code of Federal Regulations in Title 40 CFR Part 60.

Federal Register Notices:

Date Citation Action Description File Download
04/04/14 79FR18952 Final Rule Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Final Review

05/23/13 78FR31315 Proposed Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review

09/11/12 77FR55698 Final National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Pulp and Paper Industry; Final Rule/Residual Risk and Technology
12/27/11 76FR81328 Proposed National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Pulp and Paper Industry; Proposed Rule/Residual Risk and Technology
11/02/04 69FR63452 Direct Final Approval of Section 112(l) Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Equivalency by Permit Provisions; National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Pulp and Paper Industry; State of Georgia-Direct Final
05/06/04 69FR63489 Proposed Approval of Section 112(l) Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Equivalency by Permit Provisions; National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Pulp and Paper Industry; State of Georgia-Proposed
05/06/04 69FR25321 Technical
Corrections
National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Recovery Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills: subpart MM Final rule; technical corrections
04/13/04 69FR19733 Direct Final Rule Site-Specific Rulemaking for Packaging Corporation of America's Pulp and Paper Mill Located in Tomahawk, WI, Pursuant to the Joint State/EPA Agreement To Pursue Regulatory Innovation
04/13/04 69FR19742 Proposal Site-Specific Rulemaking for Packaging Corporation of America's Pulp and Paper Mill Located in Tomahawk, WI, in Pursuant to the Joint State/ EPA Agreement To Pursue Regulatory Innovation; Direct Final Rule and Proposed Rule
07/18/03 68FR42603 Amendment National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Recovery Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills-Amendment
05/08/03 68FR24653 Correction National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Recovery Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills-Correcting administrative amendments; change in effective date.
02/18/03 68FR7706 Direct Final Rule National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Recovery Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills-Amendments
08/06/01 66FR41086 correction National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Recovery Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills-correction
07/19/01 66FR37593 Final rule; technical corrections National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Recovery Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills-correction
01/22/01 66FR6922 Final Rule Amendments Subpart S Includes amendments to Appendix C that adds "multiple zone" compliance procedures for biological treatment systems used by MACT I standards.
01/12/01 66FR3180 Final Rule Final rule for MACT II covers chemical recovery combustion sources
12/22/00 65FR80755 Final Rule Amendments Amendments to add alternatives to the testing and monitoring of boilers and open biological treatment units used for air pollution control in the MACT I rule.
01/25/00 65FR3907 Proposed Rule Amendments Proposed amendments to add alternatives to the testing and monitoring of boilers and open biological treatment units used for air pollution control in the MACT I rule.
12/28/98 63FR71385 Direct final rule, & proposed rule Amendments to MACT I rule establishing an alternative bleach plant MACT standard for mills enrolled in the Voluntary Advanced Technology Incentives Program.  
09/16/98 63FR49455 Final Rule: interpretation and technical amendment Amendments to MACT I rule regarding applicability to excess emission allowance for condensate treatment systems.
08/07/98 63FR42238 Final Rule: correction Correction of minor errors on the 4-15-98 notice (63 FR 18504) above. PDF File
04/15/98 63FR18755 Proposal Proposal of the MACT II chemical recovery combustion Sources PDF File
04/15/98 63FR18504 Final Rules Final Rule for MACT I & III production areas of the mill. Final effluent limitations guidelines, pretreatment standards, and new source performance standards developed by EPA's Office of Water PDF File PDF File PDF File PDF File PDF File
07/15/96 61FR36835 Notice of Availability Describes goals for environmental improvement and frame work for effluent limitations guidelines, pretreatment standards, and new source performance standards for this industry  PDF File
03/08/96 61FR9383 Supplemental Information, Proposed Rule, & Open Comment Period Supplemental information was provided on the MACT I production rule. Proposed rules for the MACT III production areas. ZIP File
12/17/93 58FR66078 Proposal Cluster Rule Proposal (Includes proposal of MACT I production rules) ZIP File

NOTES: Citations not marked with an asterisk are to the page where the regulatory text begins. Citations marked with an asterisk do not contain preamble text and are to the page where the entry begins.  All files are Government Printing Office (GPO) files unless otherwise indicated.

Closely Related Rules, Policies or Program Guidance

40 CFR 430 Effluent Guidelines and Standards -- Pulp, Paper, and Paper Board Point Source Category
Other MACTs: Paper And Other Web (Film and Foil) Paper Coating MACT
  Industrial/Commercial/Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters MACT

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Technical Information

Emissions Data

The following file (PulpPaper_ModFile_20141103.zip) (11.9 MB) provides facility-wide emissions for major sources that submitted data in response to the 2011 data collection survey. This file includes updates provided to EPA during the Risk and Technology Review of the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Pulp and Paper Industry (subpart S) comment period and other updates provided by facilities. If you have any questions, concerns, or updates regarding this data, please contact Kelley Spence at spence.kelley@epa.gov.

Estimating Air Emissions from Wastewater

WATER9 is a Windows based computer program for estimating air emissions of individual waste constituents in wastewater/waste. Further information or a copy of the WATER 9 can be obtained from EPA (http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/software/water/index.html ). You can also contact the Air Emissions Model Hotline at (919) 541-5610 for support or more information about this model.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Pulp and paper manufacturing is subject to the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. Information regarding available and emerging technologies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from pulp and paper manufacturing can be found here.

Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review - Background Information Documents

All background information documents for the Kraft Pulp Mill NSPS Review can be found in the following docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2012-0640 at www.regulations.gov. The Response to Comments Document, Technology Review Memo, and Economic Impact Analysis are included below.

03/2014 Response to Public Comments on May 23, 2013 Proposal PDF File
1.4 MB
05/2013 Economic Impact Analysis for the Section 111(b) Review of the Kraft Pulp Mills New Source Performance Standards subpart BB PDF File
27k
05/2013 Technology Review and Regulatory Options for the Kraft Pulp Mill NSPS PDF File
5.6 MB

 

Pulp and Paper Subpart S RTR - Background Information Documents

All background information documents for the subpart S Risk and Technology review are available in the docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2007-0544 at www.regulations.gov. The Response to Comments Document, Technology Review Memo, Risking Modeling Inputs Memo, Risk Assessment Memo, and Economic Impact Analysis are included below.

09/2012 Response to Public Comments on December 27, 2011 Proposal PDF File
09/2012 Economic Impact Analysis - NESHAP subpart S for Pulp and Paper Revisions PDF File
09/2012 Final Risk Assessment for the Pulp and Paper Source Category PDF File
8.7 MB
12/2011 Inputs to the Pulp and Paper Industry October 2011 Residual Risk Modeling PDF File
12/2011 Section 112(d)(6) Technology Review for Pulping and Papermaking Processes PDF File

 

Other Background Information Documents

Background documents from the original rulemakings are included below.

07/1999 "Technical Support Document for Evaluation of Aerobic Biological Treatment Units with Multiple Mixing Zones", US EPA, OAR, OAQPS, Waste and Chemicals Process Group, RTP, NC. PDF File
01/1998 Chemical Recovery Combustion Sources at U.S. Sulfite Pulp Mills, EPA, OAR, OAQPS. Draft.Three Parts. PDF File PDF File PDF File
10/1997 Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard Industry - Background Information for Promulgated Air Emission Standards, Manufacturing Processes at Kraft, Sulfite, Soda, Semi-Chemical Mills, Mechanical, and Secondary and Non-wood Fiber Mills, US EPA, OAR, OAQPS, October 1997, EPA-453/R-93-050b. 
07/1997 Revised Draft,Chemical Pulping Emission Factor Development Document, Prepared for: U.S. EPA, OAQPS. ZIP File
10/1996 Technical Support Document: Chemical Recovery Combustion Sources at Kraft and Soda Pulp Mills, US EPA, OAR, OAQPS, EPA-453/R-96-012. ZIP File
10/1993 Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard Industry - Background Information for Proposed Air Emission Standards, Manufacturing Processes at Kraft, Sulfite, Soda, and Semi-Chemical Mills, US EPA, OAR, OAQPS. EPA-453/R-93-050a

 

FACT Sheets

04/2014 Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review - Final
05/2013 Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review - Proposal
09/2012 Subpart S NESHAP - Final Rule/Residual Risk and Technology Review
12/2011 Subpart S NESHAP - Proposed Rule/Residual Risk and Technology Review
08/2003 National Emission Standards to Control Hazardous Air Pollutants Emitted from Pulp and Paper Mills
04/1998 Series of Cluster Rule fact sheets.
08/1998 Interpretive and technical amendments to the final air toxics regulation for pulp and paper production
12/1998 Direct Final Amendment: Alternative Bleach Plant Standard for VATIP Mills
03/1999 Direct Final Rule on Interpretation and Technical Amendments
01/2000 Proposed Amendments on the Testing and Monitoring of Boilers and Open Biological Treament Units used for Air Pollution Control
12/2000 Final Amendments on the Testing and Monitoring of Boilers and Open Biological Treament Units used for Air Pollution Control

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Implementation Information

Enabling Documents

04/2004 Additional Information from EPA/OAQPS on the Clean Condensate Alternative in subpart S
03/2003 Letter on clarification of the Clean Condensate Alternative, To Larry Webber, Georgia DNR from Doug Neeley, EPA R4, March 27, 2003.
For support and information on Water 9 Model
03/2001 Letter on Performance Specifications and Applicability of 63.8 for CMS
05/2001 Letter on UNOX Systems and NCASI Test Methods, Letter to Larry Price, Smurfit Stone Container Corp., from J. David Mobly, Emissions Monitoring and Analysis Division, US EPA.
280KB
11/1999 Letter on Pulp and Paper MACT Condensate Averaging Times, Letter to R.W. Gore, Chief of Air Division, Alabama Dept. of Environmental Management, from W.A. Smith, Director, Air, Pesticides and Toxics Management Division, EPA Region IV.
09/1999 Questions and Answers (Q&A's) for Pulp and Paper NESHAP (40 CFR Part 63, subpart S), US EPA/OAR/OAQPS, Waste and Chemicals Processes Group, RTP, NC.
12/1997 Summary Flow Diagrams of the Pulp and Paper MACT Standard, Revised, US EPA/OAR/OAQPS, Waste and Chemicals Processes Group, RTP, NC.

 

Test Method Lead: Raymond Merrill, EPA, Office of Air and Radiation
Compliance Lead: Ayres Sara, EPA, Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance
Applicability Leads:  Contact the local or State air pollution permit authority for applicability determinations. The EPA regional office contacts (PDF) (1pg, 16k) can provide information on the permit authority.
Effluent Leads:  See Cluster Rule OW Contacts

 

Final Rule Summary Documents

12/1997 Summary Flow Diagrams of the Pulp and Paper MACT Standard, Revised, US EPA/OAR/OAQPS, Waste and Chemicals Processes Group, RTP, NC.
09/2001 Pulp and Paper NESHAP: A Plain English Description , EPA, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, EPA-456/R-01-002
  Pulp and Paper NESHAP: A Plain English Description , EPA, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, EPA-456/R-01-002-Flowchart Summary
  Pulp and Paper NESHAP: A Plain English Description , EPA, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, EPA-456/R-01-002-Control Requirements
  Pulp and Paper NESHAP: A Plain English Description , EPA, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, EPA-456/R-01-002-Compliance Checklists
09/2001 MACT II Pulp and Paper Combustion Sources National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP): A Plain English Description , EPA, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, EPA-456/R-01-003 (PDF format)

 

Compliance and Enforcement Information

Pulp and Paper Chemical Recovery Combustion Sources (MM)
Inspector Checklist
Spreadsheet software for performing calculations related to the PM bubble compliance alternative zip file
OECA Pulp and Paper Sector Web Site includes the following information: HTML File
1) Profile of the Pulp and Paper Industry, EPA Office of Compliance Sector Notebook Project, U.S. EPA, OECA, September 1995, EPA/310-R-95-015.
2) Kraft Pulp Mill Compliance Assessment Guide (CAA, CWA, RCRA, & EPCRA), U.S. EPA, OECA, May 1999, EPA/310-B-99-001.
3) Pulp Manufacturing Data Base, Sector Facility Indexing Project, U.S. EPA, OECA.
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