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Rule and Implementation Information for Pulp and Paper Production

Announcements

New Source Performance Standards – Kraft Pulp Mills

March 14, 2014 – EPA issued final amendments to the new source performance standards for kraft pulp mills. The final standards apply to recovery furnaces, smelt dissolving tanks and lime kilns commencing construction, reconstruction or modification after May 23, 2013.

 

This website focuses on the pulp and paper production MACT (MACT I and III) standards, the kraft pulp mill New Source Performance Standards, and provides available information on chemical recovery MACT (MACT II) standards. Additionally, this website references the effluent limitations guidelines, pretreatment standards, and new source performance standards developed by EPA's Office of Water, as appropriate. The effluent standards, etc. are available on the Cluster Rule Website.

  • MACT I: Controlling HAP emissions from the pulp and paper production areas of mills using the kraft, sulfite, semi-chemical, and soda pulping processes,
  • MACT II:(MM) Controlling HAP emissions from the pulping chemical recovery combustion areas of mills,
  • MACT III: Controlling HAP emissions from pulp and paper production areas of mills using mechanical, secondary fiber, and non-wood pulping, and papermaking systems at all mills, and
  • Kraft Pulp Mill NSPS: Controlling particulate matter and total reduced sulfur (TRS) compounds from sources at kraft pulp mills.

On this page:


Rule Information

The pulp and paper MACT standards and amendments are available, when final, in the Code of Federal Regulations in Title 40 CFR Part 63. Standards for both MACT I and III standards are integrated into one subpart (Subpart S). MACT II standards are in a separate subpart (Subpart MM).

Federal Register Notices:

Date Citation Action Description File Download
05/23/13 78FR31315 Proposed Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review
09/11/12 77FR55698 Final National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Pulp and Paper Industry; Final Rule/Residual Risk and Technology
12/27/11 76FR81328 Proposed National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Pulp and Paper Industry; Proposed Rule/Residual Risk and Technology
11/02/04 69FR63452 Direct Final Approval of Section 112(l) Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Equivalency by Permit Provisions; National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Pulp and Paper Industry; State of Georgia-Direct Final
05/06/04 69FR63489 Proposed Approval of Section 112(l) Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Equivalency by Permit Provisions; National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Pulp and Paper Industry; State of Georgia-Proposed
05/06/04 69FR25321 Technical
Corrections
National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Recovery Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills: Subpart MM Final rule; technical corrections
04/13/04 69FR19733 Direct Final Rule Site-Specific Rulemaking for Packaging Corporation of America's Pulp and Paper Mill Located in Tomahawk, WI, Pursuant to the Joint State/EPA Agreement To Pursue Regulatory Innovation
04/13/04 69FR19742 Proposal Site-Specific Rulemaking for Packaging Corporation of America's Pulp and Paper Mill Located in Tomahawk, WI, in Pursuant to the Joint State/ EPA Agreement To Pursue Regulatory Innovation; Direct Final Rule and Proposed Rule
07/18/03 68FR42603 Amendment National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Recovery Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills-Amendment
05/08/03 68FR24653 Correction National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Recovery Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills-Correcting administrative amendments; change in effective date.
02/18/03 68FR7706 Direct Final Rule National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Recovery Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills-Amendments
08/06/01 66FR41086 correction National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Recovery Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills-correction
07/19/01 66FR37593 Final rule; technical corrections National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Recovery Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills-correction
01/22/01 66FR6922 Final Rule Amendments Subpart S Includes amendments to Appendix C that adds "multiple zone" compliance proceedures for biological treatment systems used by MACT I standards.
01/12/01 66FR3180 Final Rule Final rule for MACT II covers chemical recovery combustion sources
12/22/00 65FR80755 Final Rule Amendments Amendments to add alternatives to the testing and monitoring of boilers and open biological treatment units used for air pollution control in the MACT I rule.
01/25/00 65FR3907 Proposed Rule Amendments Proposed amendments to add alternatives to the testing and monitoring of boilers and open biological treatment units used for air pollution control in the MACT I rule.
12/28/98 63FR71385 Direct final rule, & proposed rule Amendments to MACT I rule establishing an alternative bleach plant MACT standard for mills enrolled in the Voluntary Advanced Technology Incentives Program.  
09/16/98 63FR49455 Final Rule: interpretation and technical amendment Amendments to MACT I rule regarding applicability to excess emission allowance for condensate treatment systems.
08/07/98 63FR42238 Final Rule: correction Correction of minor errors on the 4-15-98 notice (63 FR 18504) above. PDF File
04/15/98 63FR18755 Proposal Proposal of the MACT II chemical recovery combustion Sources PDF File
04/15/98 63FR18504 Final Rules Final Rule for MACT I & III production areas of the mill. Final effluent limitations guidelines, pretreatment standards, and new source performance standards developed by EPA's Office of Water PDF File PDF File PDF File PDF File PDF File
07/15/96 61FR36835 Notice of Availability Describes goals for environmental improvement and frame work for effluent limitations guidelines, pretreatment standards, and new source performance standards for this industry  PDF File
03/08/96 61FR9383 Supplemental Information, Proposed Rule, & Open Comment Period Supplemental information was provided on the MACT I production rule. Proposed rules for the MACT III production areas. ZIP File
12/17/93 58FR66078 Proposal Cluster Rule Proposal (Includes proposal of MACT I production rules) ZIP File

NOTES: Citations not marked with an asterisk are to the page where the regulatory text begins. Citations marked with an asterisk do not contain preamble text and are to the page where the entry begins.  All files are Government Printing Office (GPO) files unless otherwise indicated.

Closely Related Rules, Policies or Program Guidance

40 CFR 60 Standards of Performance for Kraft Pulp Mills -- Subpart BB
40 CFR 430 Effluent Guidelines and Standards -- Pulp, Paper, and Paper Board Point Source Category
Other MACTs: Paper And Other Web (Film and Foil) Paper Coating MACT

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Technical Information

WATER9 is a Windows based computer program for estimating air emissions of individual waste constituents in wastewater/waste. Further information or a copy of the WATER 9 can be obtained from EPA (http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/software/water/index.html ). You can also contact the Air Emissions Model Hotline at (919) 541-5610 for support or more information about this model.

Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review - Background Information Documents

03/2014 Updated Review of the Continuous Emission Monitoring and Continuous Opacity monitoring Data from the Pulp and Paper ICR Responses for NSPS Sources PDF File
2.3 MB
03/2014 Response to Public Comments on May 23, 2013 Proposal PDF File
1.4 MB
05/2013 Review of the Continuous Emission Monitoring and Continuous Opacity Monitoring Data from the Pulp and Paper Information Collection Request Responses Pertaining to Subpart BB Sources
PDF File
466k
- Attachment 1:  Recovery Furnace Opacity Data (Mills 100–120)
Excel File
24.4 MB
- Attachment 2:  Recovery Furnace Opacity Data (Mills 121-137)
Excel File
32.1 MB
- Attachment 3:  Recovery Furnace Opacity Data (Mills 138-165)
Excel File
48.1 MB
- Attachment 4:  Recovery Furnace Opacity Data (Mills 166-196)
Excel File
47.0 MB
- Attachment 5:  Recovery Furnace Opacity Data (Mills 197- 242)
Excel File
44.0 MB
- Attachment 6:  Recovery Furnace Opacity Data (Mills 243-208228535)
Excel File
29.4 MB
- Attachment 7:  Recovery Furnace TRS Data
Excel File
17.4 MB
- Attachment 8:  Lime Kiln Opacity Data
Excel File
37.8 MB
- Attachment 9:  Lime Kiln TRS Data
Excel File
16.7 MB
- Attachment 10:  Other TRS Data Excel File
745k
05/2013 Emissions Inventory for Kraft Pulp Mills and Costs/Impacts of the Section 111(b) Review of the Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS
PDF File
652k
- Attachment 1: Baseline Emissions Impact Spreadsheet
Excel File
2.5 MB
- Attachment 2: Appendix E – Detailed Inventory PDF File
3.4 MB
05/2013 Projections of the Number of New, Modified, and Reconstructed Emission Units for the Kraft Pulp Mill NSPS Review PDF File
539k
05/2013 Economic Impact Analysis for the Section 111(b) Review of the Kraft Pulp Mills New Source Performance Standards Subpart BB PDF File
27k
05/2013 Review of Pulp and Paper Information Collection Request (ICR) Responses Pertaining to Startup and Shutdown of Subpart BB Equipment PDF File
920k
05/2013 Emissions Test Data for the Kraft Pulp Mill NSPS Review
PDF File
905k
- Attachment 1: Test Memo Appendices Excel File
462k
05/2013 Review of the Air Permits for Kraft Pulp Mills
PDF File
603k
- Attachment 1: Permit Summary Spreadsheet Excel File
42k
05/2013 Technology Review and Regulatory Options for the Kraft Pulp Mill NSPS PDF File
5.6 MB

 

Pulp and Paper Subpart S RTR - Background Information Documents

09/2012 Review of ICR Responses on Startup and Shutdown of Subpart S Equipment PDF File
09/2012 Ample Margin of Safety Analysis PDF File
09/2012 Economic Impact Analysis - NESHAP Subpart S for Pulp and Paper Revisions PDF File
09/2012 Final Risk Assessment for the Pulp and Paper Source Category PDF File
8.7 MB
09/2012 Final Rule Costs, Environmental and Energy Impacts Memo PDF File
09/2012 Residual Risk Remodeling Recommendations Analysis PDF File
12/2011 Summary of Kraft Condensate Control Technology Review PDF File
12/2011 Inputs to the Pulp and Paper Industry October 2011 Residual Risk Modeling PDF File
12/2011 Summary of Clean Condensate Alternative Technology Review PDF File
12/2011 Section 112(d)(6) Technology Review for Pulping and Papermaking Processes PDF File

 

Background Information Document (BID)/Response to Comments

Paper copies of some of these documents, as supplies permit are available through the EPA Library Services Office (MD-35), Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

09/2012 Response to Public Comments on December 27, 2011 Proposed RTR PDF File
8/2000 "Response to Public Comments on January 25, 2000 Pulp and Paper MACT I Proposed Amendments", Memorandum to Kent Hustvedt, Waste and Chemical Process Group, USEPA/OAR/OAQPS, from Stephen Shedd, WCPG, USEPA/OAR/OAQPS, RTP, NC, August 22, 2000. PDF File
7/99 "Technical Support Document for Evaluation of Aerobic Biological Treatment Units with Multiple Mixing Zones", US EPA, OAR, OAQPS, Waste and Chemicals Process Group, RTP, NC. PDF File
4/98 Various Technical Support Documents, for pulp and paper effluent limitations guidelines, pretreatment standards, and new source performance standards developed by EPA's Office of Water. 
01/21/98 Chemical Recovery Combustion Sources at U.S. Sulfite Pulp Mills, EPA, OAR, OAQPS, Draft.Three Parts PDF File PDF File PDF File
10/97 Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard Industry - Background Information for Promulgated Air Emission Standards, Manufacturing Processes at Kraft, Sulfite, Soda, Semi-Chemical Mills, Mechanical, and Secondary and Non-wood Fiber Mills, US EPA, OAR, OAQPS, October 1997, EPA-453/R-93-050b. 
07/08/97 Revised Draft,Chemical Pulping Emission Factor Development Document, Prepared for: U.S. EPA, OAQPS. ZIP File
10/96 Technical Support Document: Chemical Recovery Combustion Sources at Kraft and Soda Pulp Mills, US EPA, OAR, OAQPS, EPA-453/R-96-012. ZIP File
10/93 Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard Industry - Background Information for Proposed Air Emission Standards, Manufacturing Processes at Kraft, Sulfite, Soda, and Semi-Chemical Mills, US EPA, OAR, OAQPS. EPA-453/R-93-050a

 

FACT Sheets

5/2013 Fact Sheet: Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review
8/2003 FACT Sheet: National Emission Standards to Control Hazardous Air Pollutants Emitted from Pulp and Paper Mills
4/98 Series of Cluster Rule fact sheets.
08/31/98 Interpretive and technical amendments to the final air toxics regulation for pulp and paper production
12/18/98 Direct Final Amendment: Alternative Bleach Plant Standard for VATIP Mills
03/31/99 Direct Final Rule on Interpretation and Technical Amendments
01/10/00 Proposed Amendments on the Testing and Monitoring of Boilers and Open Biological Treament Units used for Air Pollution Control
12/07/00 Final Amendments on the Testing and Monitoring of Boilers and Open Biological Treament Units used for Air Pollution Control

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Implementation Information

Enabling Documents

4-8-04 Additional Information from EPA/OAQPS on the Clean Condensate Alternative in subpart R
3/03 Letter on clarification of the Clean Condensate Alternative, To Larry Webber, Georgia DNR from Doug Neeley, EPA R4, March 27, 2003.
For support and information on Water 9 Model
3/28/01 Letter on Performance Specifications and Applicability of 63.8 for CMS
5/30/01 Letter on UNOX Systems and NCASI Test Methods, Letter to Larry Price, Smurfit Stone Container Corp., from J. David Mobly, Emissions Monitoring and Analysis Division, US EPA.
280KB
11/5/99 Letter on Pulp and Paper MACT Condensate Averaging Times, Letter to R.W. Gore, Chief of Air Division, Alabama Dept. of Environmental Management, from W.A. Smith, Director, Air, Pesticides and Toxics Management Division, EPA Region IV.
9/99 Questions and Answers (Q&A's) for Pulp and Paper NESHAP (40 CFR Part 63, subpart S), US EPA/OAR/OAQPS, Waste and Chemicals Processes Group, RTP, NC.
1998 TAPPI Cluster Rule Symposium, Manual, TAPPI PRESS, Technology Park/Atlanta, P.O. Box 105113, Atlanta Ga. 30348-5113
12/97 Workshops on EPA's Final Cluster Rule for the Pulp and Paper Industry, Manual, by the American Forest and Paper Association and the National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement
12/97 Summary Flow Diagrams of the Pulp and Paper MACT Standard, Revised, US EPA/OAR/OAQPS, Waste and Chemicals Processes Group, RTP, NC.

 

Test Method Lead: Gary McAlister, EPA, Office of Air and Radiation
Compliance Lead: Leonard Lazarus, EPA, Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance
Applicability Leads:  Contact the local or State air pollution permit authority for applicability determinations. The EPA regional office contacts can provide information on the permit authority.
Effluent Leads:  See Cluster Rule OW Contacts

 

Source Identification & Location Information

09/24/97 Pulp and Paper Mills Subject to Combined Air and Water Rules PDF icon
  Pulp Manufacturing Data Base, Sector Facility Indexing Project, U.S. EPA, Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance HTML File

 

Final Rule Summary Documents

12/97 Summary Flow Diagrams of the Pulp and Paper MACT Standard, Revised, US EPA/OAR/OAQPS, Waste and Chemicals Processes Group, RTP, NC.
9/01 Pulp and Paper NESHAP: A Plain English Description , EPA, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, EPA-456/R-01-002
  Pulp and Paper NESHAP: A Plain English Description , EPA, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, EPA-456/R-01-002-Flowchart Summary
  Pulp and Paper NESHAP: A Plain English Description , EPA, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, EPA-456/R-01-002-Control Requirements
  Pulp and Paper NESHAP: A Plain English Description , EPA, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, EPA-456/R-01-002-Compliance Checklists

 

Outreach and Training Materials

Special training video tape for State and local air pollution regulators, Entitled: What Is Up with the Pulp and Paper Cluster Rule?, Contact: EPA, Education and Outreach Group.
MACT II Pulp and Paper Combustion Sources National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP): A Plain English Description, EPA-456/R-01-003 (PDF format)   appendices
MACT II Pulp and Paper Combustion Sources National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP): A Plain English Description, EPA-456/R-01-003 (WordPerfect Format)  appendices

 

Compliance and Enforcement Information

Pulp and Paper Chemical Recovery Combustion Sources (MM)
Inspector Checklist
Spreadsheet software for performing calculations related to the PM bubble compliance alternative zip file
OECA Pulp and Paper Sector Web Site includes the following information: HTML File
1) Profile of the Pulp and Paper Industry, EPA Office of Compliance Sector Notebook Project, U.S. EPA, OECA, September 1995, EPA/310-R-95-015.
2) Kraft Pulp Mill Compliance Assessment Guide (CAA, CWA, RCRA, & EPCRA), U.S. EPA, OECA, May 1999, EPA/310-B-99-001.
3) Pulp Manufacturing Data Base, Sector Facility Indexing Project, U.S. EPA, OECA.
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