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Risk Assessment and Modeling -
   Air Toxics Risk Assessment Reference Library

Volume 1 - Technical Resource Manual

Risk Assessment and Modeling

DOWNLOAD ENTIRE VOLUME zip file
Cover
Title Page
Disclaimer
Acknowledgments
Authors, Contributors, and Reviewers
Table of Contents

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PART I.  BACKGROUND

PART II.  HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT: INHALATION

PART III.  HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT: MULTIPATHWAY

PART IV.  ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

PART V.  RISK-BASED DECISION MAKING

PART VI.  SPECIAL TOPICS

APPENDICES

PART I.  BACKGROUND

Chapter 1.  Introduction

1.0  Introduction
1.1  The Special Concerns of Urban Areas
1.2  Promoting Localized Assessment
1.3  The Risk-Based Approach
1.4  The Purpose of this Reference Manual
1.5  The Layout of this Reference Manual
1.6  The Relationship of this Manual to Volumes 2 and 3
References

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Chapter 2.  Clean Air Act Requirements and Programs to Regulate Air Toxics

2.1  Introduction
2.2  HAPs and their Sources: Stationary, Mobile, and Indoor
2.3  Progress in Understanding and Reducing Toxic Air Pollution
2.4  Other Air Pollutants of Potential Concern
2.5  Reports to Congress on Air Toxics Issues
References

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Chapter 3.  EPA's Risk Assessment Process for Air Toxics: History and Overview

3.1  Introduction
3.2  Air Toxics Human Health Risk Assessment: Overview of the Process
3.3  Uncertainty and Variability in Air Toxics Risk Assessment
References

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Chapter 4.  Air Toxics: Chemicals, Sources, and Emission Inventories

4.1  Introduction
4.2  Air Toxics
4.3  Sources of Air Toxics
4.4  Emissions Inventories
References

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PART II.  HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT: INHALATION

Chapter 5.  Getting Started: Planning and Scoping the Inhalation Risk Assessment

5.1  Introduction
5.2  Framework and Process for Air Toxics Risk Assessments
5.3  Planning and Scoping
References

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Chapter 6.  Problem Formulation: Inhalation Risk Assessment

6.1  Introduction
6.2  Developing the Conceptual Model
6.3  Developing the Analysis Plan
6.4  Data Quality in the Risk Assessment Process
References

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Chapter 7.  Quantification of Exposure: Development of the Emissions Inventory for the Inhalation Risk Assessment

7.1  Introduction
7.2  Process for Developing an Emissions Inventory
7.3  Data Sources
References

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Chapter 8.  Quantification of Exposure: Dispersion, Transport, and Fate of Air Toxics in the Atmosphere

8.1  Introduction
8.2  Dispersion and Atmospheric Transport of Air Pollutants
8.3  Fate of Air Toxics in the Atmosphere
References

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Chapter 9.  Assessing Air Quality: Modeling

9.1  Introduction
9.2  Air Quality Modeling
9.3  Air Quality Modeling Examples
References

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Chapter 10.  Assessing Air Quality: Monitoring

10.1  Introduction
10.2  Air Toxics Monitoring: Recent Advances
10.3  Monitoring for Air Toxics Risk Assessments: Why Monitor?
10.4  Planning for Air Toxics Monitoring
10.5  Implementing Air Toxics Monitoring
10.6  Monitoring Methods, Technologies, and Costs
10.7  Archiving Air Toxics Monitoring Data
10.8  Using Air Monitoring Data to Evaluate Source Contribution
References

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Chapter 11.  Estimating Inhalation Exposure

11.1  Introduction
11.2  Estimating Inhalation Exposure Concentrations
11.3  Exposure Modeling
11.4  Personal Monitoring
11.5  Exposure to a Population: Common Descriptors
11.6  Evaluating Uncertainty
11.7  Presenting the Results of an Exposure Assessment
References

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Chapter 12.  Inhalation Toxicity Assessment

12.1  Introduction
12.2  Hazard Identification
12.3  Dose-Response Assessment for Cancer Effects
12.4  Dose-Response Assessment for Derivation of a Reference Concentration
12.5  Sources of Chronic Dose-Response Values
12.6  Acute Exposure Reference Values
12.7  Evaluating Chemicals Lacking Health Reference Values
12.8  Dose-Response Assessment for Mixtures
References

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Chapter 13.  Inhalation Risk Characterization

13.1  Introduction
13.2  Quantification of Cancer Risk and Noncancer Hazard
13.3  Interpretation and Presentation of Inhalation Cancer Risks and Noncancer Hazards
References

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PART III.  HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT: MULTIPATHWAY

Chapter 14.  Overview and Getting Started: Planning and Scoping the Multipathway Risk Assessment

14.1  Introduction
14.2  Overview of Multipathway Air Toxics Risk Assessment
14.3  Overview of Multipathway Exposure Assessment
14.4  Planning and Scoping
14.5  Tiered Multipathway Risk Assessments
References

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Chapter 15.  Problem Formulation: Multipathway Risk Assessment

15.1  Introduction
15.2  Developing the Multipathway Conceptual Model
15.3  Developing the Multipathway Analysis Plan
15.4  Exposure Assessment Approach
References

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Chapter 16.  Quantification of Exposure: Development of the Emissions Inventory for the Multipathway Risk Assessment

16.1  Introduction
16.2  Developing the Emissions Inventory

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Chapter 17.  Quantification of Exposure: Chemical and Physical Properties Affecting Multimedia Fate and Transport

17.1  Introduction
17.2  Chemical and Physical Properties that Affect Persistence and Bioaccumulation
17.3  Evaluating Persistence and Bioaccumulation in Exposure Assessments
References

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Chapter 18.  Quantification of Exposure: Multimedia Modeling

18.1  Introduction
18.2  Multimedia Fate and Transport Modeling
18.3  Key Parameters/Inputs for Multimedia Models
18.4  Examples of Multimedia Modeling
References

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Chapter 19.  Quantification of Exposure: Multimedia Monitoring

19.1  Introduction
19.2  Why Monitor?
19.3  Planning and Implementing Issues
19.4  Monitoring and Sampling Methods, Technologies, and Costs
References

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Chapter 20.  Exposure Metrics for Multimedia Assessment

20.1  Introduction
20.2  Generic Equation for Dietary Intake
20.3  Estimating Exposure Concentrations
20.4  Calculating Intake Variable Values
20.5  Calculating Averaging Time Value
20.6  Combining Exposure Estimates Across Pathways
20.7  Exposure Models
References

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Chapter 21.  Ingestion Toxicity Assessment

21.1  Introduction
21.2  Hazard Identification
21.3  Predictive Approach for Cancer Effects
21.4  Dose-Response Assessment for Derivation of a Reference Dose
21.5  Sources of Human Health Reference Values for Risk Assessment
References

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Chapter 22.  Multipathway Risk Characterization

22.1  Introduction
22.2  Cancer Risk Estimates
22.3  Noncancer Hazard
22.4  Interpretation and Presentation of Risks/Hazards
References

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PART IV.  ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

Chapter 23.  Overview and Getting Started: Problem Formulation

23.1  Introduction
23.2  Overview of Air Toxics Ecological Risk Assessment
23.3  Planning and Scoping
23.4  Tiered Ecological Risk Assessments
References

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Chapter 24.  Analysis: Characterization of Ecological Exposure

24.1  Introduction
24.2  Characterization of Exposure
References

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Chapter 25.  Analysis: Characterization of Ecological Effects

25.1  Introduction
25.2  Ecological Response Analysis
25.3  Stressor-Response Profile
25.4  Evaluating Variability and Uncertainty
References

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Chapter 26.  Ecological Risk Characterization

26.1  Introduction
26.2  Risk Estimation
26.3  Risk Description
26.4  Risk Characterization Report
26.5  Evaluating Variability and Uncertainty
References

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PART V.  RISK-BASED DECISION MAKING
Chapter 27.  Risk Management

27.1  Introduction
27.2  Role of Risk Management in Regulating Hazards
27.3  Types of Risk Management Decisions Related to Air Toxics
27.4  Use of Risk Estimates in Decision-Making
27.5  Process for Making Risk Management Decisions
27.6  Information Dissemination
References

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Chapter 28.  Community Involvement

28.1  Introduction
28.2  Why is Community Involvement Important?
28.3  When to Involve the Community
28.4  How to Involve the Community

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Chapter 29.  Risk Communication

29.1  Introduction
29.2  Risk Perception
29.3  Your Risk Communication Strategy
29.4  Risk Comparisons
29.5  Implementing Risk Communication Strategies
References

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PART VI.  SPECIAL TOPICS
Chapter 30.  Public Health Assessment

30.1  Introduction
30.2  History of Public Health Assessment
30.3  Relationship of Public Health Assessment to Risk Assessment
30.4  What is Public Health Assessment?
30.5  How Is a Public Health Assessment Conducted?
References

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Chapter 31.  Probabilistic Risk Assessment

31.1  Introduction
31.2  Tiered Approach for Risk Assessment
31.3  Methods for Probabilistic Risk Assessment
31.4  Presenting Results for Probabilistic Risk Assessment
References

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Chapter 32.  Use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Risk Assessment

32.1  Introduction
32.2  Selecting a GIS
32.3  Acquiring and Using Demographic Data
32.4  Cartographic Concepts
32.5  Using the Internet as a GIS Tool
32.6  Current GIS Applications at EPA
32.7  GPS Technology
References

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GLOSSARY PDF file

APPENDICES

Appendix A.  Listing of all HAPs PDF file
Appendix B.  Guide to Federal Agencies that Oversee Air Toxics PDF file
Appendix C.  Recommended Dose-Response Values for HAPs PDF file
Appendix D.  Methodology for Identifying PB-HAP Compounds PDF file
Appendix E.  Overview of Air Toxics Emission Sources PDF file
Appendix F.  Specific HAPs Included in the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) PDF file
Appendix G.  Atmospheric and Meteorological Concepts Relevant to Dispersal, Transport, and Fate of Air Toxics PDF file
Appendix H.  Data Quality Evaluation PDF file
Appendix I.  Use of Air Monitoring Data to Develop Estimates of Exposure Concentration (Data Analysis and Reduction) PDF file
Appendix J.  Air Monitoring and Sampling Methods PDF file
Appendix K.  Equations for Estimating Concentrations of PB-HAP Compounds in Food and Drinking Water PDF file

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