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6.0 Intro

Impact analysis is a general term used to describe various economic analyses that are supplemental to the estimates of total benefits and costs. These analyses go beyond a simple benefit-cost analysis to examine various aspects of the composition of benefits and costs. The impact analyses required by EO and statute were introduced in Section 2 of this manual. Three statutes specifically require an analysis of regulatory impacts:
  • UMRA requires an analysis of intergovernmental impacts.
  • RFA, as amended by SBREFA, requires an analysis of impacts on small entities.
  • PRA, as amended, requires an analysis of recordkeeping and reporting impacts.

The requirements imposed by each of these statutes are described in detail in Sections 6.1 through 6.3. In addition, the Environmental Justice and Children’s Health EOs require each Federal agency to assess the impacts of its regulations on minority and low-income populations and on children, respectively. These and other distribution effects are discussed in Section 8.4. Special emphasis is given in this section to those distribution effects mentioned in these EOs and in EO 12866 (Regulatory Planning and Review). The last subsection of this section briefly identifies other structural impacts addressed in economic analyses of regulations.

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1 Section 1(b)(11) of EO 12866 also requires that agencies tailor their regulations to impose the least burden on small businesses, small communities, and government entities, thereby implicitly requiring an analysis of the impacts imposed on these specific groups of entities.
 

6 Impact Analyses

 6.0 Intro

 6.1 The Unfunded
   Mandates Reform
   Act (UMRA)

 6.2 Regulatory
   Flexibility Act
   (RFA) and Small
   Business Regul-
   atory Enforce-
   ment Fairness
   Act (SBREFA)

 6.3 The Paperwork
   Reduction Act
   (PRA)

 6.4 Distributional
   Impacts

 6.5 Structural
   Impacts

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