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Roadway Construction Using Industrial Materials

EPA & FHWA Publications | FHWA Policy & Technical Advisories | Risk Assessment Tools | State Specifications & Provisions | Standard Specifications | Other Roadway Resources | Success Stories

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US EPA and Federal Highway Administration Resources

Using Coal Ash in Highway Construction, EPA530-K-05-002 (PDF) (50 pp, 2.3MB)

Using Recycled Industrial Materials in Roadways, 530-F-08-024 (PDF) (4 pp, 1.1MB)

Fly Ash Facts for Highway Engineers, FHWA-IF-03-019 June 2003 (PDF) (81 pp, 5.9MB)

Foundry Sand Facts for Civil Engineers, FHWA-IF-04-004, May 2004 (PDF) (80 pp, 265K)

User Guidelines for Waste and Byproduct Materials in Pavement Construction, FWHA-RD-97-148

Recycled Materials in European Highway Environments: Uses, Technologies, and Polices (PDF) (134 pp, 1.7MB)
FHWA-sponsored document that reports on innovative policies, programs, and techniques that promote the use of recycled materials in the highway environment.

Recycled Materials Resource Center Exit EPA
The Recycled Materials Resource Center (RMRC) is a national center that promotes the appropriate use of recycled materials in the highway environment. The RMRC website provides access to research efforts and results as well as other technical resources related to the use of recycled materials in transportation applications. The RMRC is funded by the Federal Highway Administration and the US Environmental Protection Agency.

Office of Pavement Technology Recycling Homepage
One of the focus areas for the Federal Highway Administration’s (FHWA) Office of Pavement Technology is environmental stewardship which includes recycling and reducing noise abatement. Their recycling website includes information on FHWA’s current projects and activities to facilitate the use of recycled materials in the highway environment.

Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Guidebook on Fly Ash
Provides information on specifications, mix design, and recommendations for the use of fly ash as a mineral admixture in the production of concrete.

Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Guidebook on Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag
Provides information on specifications, mix design, and recommendations for the use of ground granulated blast furnace slag as a mineral admixture in the production of concrete.

Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Guidebook on Silica Fume
Provides information on specifications, mix design, and recommendations for the use of silica fume as a mineral admixture in the production of concrete.

Transportation Applications of Recycled Concrete Aggregate A report by the Recycled Materials Resource Center (RMRC) which reviews the most advanced transportation uses of recycled concrete aggregate in the United States. It summarizes the review of recycled concrete aggregate practices in Texas, Virginia, Michigan, Minnesota, and California. This review was conducted by the Federal Highway Administration through the RMRC.

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FHWA Policy and Technical Advisories

FHWA Recycled Materials Policy

Concrete materials are sorted and screened

Processed concrete materials are sorted and screened — removing the building’s reinforcing steel from the crushed aggregate base course as it is produced.

FHWA’s policy statement is designed to advance the use of recycled materials in highway applications. The policy outlines the importance of re-using materials previously used in constructing the Nation’s highway system, and calls upon the FHWA and State transportation departments to explicitly consider recycling as early as possible in the development of every project.

Technical Advisory T 5080.9. Use of Coal Ash in Embankments and Bases. US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, May 1988
To set forth guidance and recommendations relating to the use of coal ash in bases and embankments, this Technical Advisory covers the history of coal ash use in these applications along with discussions on environmental, design, and construction considerations.

Technical Advisory: Use of Recycled Concrete Pavement as Aggregate in Hydraulic-Cement Concrete Pavement
This Technical Advisory issues information on state-of-the-practice and guidance for the use of recycled concrete pavement as aggregate in concrete used for pavements.

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Tools for Assessing Risk in Roadway Environments

Evaluation of IWEM for Non-Federal Users with Regard to Highway Applications (PDF) (9 pp, 235K)

A photo from the Ohio Turnpike Project

112,000 tons of spent foundry sand is used as a sub-base for the Ohio Turnpike third lane expansion just east of the Cuyahoga River.

Geo Engineering Report No. 05-22: Assessing Groundwater Impacts from Coal Combustion Products Used In Highways (PDF) (111 pp, 1.7MBK)
The Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Wisconsin-Madison evaluated a computer application, called WiscLeach, that was developed to assess impacts to groundwater caused by leaching of trace elements from coal combustion products used in highway construction. This study was funded by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Waste Reduction and Recycling Demonstration grant Program and Alliant Energy.

Geo Engineering Report No. 05-21: Metals Leaching from Highway Test Sections Constructed with Industrial Byproducts (PDF) (72 pp, 1.6MB)
Describes the results of a study by the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to assess metals leaching from industrial byproducts (foundry sand and foundry slag from a gray-iron foundry; and bottom ash and fly ash from a coal-fired power plant) used in highway construction. This study was funded by the Recycled Materials Research Center through the Wisconsin Department of Transportation, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Waste Reduction and Recycling Demonstration Grant Program, and Alliant Energy.

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Placement of the recycled concrete from the Courthouse Annex

Placement of the recycled concrete from the Courthouse Annex, for crushed aggregate base course in the construction of the Marquette Interchange.

State Specifications and Provisions

Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) Standard Specifications (PDF) (1028 pp, 5.6MB) Exit EPA
Pages 693-696 covers fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag used as a pozzolan; and pages 697-699 addresses silica fume used a pozzolanic mineral admixture.

INDOT Special Provision 203-R-360. Embankments Constructed of Coal Combustion By-Products (PDF) (4 pp, 34K) Exit EPA

INDOT Special Provision 211-R-415. Crushed Glass as Bedding Material (PDF) (1 pg, 13K) Exit EPA

INDOT Special Provision 200-R-401. Recycled Foundry Sand (PDF) (7 pp, 39K) Exit EPA

Illinois DOT Specifications – Materials (PDF) (318 pp, 1.4MB) Exit EPA

Caltrans Standard Specifications May 2006 (PDF) (507 pp, 112MB) Exit EPA

Texas Department of Transportation Specifications for Recycled Materials Exit EPA

Wisconsin DOT Construction Standards Library Exit EPA

Engineering and Environmental Specifications of State Agencies for Utilization and Disposal of Coal Combustion Products: Volume 1 – DOT Specifications 2005-EERC-07-04 (PDF) (62 pp, 216K) Exit EPA
The Energy & Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota developed two reports presenting State transportation and environmental regulations governing the use of coal combustion products. Volume 1 presents a state by state comparison of US Department of Transportation specifications. Volume 2 presents a comparison of state environmental laws and regulations authorizing beneficial reuse of coal combustion by-products.

National Highway Specifications Website
Developed and maintained by the Federal Highway Administration, this website consists of a searchable library of highway specifications from across the nation.

State Transportation Websites
Links to state transportation websites from the Federal Highway Administration website

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Standard Specifications

Milwaukee County Courthouse Annex demolition is completed

Concrete rubble from demolition of Milwaukee’s County Courthouse Annex is processed for use as crushed aggregate base course for Interstate Highway 43, immediately adjacent to the demolition site.

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Exit EPA
The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials advocates transportation-related policies and provides technical services to support states in their efforts to efficiently and safely move people and goods. Goals and Objectives include: Re-establish transportation as a national priority; advocate and communicate to achieve AASHTO’s goals; provide world class technical services; and assist state DOTs with leadership and performance.

Cement Specifications Concrete Specifications Other Specifications
AASHTO M 240, “Blended Hydraulic Cements.” AASHTO M 295-00. “Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use in Concrete.” AASHTO MP 10-03. “Standard Specification Compost for Erosion/Sediment Control (Compost Blankets).”
ASTM C 595, “Standard Specification for Blended Hydraulic Cements.” AASHTO MP 016-07, “Standard Specification for Reclaimed Concrete Aggregate for Use as Coarse Aggregate in Hydraulic Cement Concrete.” AASHTO M 17-07, “Standard Specification for Mineral Filler for Bituminous Paving Mixtures.”
  ASTM C 618, “Standard Specification for Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use as a Mineral Admixture in Portland Cement Concrete.” AASHTO MP 015-06, “Standard Specification for Use of Reclaimed Asphalt Shingles as an Additive in Hot-Mix Asphalt.”

 

  AASHTO PP 053-06, “Standard Practice for Design Considerations When Using Reclaimed Asphalt Shingles in New Hot-Mix Asphalt.”

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Other Roadway Resources

Green Highways Partnership – Recycling and Reuse of Industrial Materials Team Exit EPA
Information on recycling and reusing industrial materials in roadways, which is a component of the Mid-Atlantic Green Highways Partnership.

American Concrete Paving Association (ACPA) Exit EPA
ACPA is the national association representing the concrete pavement industry. Their mission is to make portland cement concrete the material of choice for airport, highway, street, and local road pavements.

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