Glossary of Terms
Affirmative Procurement Program
RCRA section 6002 requires each procuring agency to establish an affirmative procurement program (APP) for maximizing its purchases of EPA-designated items. The program should be developed in a manner that ensures that items composed of recovered materials are purchased to the maximum extent practicable consistent with federal procurement law.
Coal Fly Ash
A by-product of coal burning at electricity plants. It is called "fly" ash because it is transported from the combustion chamber by exhaust gases.
Through the Comprehensive Procurement Guideline (CPG), EPA designates items that must contain recycled content when purchased by federal, state, and local agencies, or by government contractors using appropriated federal funds. The E.O. 13423 implementing instructions direct EPA to periodically review existing CPG product designations for effectiveness, obsolescence, and consistency with other product designation programs.
Fine granular or powdered rubber capable of being used to make a variety of products. It is recovered from scrap tires using thermal and/or mechanical processing techniques. Crumb rubber also is derived from the tire retreading process, when worn tire tread is removed during a buffing process before the new tread is affixed.
Products that are or can be made from recovered materials that have been designated in the CPG through EPA's formal rulemaking process. Also referred to as "designated items."
Executive Order 13101
E.O. 13101 was revoked and replaced by E.O. 13423 in January 2007. Entitled Greening the Government Through Waste Prevention, Recycling, and Federal Acquisition, Executive Order (E.O.) 13101 (PDF) (11 pp, 83K, about PDF) was signed on September 14, 1998. This Order replaced E.O. 12873 (PDF) (9 pp, 36K, about PDF) and reinforced the federal government's buy-recycled efforts. E.O. 13101 established a process for amending the CPG originally promulgated under E.O. 12873. E.O. 13101 required EPA to amend the CPG every two years, or as appropriate. The Order also required EPA to issue RMANs concurrent with the CPG amendments, and to update them periodically. However, EPA continues to follow certain procedures of E.O. 13101, such as issuing RMANs concurrent with CPG amendments, since they are consistent with the requirements of RCRA 6002(e).
Executive Order 13423
Entitled Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management, E.O. 13423 (PDF) (7 pp, 104K, about PDF) was signed on January 26, 2007. This Order replaced Executive Order (E.O.) 13101 (PDF) (11 pp, 83K, about PDF) and requires federal agencies to purchase green products and services, including recycled content products, energy- and water-efficient products, biobased products, and environmentally preferable products and services. Executive Order 13423 Implementing Instructions (PDF) (51 pp, 150K about PDF) directs EPA to review existing CPG product designations for effectiveness, obsolescence, and consistency with the biobased products designation program, environmentally preferable purchasing program, Energy StarŪ and FEMP-designated energy efficient products program. Although E.O. 13423 revoked E.O. 13101, EPA continues to follow certain procedures of E.O. 13101 since they are consistent with the requirements of RCRA 6002(e).
Ground granulated blast furnace slag. A by-product of iron blast furnaces. The slag is ground into granules finer than Portland cement and can be used as an ingredient in concrete.
Green Purchasing Plan (GPP)
A green purchasing plan is an agency's strategy for maximizing its purchases of green products and services, including EPA-designated items. The plan should be developed in a manner that ensures that green products and services are purchased to the maximum extent practicable consistent with federal procurement law. Agencies must demonstrate that they have green purchasing plans that include the EPA-designated items, purchase the products, monitor implementation of their green purchasing programs, and take corrective action.
High density polyethylene. A plastic resin used in products and packaging such as milk jugs, detergent bottles, margarine tubs, and garbage containers.
Low density polyethylene. A plastic resin used for both rigid containers and plastic film applications such as plastic bags and film wrap.
Linear low density polyethylene. A plastic that is used predominantly in film applications due to its toughness, flexibility, and relative transparency.
Materials in Solid Waste
Materials found in the various components of the solid waste stream. Generally, solid waste has several components, such as municipal solid waste (MSW), construction and demolition debris (C&D), and nonhazardous industrial waste. Under RCRA section 6002, EPA considers materials recovered from any component of the solid waste stream when designating items containing recovered materials.
Polyethylene. A flexible plastic used in many household items including plastic wrap and food containers.
Polyethylene Terephthalate. A thermoplastic material used to manufacture plastic soft drink containers and rigid containers.
A material or finished product that has served its intended use and has been diverted or recovered from waste destined for disposal, having completed its life as a consumer item. Postconsumer materials are part of the broader category of recovered materials.
Polypropylene. A plastic polymer that has good resistance to heat and is used in flexible and rigid packaging, film, and textiles.
Materials generated in manufacturing and converting processes, such as manufacturing scrap and trimmings/cuttings.
Any federal agency, or any state agency or agency of a political subdivision of a state, that is using appropriated federal funds for procurement.
Polystyrene. A plastic polymer used to make a variety of products including plastic cutlery and food containers. It is often used in its foamed state.
Polyvinyl chloride. A family of plastic copolymers, also known as vinyl. PVC is used to make products such as pipes, bottles, upholstery, and automotive parts.
RCRA Section 6002
Section 6002 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976, as amended, directs EPA to designate items that are or can be produced with recovered materials and to recommend practices for buying these items. Among other things, RCRA section 6002 also provides criteria for EPA to consider when selecting items for designation, and requires procuring agencies to establish affirmative procurement programs (APP) for designated items.
Waste materials and byproducts that have been recovered or diverted from solid waste, but does not include materials and byproducts generated from, and commonly reused within, an original manufacturing process.
Recovered Materials Advisory Notices (RMANs) provide purchasing guidance and recommend recovered and postconsumer material content levels for designated items. RMAN recommendations are guidance and therefore are not codified in the Code of Federal Regulations.