Disposal is the placement of waste into or on the land. Disposal facilities are usually designed to permanently contain the waste and prevent the release of harmful pollutants to the environment. The most common hazardous waste disposal practice is placement in a land disposal unit such as a landfill, surface impoundment, waste pile, land treatment unit, or injection well.
Underground injection wells are the most commonly used disposal method for liquid hazardous waste. Because of their potential impact upon drinking water resources, injection wells are also regulated under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) and by the Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program.
The RCRA regulations governing injection wells are found at 40 CFR Part 265 Subpart R and 40 CFR Part 264 Subpart X . The SDWA and UIC regulations governing underground injection of liquid hazardous waste can be found in 40 CFR Part 144 through Part 148.
- Financial Assurance and Liability Coverage for Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities (TSDFs)
- Groundwater Monitoring Requirements for Treatment Storage and Disposal Facilities (TSDFs)
- Closure and Post-Closure Care for Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities (TSDFs)
Disposal Restrictions Program
EPA's Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) Program works to minimize potential environmental threats resulting from land disposal of hazardous waste. The LDR Program achieves this mission by establishing hazardous waste protocol and treatment requirements that make waste safe for land disposal.
Study: Industrial Surface Impoundment in the United States (March
2001, EPA 530-R-01-005)
This report describes the nature and variety of industrial surface impoundments in the U.S. and the wastewaters managed in these impoundments. The report quantifies and describes the potential risks to human health and the environment posed by chemical constituents present in the wastewaters managed by industrial surface impoundments. It also identifies existing regulatory controls and non-regulatory programs that can be used to address potential risks.
You will need Adobe Reader to view some of the files on this page. See EPA's PDF page to learn more.Publications
Disposal Restrictions for Hazardous Wastes: A Snapshot of the Program (PDF) (4 pp., 339 KB)
This brochure provides an brief overview of hazardous waste land disposal and provides a brief introduction to the LDR requirements.
Disposal Restrictions: Summary of Requirements (PDF) (119 pp., 905
This document provides a summary of the requirements of the LDR Program under 40 CFR Part 268. The document is organized in a question-answer format to clarify and explain how the regulations work.
Training Module "Introduction to Land Disposal Restrictions" (PDF) (26 pp., 119 KB)
This document provides a comprehensive overview of the design and operating requirements for land disposal units.
Training Module "Introduction to Land Disposal Units" (PDF) (16 pp., 169 KB)
This document provides a comprehensive overview of the regulations that apply to land disposal units.
Training Module "Miscellaneous and Other Units" (PDF) (14 pp., 384 KB)
This document provides a comprehensive overview of the regulations that apply to miscellaneous hazardous waste treatment units including geologic repositories other than injection wells.
Organic Air Emission Standards for TSDFs and Generators (PDF) (8
pp., 302 KB)
This document outlines the requirements of the RCRA organic air emission standards contained in 40 CFR Parts 264/265, Subpart CC. These air emission standards apply to owners and operators of all facilities that treat, store, or dispose of hazardous waste in tanks, surface impoundments, or containers.