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Identification and Description of Mineral Processing Sectors and Waste Streams - Final Technical Background Document
The purpose of this document is to describe EPA's review of mineral commodities that may generate hazardous wastes as defined by RCRA Subtitle C. These wastes and the facilities and commodity sectors that generate them may be affected by the establishment of Land Disposal Restrictions for mineral processing wastes. Through a series of rulemakings EPA has established and applied criteria to determine which mineral processing wastes are no longer exempt from Subtitle C regulation. These wastes are termed "newly identified" mineral processing wastes.
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- Executive Summary (PDF) (29 pp, 515K)
- Methods and Data Sources (PDF) (44 pp, 522K)
- Individual Mineral Commodity Reviews
- Antimony, Arsenic Acid, Beryllium, Bismuth, Boron, Bromine (PDF) (103 pp, 1.4MB)
- Cadmium, Calcium Metal, Cesium and Rubidium, Chromium, Ferrochrome, and Ferrochrome-Silicon, Coal Gas, Copper (PDF) (110xx pp, 1.4MB)
- Elemental Phosphorus, Fluorspar and Hydrofluoric Acid, Gemstones, Germanium, Gold and Silver, Iodine, Iron and Steel (PDF)(90 pp, 1.1MB)
- Lead, Lightweight Aggregate, Lithium and Lithium Carbonate, Magnesium and Magnesia, Manganese, Manganese Dioxide, Ferromanganese, and Siliconmanganese, Mercury (PDF) (110 pp, 1.3MB)
- Molybdenum, Ferromolybdenum, and Ammonium Molybdate, Phosphoric Acid, Platinum Group Metals, Pyrobitumens, Mineral Waxes, and Asphalt (Natural), Rare Earths, Rhenium, Rutile (Synthetic) (PDF) (89 pp, 1.4MB)
- Scandium, Selenium Silicon and Ferrosilicon, Soda Ash, Sodium Sulfate, Strontium, Sulfur (PDF) (62 pp, 1.3MB)
- Tantalum, Columbium, and Ferrocolumbium, Tellurium, Tin, Titanium and Titanium Dioxide, Tungsten, Uranium (PDF) (96 pp, 1.3MB)
- Vanadium, Zinc, Zirconium and Hafnium (PDF) (52 pp, 811K)
Reports to Congress
In 1984, EPA was sued for failing to submit a report to congress making the required regulatory determination by the statutory deadline (Concerned Citizens of Adamstown v. EPA No. 84-3041, D.D.C., August 21, 1985). In responding to this lawsuit, the Agency explained that it planned to propose a narrower interpretation of the scope of the Mining Waste Exclusion. On December 31, 1985, EPA published the required 1985 Report to Congress on Wastes from the Extraction and Beneficiation of Metallic Ores, Phosphate Rock, Asbestos, Overburden from Uranium Mining, and Oil Shale and on July 3, 1986 (51 FR 24496) published a determination that regulation of such wastes under subtitle C of RCRA was not warranted.
As a result of the 1989 court case Environmental Defense Fund v. EPA, 852 F.2d 1316 (D. C. Cir. 1988), cert. denied, 109 S. Ct. 1120, EPA was directed to issue a series of Bevill rulemaking. The Court also ordered EPA to issue a Report to Congress addressing the 20 special mineral processing wastes. The 1990 Report to Congress on Special Wastes from Mineral Processing was issued in compliance with the Court-ordered deadline.