Solomon, K.H., et al. 2007.
Performance and Water Conservation Potential of Multi-Stream, Multi-Trajectory Rotating Sprinklers for Landscape Irrigation
neering in Agriculture. 23(2):153-163.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) WaterSense program. November 3, 2011.
WaterSense Specification for Weather-Based Irrigation Controllers Support-
Koeller, John and H.W. (Bill) Hoffman & Associates, LLC. September 2010.
Evaluation of Potential Best Management Practices—Pools, Spas, and Fountains
for The California Urban Water Conservation Council. Page 34.
Created from analyzing data in: Schultz Communications,
Brown, Chris. 2000.
Water Conservation in the Professional Car Wash Industry
Prepared for the International Carwash Association.
appropriate grading, the use of mulches, and limiting the use of high water-using
plants such as turfgrass can significantly reduce the need for supplemental irrigation.
In addition, proper design, installation, and maintenance of irrigation equipment
can have a dramatic impact on outdoor water use. For example, using drip irrigation
on plant beds instead of traditional sprinklers can reduce irrigation water use by 20
to 50 percent.
More efficient sprinkler heads can reduce irrigation water use by 30
percent compared to traditional sprinkler heads.
Smart irrigation controllers that
schedule irrigation based on weather data or onsite conditions can reduce irrigation
water use by 15 percent compared to manual or clock timer irrigation systems.
For schools or hotels with pools, proper pool operation and maintenance can reduce
water loss associated with evaporation, filter cleaning, mineral buildup control, leaks,
and splashing. For example, pool covers have been shown to reduce evaporation
losses by 30 to 50 percent.
More efficient filters can reduce water use associated
with filter cleaning by 68 to 98 percent.
Vehicle wash facilities are another specialty sector with significant outdoor water use.
As much as 95 percent of the water use associated with vehicle wash systems can be
attributed to the washing processes and equipment.
Reclaiming and reusing ve-
hicle wash water has been shown to save at least 50 percent of the water used in the
Section 5.0: Outdoor Water Use
WaterSense at Work
provides an overview of and
guidance for effectively reducing the water use associated with:
Commercial pool and spa equipment
Introduction to Outdoor Water Use
OutdoorWater Use Case Study
To learn how the Granite Park office complex in
Plano, Texas, saved nearly 12.5 million gallons of
water by increasing the efficiency of the irrigation
system, read the case study in Appendix A.