WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities
Introduction to Sanitary Fixtures
Sanitary fixtures and equipment in restrooms and laundries can account for nearly 50
percent of total water use within a facility. Figure 3-1 shows this water use for various
commercial facility types.
Depending on the type of facility and number of occu-
pants and visitors, sanitary fixtures and equipment can provide significant oppor-
tunities for water and energy savings, particularly in older buildings with inefficient
fixtures and equipment.
Figure 3-1. Water Use Attributed to Sanitary Fixtures and Equipment
Nearly every type of commercial and institutional facility has at least some sanitary
fixtures or equipment, including toilets, urinals, faucets, showerheads, and laundry
Toilets, faucets, and to some extent, urinals are found in all commercial and institu-
tional facility restrooms. Showerheads are likely to be found in healthcare facilities,
hotels, schools, universities, and gyms, as well as in office buildings and other areas
of employment providing showers for employee use. Laundry equipment, though
less common, is generally found in dedicated laundromats and within hotels and
Over the past 20 years, there has been an increased focus on developing more ef-
ficient and better performing sanitary fixtures and equipment. For example, high-
efficiency toilets, faucets, showerheads, and urinals are at least 20 percent more
efficient than standard products on the market. Those that are labeled through the
Created from analyzing data in: Schultz Communications. July 1999.
A Water Conservation Guide for Commercial, Institutional and Industrial Water Users
for the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer.
Dziegielewski, Benedykt, et al. American Water Works Association (AWWA)
and AWWA Research Foundation. 2000.
Commercial and Institutional End Uses of Water
East Bay Municipal Utility District. 2008.
WaterSmart Guidebook: A Water-
Use Efficiency Plan Review Guide for New Businesses
Helping Businesses Manage Water Use—A Guide for Water Utilities