The second edition of "Ecoregions of Montana" revises many ecoregion polygon assignments that appeared in the first edition (Woods and others, 1999). These changes were made after research in Idaho (McGrath and others, 2002) recognized the Idaho Batholith as a separate level III ecoregion (Ecoregion 16), limited the Northern Rockies (15) to strongly marine-influenced areas, and transferred the Montana Valley and Foothill Prairies (formerly Ecoregion 16) to another level III ecoregion, the Middle Rockies (17). The second edition also modifies a few level IV ecoregion lines along Montana's western border so that ecoregions shared by Montana and Idaho will edge match. In addition, it updates ecoregion names so that they are consistent with the most recent ecoregion work in area (Chapman and others, 2003). However, it is important to note that although many polygon assignments and a few ecoregion names have changed between the first and second editions, nearly all level IV ecoregion line positions are identical on the two editions.
Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources; they are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. Ecoregions are directly applicable to the immediate needs of state agencies, including the development of biological criteria and water quality standards and the establishment of management goals for nonpoint-source pollution. They are also relevant to integrated ecosystem management, an ultimate goal of most federal and state resource management agencies.
The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of the spatial patterns and the composition of biotic and abiotic phenomena that affect or reflect differences in ecosystem quality and integrity (Wiken 1986; Omernik 1987, 1995). These phenomena include geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another regardless of the hierarchical level. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels of ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 52 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group 1997). At level III, the continental United States contains 104 regions (United States Environmental Protection Agency [USEPA], 1998). Level IV is a further subdivision of level III ecoregions. Explanations of the methods used to define the USEPAs ecoregions are given in Omernik (1995), Griffith and others (1994), and Gallant and others (1989). The level III and IV ecoregion map on this poster was compiled at a scale of 1:250,000 and depicts revisions and subdivisions of earlier level III ecoregions that were originally compiled at a smaller scale (USEPA 1998; Omernik 1987). This poster is part of a collaborative project primarily between USEPA Region VIII, USEPA National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (Corvallis, Oregon), Montana Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), United States Department of Agriculture-Forest Service (USFS), United States Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) (formerly Soil Conservation Service), United States Department of the Interior-Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and United States Department of the Interior-U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)-Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center.
The project is associated with an interagency effort to develop a common framework of ecological regions. Reaching that objective requires recognition of the differences in the conceptual approaches and mapping methodologies applied to develop the most common ecoregion-type frameworks, including those developed by the USFS (Bailey and others, 1994), the USEPA (Omernik 1987, 1995), and the NRCS (U.S. Department of Agriculture-Soil Conservation Service, 1981). As each of these frameworks is further refined, their differences are becoming less discernible. Regional collaborative projects such as this one in Montana, where agreement has been reached among multiple resource management agencies, is a step toward attaining consensus and consistency in ecoregion frameworks for the entire nation.
Bailey, R.G., Avers, P.E., King, T., and McNab, W.H., eds., 1994, Ecoregions and subregions of the United States (map) (supplementary table of map unit descriptions compiled and edited by McNab, W.H. and Bailey, R.G.): Washington, D.C., USFS, scale 1:7,500,000.
Bryce, S.A., Omernik, J.M., and Larsen, D.P., 1999, Ecoregions a geographic framework to guide risk characterization and ecosystem management: Environmental Practice, v. 1, no. 3, p. 141-155.
Chapman, S.S., Bryce, S.A., Omernik, J.M., Despain, D.G., ZumBerge, J., and Conrad, M., 2003, Ecoregions of Wyoming (color poster with map, descriptive text, summary tables, and photographs): Reston, Virginia, U.S. Geological Survey (map scale 1:1,400,000).
Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997, Ecological regions of North America toward a common perspective: Montreal, Commission for Environmental Cooperation, 71 p.
Gallant, A.L., Whittier, T.R., Larsen, D.P., Omernik, J.M., and Hughes, R.M., 1989, Regionalization as a tool for managing environmental resources: Corvallis, Oregon, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA/600/3-89/060, 152 p.
Griffith, G.E., Omernik, J.M., Wilton, T.F., and Pierson, S.M., 1994, Ecoregions and subregions of Iowa a framework for water quality assessment and management: Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science, v. 101, no. 1, p. 5-13.
McGrath C.L., Woods A.J., Omernik, J.M., Bryce, S.A., Edmondson, M., Nesser, J.A., Shelden, J., Crawford, R.C., Comstock, J.A., and Plocher, M.D., 2002, Ecoregions of Idaho (color poster with map, descriptive text, summary tables, and photographs): Reston, Virginia, U.S. Geological Survey (map scale 1:1,350,000).
Omernik, J.M., 1987, Ecoregions of the conterminous United States (map supplement): Annals of the Association of American Geographers, v. 77, no. 1, p. 118-125, scale 1:7,500,000.
Omernik, J.M., 1995, Ecoregions a framework for environmental management, in Davis, W.S. and Simon, T.P., eds., Biological assessment and criteria-tools for water resource planning and decision making: Boca Raton, Florida, Lewis Publishers, p. 49-62.
Omernik, J.M., Chapman, S.S., Lillie, R.A., and Dumke, R.T., 2000, Ecoregions of Wisconsin: Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters, v. 88, p. 77-103.
U.S. Department of AgricultureSoil Conservation Service, 1981, Land resource regions and major land resource areas of the United States: Agriculture Handbook 296, 156 p.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000, Level III ecoregions of the continental United States (revision of Omernik, 1987): Corvallis, Oregon, USEPA National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Map M-1, various scales.
Wiken, E., 1986, Terrestrial ecozones of Canada: Ottawa, Environment Canada, Ecological Land Classification Series no. 19, 26 p.
Woods, Alan J., Omernik, James, M., Nesser, John A., Shelden, J., and Azevedo, Sandra H., 1999, Ecoregions of Montana (color poster with map, descriptive text, summary tables, and photographs): Reston, Virginia, U.S. Geological Survey (map scale 1:1,500,000).
COLLABORATORS AND CONTRIBUTORS: Robert Bukantis (MDEQ), Chuck Gordon (NRCS), Bill Volk (BLM), Loren Bahls (Flathead Lake Biological Station, University of Montana), Dan Svoboda (USFS), Wease A. Bollman (Rhithron Biological Associates, Missoula, Montana), Thomas R. Loveland (USGS), Anthony Selle (USEPA), Alisa Gallant (Raytheon STX Corporation, Science Applications Branch, EROS Data Center), Cliff Montagne (Land Resources and Environmental Science, Montana State University), John Donahue (Department of Geography, University of Montana), and Jeff Comstock (OAO Corporation)
CITING THIS POSTER: Woods, Alan J., Omernik, James, M., Nesser, John A., Shelden, J., Comstock, J.A., Azevedo, Sandra H., 2002, Ecoregions of Montana, 2nd edition (color poster with map, descriptive text, summary tables, and photographs). Map scale 1:1,500,000.
This project was partially supported by funds from the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development, Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) program.
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