Winton, L. M., J.K. Stone, L.S. Watrud, and E.M. Hansen. 2002. Simultaneous one-tube quantification of host and pathogen DNA with real-time polymerase chain reaction. Phytopathology 92:112-116. WED-01-008
Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii is a widespread foliar parasite of Douglas-fir. Although normally innocuous, the fungus also causes the defoliating disease Swiss needle cast in heavily infected needles. The extent of P. gaeumannii colonization in Douglas-fir foliage was estimated with real-time quantitative PCR using TaqMan chemistry. In order to derive a normalized expression of colonization, both pathogen and host DNA were simultaneously amplified but individually detected by using species-specific primers and TaqMan probes labeled with different fluorescent dyes. Detection of host DNA additionally provided an endogenous reference, which served as both an internal positive control and adjusted for variation introduced by sample-to-sample differences in DNA extraction and PCR efficiencies. The genes employed for designing the TaqMan probes and primers were β-tubulin for the pathogen and a LEAFY/FLORICAULA-like gene involved in floral development for the tree host. Both probe/primer sets exhibited high precision and reproducibility over a linear range of four orders of magnitude. This eliminated the need to analyze samples in multiple dilutions when comparing lightly to heavily infected needles. Quantification of the fungus within needles was successful as early as one month after initial infection. Real-time PCR is the only method currently available to quantify P. gaeumannii colonization early in the first year of the colonization process.