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Chapman, Peter M., B. Anderson S. Carr, V. Engles, R. Green, J. Hameedi, M. Harmon, P. Haverland, J. Hyland, C. Ingersoll, E. Long, J. Rodgers Jr., M. Salazar, P.K. Sibley, P. J. Smith, Richard C. Swartz, B. Thompson, and H. Windom. 1997. General guidelines for using the sediment quality triad.  Marine Pollution Bulletin 34:368-372.

This paper reviews current methods for applying the Sediment Quality Triad in the assessment of the effects of pollution on benthic ecosystems. The Triad includes three indicators of benthic condition: (1) sediment toxicity, (2) sediment chemical contamination, and (3) benthic biology. Benthic ecosystems assessments should be based on the weight of evidence provided by these three indicators. No single index can provide a comprehensive evaluation of the ecological conditions.

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