Nebeker, Alan V., and Gerald S. Schuytema. 1998. Chronic effects of the herbicide diuron on freshwater cladocerans, amphipods, midges, minnows, worms, and snails. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 35:441-446.
The chronic effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and reproduction of Daphnia pulex, and survival and growth of the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the midge Chironomus tentans, juvenile and embryo/larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, annelid worms, Lumbriculus variegatus, and snails, Physa gyrina, were determined in laboratory static and static-renewal tests. D.pulex 96-h and 7-day LC50 values were 17.9 and 7.1 mg/L: 7-day LOAEL and NOAEL values based on mortality and reproduction were 7.7 and 4.0 mg/L. H. azteca 96-h and 10-day LC50 values were 19.4 and 18.4 mg/L; 10-day LOAEL and NOAEL values based on survival and reduced weight were 15.7 and 7.9 mg/L. C. tentans 10 day LC50 was 3.3 mg/L; 10 day LOAEL and NOAEL values based on growth were 7.1 and 3.4 mg/L. And 3.4 and 1.9 mg/L based on mortality. Juvenile fathead minnows had a 10 day LC50 of 27.1 mg/L and 10-day LOAEL and NOAEL values based on growth of 3.4 and <3.4 mg/L. The fathead minnow embryo-laval test had a 7-day LC50 value of 11.7 mg/L and 7 day LOAEL and NOAEL values based on reduced growth of 8.3 and 4.2 mg/L. L.variegatus had 10-day LOAEL and NOAEL values based on reduced weight of 3.5 and 1.8 mg/L. P. gyrina had 10-dayl LOAEL and NOAEL values based on reduced weight of 22.8 and 13.4 mg/L. Laboratory effects concentrations were higher than those found in normal field application situations, except in areas of localized pooling after recent herbicide applications, indicating that there would probably be little harm to these fish and invertebrates from diuron exposure in the field.