Pfleeger, T. 2005. Moving plant toxicology from the greenhouse to the field: a method that incorporates the positive attributes of each. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 74:16-23. WED-03-071
Single species, greenhouse/laboratory plant toxicity testing has been the norm for many years in the United States under test regulations formulated from the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA 1978), the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA 1976) and the Clean Air Act (CAA 1991). Also, internationally similar test protocols exist under the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD 1984) guidelines. These test requirements are intended to protect non-target plants from chemicals being introduced into the environment. For many years there have been recommendations for having tests take place under more realistic (field) growing conditions with more representative plant species (Fletcher and Ratch 1991; SAP 2001). Using the current guidelines selected agricultural species (generally 10) are grown in pots in a greenhouse for up to 28 days. The results are hypothetically used to protect all plants and plant communities in the United States and in many cases throughout the world.