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Assessing and Managing Chemicals under TSCA

Fact Sheet: 1-Bromopropane (1-BP)

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Q1. What is 1-Bromopropane (1-BP) and where is it found?

1-Bromopropane (1-BP), also known as n-propyl bromide, is a colorless liquid with a sweet odor. Products containing 1-BP include degreasers and cleaners, spray adhesives, spot removers, coin cleaners, paintable mold release, automotive refrigerant flushes, and lubricants.

Q2. Why should I be concerned about exposure to 1-BP?

For women of childbearing age, short-term exposure to products containing 1-BP, like spray adhesives, aerosol spot cleaners and aerosol cleaners/degreasers, could cause adverse developmental and reproductive effects. Other non-cancer and cancer health risks were identified for workers with repeated and chronic exposures, including neurotoxicity, kidney, liver, reproductive toxicity, and lung cancer. 

Q3. How do I know if 1-BP is in a product?

To identify product ingredients, check product labels, safety data sheets or material safety data sheets, which are available from manufacturers. 1-BP also may be referred to as n-propyl bromide, and is identified by its Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 106-94-5.

Q4. What steps can I take to reduce my exposure to 1-BP?

EPA recommends that people minimize exposure to 1-BP by using gloves, eye protection, and only using the product outside or only in extremely well-ventilated areas. People should be aware that there are alternative products or methods on the market that do not use 1-BP. Alternatives can include mechanical cleaning techniques, or products that do not contain 1-BP. Recent advances in both technology and garment care have resulted in alternatives to 1-BP and other dry cleaning solvents. Your dry cleaner may be able to advise you how your garments can be successfully cleaned using new processes.

Q5. What action is EPA taking to address risks from 1-BP?

If the final assessment shows risks, options exist for reducing risks from 1-BP. These include transitioning to safer chemicals and greener processes/technologies, promoting best practices and protective controls, or banning uses. EPA can also initiate a rulemaking under Section 6(a) of TSCA to protect the consumers and workers from exposure to 1-BP.

For more information, please visit EPA’s 1-BP section on the Assessments for TSCA Work Plan Chemicals webpage.