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Exposure Assessment Models

Selected Publications on AQUATOX

Note: These documents have been included here as an additional resource for users or potential users of AQUATOX, as examples of model application or review. While about half of these documents are from peer-reviewed journals, they have not undergone additional review by US EPA before inclusion here. No endorsement or recommendation by US EPA should be inferred.

Also available as Annotated Bibliography for download.

Bibliography for AQUATOX


Abt Associates Inc. 2005. Linking Ecological Risk Assessment and Economic Benefits Bethesda MD.

Bartell, S. M., R.A. Pastorok, H. R. Akcakaya, H. Regan, S. Ferson, and C. Mackay. 2003. Realism and relevance of ecological models used in chemical risk assessment. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 9:907-938.
See Pastorok et al. 2001 below

Bontje, D. M. 2010. Analysis of toxic effects and nutrient stress in aquatic ecosystems. PhD Thesis, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Booty, W. 2001. Options for Modelling of Transboundary Water Quality. Environment Programme, Mekong River Commission Secretariat.

Borah, D., G. Yagow, A. Saleh, P. Barnes, W. Rosenthal, E. Krug, and L. Hauck. 2006. Sediment and nutrient modeling for TMDL development and implementation. Transactions of the ASAE 49:967-986.

Brils, J. and B. Harris. 2009. Towards Risk-Based Management of European River Basins: Key-findings and Recommendations of the RISKBASE Project. RTD Framework Programme (FP6), Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Imhoff, J. C., J. S. Clough, R. A. Park, A. Stoddard, and E. Hayter. 2005. Comparison of Chemical Bioaccumulation Models to Assist in Model Selection for Ecological Assessments and TMDL Development in Watershed Williamsburg, Virginia.

Galic, N., U. Hommen, J. M. Baveco, and P. J. van den Brink. 2010. Potential application of population models in the European ecological risk assessment of chemicals II: Review of models and their potential to address environmental protection aims. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 6:338-360.

Hawkins, T. 2005. Critical Evaluation of the Aquatox Model. Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh PA.

Imhoff, J. C., J. S. Clough, R. A. Park, and A. Stoddard. 2004. Evaluation OF Chemical Bioaccumulation Models of Aquatic Ecosystems: Final Report. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens GA.
See next paper.

Imhoff, J. C., J. S. Clough, R. A. Park, A. Stoddard, and E. Hayter. 2005. Comparison of Chemical Bioaccumulation Models to Assist in Model Selection for Ecological Assessments and TMDL Development in Watershed Williamsburg, Virginia.

Kianirad, E., D. Bedoya, I. Ghosh, K. McGarvey, and V. Novotny. 2006. Technical Report No. 7, Review of Watershed Ecological Models. Technical Report No. 7, Center for Urban Environmental Studies, Northeastern University, Boston MA.

Kinerson, R. S., J. L. Kittle, and P. B. Duda. 2009. BASINS: better assessment science integrating point and nonpoint sources. Pages 1-24 Decision Support Systems for Risk-Based Management of Contaminated Sites. Springer.

Koelmans, A. A., A. Van der Heidje, L. M. Knijff, and R. H. Aalderink. 2001. Integrated Modelling of Eutrophication and Organic Contaminant Fate & Effects in Aquatic Ecosystems. A Review. Water Research 35:3517-3536.

Limno-Tech Inc. 2002. Descriptive Inventory of Models with Prospective Relevance to Ecological Impacts of Water Withdrawals. The Great Lakes Commission, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Liu, Y., H. Guo, Y. Fan, and L. Wang. 2005. [Research advance on lake ecosystem dynamic models]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao [The journal of applied ecology] 16:1169-1175.

Long, W. 2010. Ecological Modelling as a Tool for Coastal Ecosystem Management.in A. Ramanathan, P. Bhattacharya, T. Dittmar, M. Bala Krishna Prasad, and B. R. Neupane, editors. Management and Sustainable Development of Coastal Zone Environments. Springer Heidelberg, Germany.

Pastorok, R. A., S. M. Bartell, S. Ferson, and L. R. Ginzburg, editors. 2002. Ecological Modeling in Risk Assessment. Lewis, Boca Raton, Florida.

Pastorok, R. A., D. Preziosi, and D. Rudnick. 2008. Ecotoxicological Model of Populations, Ecosystems, and Landscapes. Pages 1165-1186 in S. E. Jørgensen and B. D. Fath, editors. Ecotoxicology. Vol. [2] of Encyclopedia of Ecology, 5 vols. Elsevier, Oxford.

Preziosi, D. V. and R. A. Pastorok. 2008. Ecological food web analysis for chemical risk assessment. Science of the Total Environment 406:491-502.

Russell, C. S., and D. D. Baumann. 2009. The evolution of water resource planning and decision making. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Sharma, D., and A. Kansal. 2013. Assessment of river quality models: a review. Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology 12:285-311.

Van den Brink, P. J., D. J. Baird, H. J. Baveco, and A. Focks. 2013. The use of traits‐based approaches and eco (toxico) logical models to advance the ecological risk assessment framework for chemicals. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management.

Wickwire, T., M. S. Johnson, B. K. Hope, and M. S. Greenberg. 2011. Spatially Explicit Ecological Exposure Models: A Rationale for and Path Toward Their Increased Acceptance and Use. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 7:158-168.

Yagow, G., B. Wilson, P. Srivastava, and C. Obropta. 2006. Use of biological indicators in TMDL assessment and implementation. Transactions of the ASAE 49:1023-1032.


Ahmadi-Mamaqani, Y., N. Khorasani, K. Talebi, S. H. Hashemi, G. Rafiee, and F. Bahadori-Khosroshahi. 2011. Diazinon fate and toxicity in the Tajan River (Iran) ecosystem. Environmental Engineering Science 28:1-10.

Bilaletdin, Ä., T. Frisk, V. Podsechin, H. Kaipainen, and N. Filatov. 2011. A general water protection plan of Lake Onega in Russia. Water resources management 25:2919-2930.

Blancher, E. C. 2010. Modeling Nutrients and Multiple Algal Groups Using AQUATOX: Watershed Management Implications for the Braden River Reservoir, Bradenton Florida. Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation 2010:6393-6410.

Blancher, E.C., S. Sklenar, R Park and J.L. Wood. 2002. Determining the Linkages for a Nutrient TMDL in a Stream Listed as Use-Impaired for Endangered Species. National Total Maximum Daily Load Conference. Proceeding of Water Environment Federation Conference held in Phoenix, Arizona November 2002.
See also Park et al. 2002


Carleton, J. N., R. A. Park, and J. S. Clough. 2009. Ecosystem Modeling Applied to Nutrient Criteria Development in Rivers. Environmental Management 44:485–492.

Carleton, J. N., M. C. Wellman, P. A. Cocca, A. S. Donigian, R. A. Park, J. T. Love, and J. S. Clough. 2005. Nutrient Criteria Development with a Linked Modeling System: Methodology Development and Demonstration. Pages 1-25 in 2005 TMDL Conference. Water Environment Federation, Philadelphia PA.

Carousel, R. F., and R. C. Russo. 2001. Eutrophication Modeling Capabilities for Assessing Water Quality and Ecological Endpoints. Pages 345-372 in Fish Physiology,Toxicology, and Water Quality. U.S.Environmental Protection Agency, La Paz Mexico.

Chen, H., L. Ma, W. Guo, Y. Yang, T. Guo, and C. Feng. 2013. Linking Water Quality and Quantity in Environmental Flow Assessment in Deteriorated Ecosystems: A Food Web View. PloS one 8:e70537.

Chen, W., X. Li, X. Chen, and F. Wang. 2012. Simulation of the response of eutrophic state to nutrient input in Lake Erhai using Aquatox model. Journal of Lake Sciences 24:362-370.

Chen, Y., Z. Niu, and H. Zhang. 2012. Eutrophication assessment and management methodology of multiple pollution sources of a landscape lake in North China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research:1-13.

Clouzot, L., C. Metcalfe, K. Kidd, and P. A. Vanrolleghem. 2011. Modeling the impact of endocrine disruptions on aquatic ecosystem: An experimental lake study. SETAC-Europe, Milan, Italy.

De Laender, F. 2007. Predicting effects of chemicals on freshwater ecosystems: model development, validation and application. PhD Thesis, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

De Laender, F., K. A. C. De Schamphelaere, P. A. Vanrolleghem, and C. R. Janssen. 2008a. Comparison of different toxic effect sub-models in ecosystem modelling used for ecological effect assessments and water quality standard setting. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 69:13-23.

De Laender, F., K. A. C. De Schamphelaere, P. A. Vanrolleghem, and C. R. Janssen. 2008b. Do we have to incorporate ecological interactions in the sensitivity assessment of ecosystems? An examination of a theoretical assumption underlying species sensitivity distribution models. Environment International 34:390-396.

De Laender, F., K. A. C. De Schamphelaere, P. A. Vanrolleghem, and C. R. Janssen. 2008c. Is ecosystem structure the target of concern in ecological effect assessments? Water Research 42:2395-2402.

De Laender, F., K. A. C. De Schamphelaere, P. A. Vanrolleghem, and C. R. Janssen. 2008d. Validation of an ecosystem modelling approach as a tool for ecological effect assessments. Chemosphere 71:529-545.

Donigian Jr, A. S., J. C. Imhoff, A. Mishra, P. Deliman, and E. Regan. 2010. A Watershed Modeling Framework for Military Installations: Assessment of the Hydrologic and Sediment Washoff Impacts of Military Management Alternatives.in 2nd Joint Federal Interagency Conference Las Vegas, NV.

Duda, P. B., J. L. Kittle, P. R. Hummel, M. H. Gray, and J. N. Carleton. 2009. Leveraging an Open Framework for Expanded Modeling Capabilities in BASINS 4.0. Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation 2009:441-450.

Echeverría, M., M. Wellman, R. Park, and J. Clough. 2003. Evaluation of AQUATOX for Ecological Risk Assessments in the U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs. in SETAC NA 24th Annual Meeting in North America, Austin, Texas.

Erturk, A., R. A. Ambrose, and B. Rashleigh. 2007. Case Study: Dieldrin Attack in Dalyan Lagoon. Pages 329-386 in I. E. Gonenc, V. Koutitonsky, B. Rashleigh, R. A. Ambrose, and J. P. Wolfin, editors. Assessment of the fates and effects of toxic agents on water resources. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Funder, S. G. 2009. Risk Assessment of the Skensved Å Field Site: Review and Application of Surface Water Models. Bachelor’s Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby Denmark.

Giusti, E., S. Marsili-Libelli, and A. Gualchieri. 2011. Modelling a Coastal Lake for Flood and Quality Management.in 8th IWA Symposium on Systems Analysis and Integrated Assessment. International Water Association, San Sebastian, Spain.

Giusti, E., S. Marsili-Libelli, and S. Mattioli. 2011. A fuzzy quality index for the environmental assessment of a restored wetland. Water Science & Technology 63:2061-2070.

Huang, S., Y. Jia, and S. S. Wang. 2009. Two-dimensional numerical and eco-toxicological modeling of chemical spills. Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering in China 3:178-185.

Imhoff, J. C., P. R. Hummel, A. S. Donigian Jr, and R. A. Park. 2010. Using US EPA BASINS Modeling System for Linking Hydrologic Models with an Ecological Model for Aquatic Endpoint Impact Assessments.in The 3rd USGS Modeling Conference.

Inthasaro, P., and W. Wu. 2012. A 1-D Aquatic Ecosystem/Ecotoxicology Model in Open Channels. Pages 1144-1147 in Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB), 2012 International Conference on. IEEE.

Joyner, T. A., and R. V. Rohli. 2013. Atmospheric influences on water quality: a simulation of nutrient loading for the Pearl River Basin, USA. Environmental monitoring and assessment:1-10.

Karaaslan, Y., A. Akkoyunlu, F. Erturk, and E. Citil. 2013. The Effect of Toxic Organic Chemicals on Mogan Lake. International Journal of Environmental Research 7:595-604.

Lei, B., S. Huang, M. Qiao, T. Li, and Z. Wang. 2008. Prediction of the environmental fate and aquatic ecological impact of nitrobenzene in the Songhuajiang River using the modified AQUATOX model. Journal of Environmental Sciences 20:1-9.

Lei, B. L., S. B. Huang, X. W. Jin, and Z. Wang. 2010. Deriving the aquatic predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) of three chlorophenols for the Taihu Lake, China. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A 45:1823-1831.

Mauriello, D. A. and R. A. Park. 2002. An Adaptive Framework for Ecological Assessment and Management. Pages 509-514 in Integrated Assessment and Decision Support. International Environmental Modeling and Software Society, Manno Switzerland.

Mauriello, D. A., D. Rodier, and F. S. Stay. 1998. Application of Simulation Models to the Ecological Risk Assessment Process. Pages 45-68 in M. C. Newman and C. Strojan, editors. Risk Assessment; Logic and Measurement. Ann Arbor Press, Chelsea Michigan.

Mäkynen, A. 2009. AQUATOX – ecological risk assessment model – A tool for impact assessment for waters. Master’s Thesis, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.

McKnight, U. S., S. G. Funder, J. J. Rasmussen, M. Finkel, P. J. Binning, and P. L. Bjerg. 2010a. An integrated model for assessing the risk of TCE groundwater contamination to human receptors and surface water ecosystems. Ecological Engineering 36:1126-1137.
See Funder 2009 and the other papers with McKnight as senior author

McKnight, U. S., J. J. Rasmussen, S. G. Funder, M. Finkel, P. L. Bjerg, and P. J. Binning. 2010b. Integrated modelling for assessing the risk of groundwater contaminants to human health and surface water ecosystems in 7th International Groundwater Quality Conference, Zurich, Switzerland.
See Funder 2009 and the other papers with McKnight as senior author

McKnight, U. S., J. J. Rasmussen, B. Kronvang, P. L. Bjerg, and P. J. Binning. 2012. Integrated assessment of the impact of chemical stressors on surface water ecosystems. Science of the Total Environment 427-428:319-331.
See Funder 2009 and the other papers with McKnight as senior author

Mead, J. V. 2007. An Empirical and Modeling Analysis of the Spatial Structure and Trophic Energy Flow Through a Small Temperate Stream. PhD thesis, Syracuse University, Syracuse NY.

Moermond, C., and A. Koelmans. 1999. Nutrients and contaminants: study with AQUATOX into the interaction between contaminants and communities in model ecosystems and shallow lakes. [report in Dutch] Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
No abstract available

Morkoç, E., V. Tüfekçi, H. Tüfekçi̇, L. Tolun, F. T. Karakoç, and T. Güvensel. 2009. Effects of land-based sources on water quality in the Omerli reservoir (Istanbul, Turkey). Environmental Geology 57:1035-1045.

Park, R. A., J. J. Anderson, G. L. Swartzman, R. Morison, and J. M. Emlen. 1988. Assessment of Risks of Toxic Pollutants to Aquatic Organisms and Ecosystems Using a Sequential Modeling Approach. Pages 153-165 Fate and Effects of Pollutants on Aquatic Organisms and Ecosystems. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, Ga.

Park, R. A., E. C. Blancher, S. A. Sklenar, and J. L. Wood. 2002. Modeling the Effects of Multiple Stressors on a Use-Impaired River in Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Salt Lake City.
See Blancher et al. 2002

Park, R. A. and J. S. Clough. 2005. Validation of AQUATOX with Nonylphenol Field Data (Unpublished Report). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

Park, R. A., J. S. Clough, and M. C. Wellman. 2007. AQUATOX: Modeling Fate of Toxic Organics in the Galveston Bay Ecosystem. in Proceedings of the Eighth Biennial State of the Bay Symposium, January 23-25, 2007, Galveston Texas.

Park, R. A., J. S. Clough, and M. C. Wellman. 2008. AQUATOX: Modeling Environmental Fate and Ecological Effects in Aquatic Ecosystems. Ecological Modelling 213:1-15.

Park, R. A., J. S. Clough, M. C. Wellman, and A. S. Donigian. 2005. Nutrient Criteria Development with a Linked Modeling System: Calibration of AQUATOX Across a Nutrient Gradient. Pages 885-902 in TMDL 2005. Water Environment Federation, Philadelphia, Penn.
See also Carleton et al. 2005, 2009

Park, R. A., B. Firlie, R. Camacho, K. Sappington, M. Coombs, and D. A. Mauriello. 1995. AQUATOX, A General Fate and Effects Model for Aquatic Ecosystems. Pages (3)7-(3)17

Proceedings for the Toxic Substances in Water Environments :Assessment and Control. Water Environment Federation, Arlington, Virginia.

Rashleigh, B. 2003. Application of AQUATOX, a process-based model for ecological assessment, to Contentnea Creek in North Carolina. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 18:515-522.

Rashleigh, B. 2007. Assessment of lake ecosystem response to toxic events with the AQUATOX model. Pages 291-299 in I. E. Gonenc, V. Koutitonsky, B. Rashleigh, R. A. Ambrose, and J. P. Wolflin, editors. Assessment of the fate and effects of toxic agents on water resources. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Rashleigh, B., M. Barber, and D. Walters. 2009. Foodweb modeling for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Twelvemile Creek Arm of Lake Hartwell, South Carolina, USA. Ecological Modelling 220:254-264.

Rashleigh, B., M. C. Barber, and D. M. Walters. 2005. Foodweb modeling for PCBs in the Twelvemile Creek Arm of Lake Hartwell. Pages 301-304 in Georgia Water Resources Conference, Athens, Georgia.
This is an earlier paper on the application described in the 2009 paper above.

Rashleigh, B., R. Park, J. Clough, R. Bringolf, P. Lasier, and M. Wellman. 2012. P73—Modeling bioaccumulation as a potential route of riverine foodweb exposures to PFOS. Reproductive Toxicology 33:626.

Rayne, S., and M. G. Ikonomou. 2005. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in an advanced wastewater treatment plant. Part 2: Potential effects on a unique aquatic system. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science 4:369-383.

Scholz-Starke, B., R. Ottermanns, U. Rings, T. Floehr, H. Hollert, J. Hou, B. Li, L. L. Wu, X. Yuan, and K. Strauch. 2013. An integrated approach to model the biomagnification of organic pollutants in aquatic food webs of the Yangtze Three Gorges Reservoir ecosystem using adapted pollution scenarios. Environmental Science and Pollution Research:1-18.

Schramm, H. L., M. S. Cox, T. E. Tietjen, and A. W. Ezell. 2009. Nutrient dynamics in the Lower Mississippi River Floodplain: comparing present and historic hydrologic conditions. Wetlands 29:476-487.

Smith, D., J. Warwick, and C. Fritsen. 2011. Modeling Nutrient Dynamics and Benthic Algal Relationships on the South Fork Humboldt River, NV. Pages 1147-1150 World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2011.

Sourisseau, S., A. Bassères, F. Périé, and T. Caquet. 2007. Calibration, validation and sensitivity analysis of an ecosystem model applied to artificial streams. Water Res. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2007.08.039.

Taner, M. U., J. N. Carleton, and M. Wellman. 2011. Integrated model projections of climate change impacts on a North American lake. Ecological Modelling 222:3380– 3393.

Tsegaye, T., and M. Wagaw. 2006. Stream Water Quality Modeling Using AQUATOX: Hester Creek and Flint Brown River of Northern Alabama. American Society of Agronomy-Crop Science Society of America, Indianapolis, Indiana.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2000. AQUATOX for Windows: A Modular Fate and Effects Model for Aquatic Ecosystems-Volume 3: Model Validation Reports. EPA-823-R-00-008, Washington, DC.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2001. AQUATOX for Windows: A Modular Fate and Effects Model for Aquatic Ecosystems-Volume 3: Model Validation Reports Addendum: Formulation, Calibration, and Validation of a Periphyton Submodel for AQUATOX Release 1.1. EPA-823-R-01-008, Washington, DC.

Welty, N., D. Hyndman, and L. Panayotoff. 2004. Eco-hydrologic Modeling of Nutrients, Oxygen, and Temperature Across a Range of Michigan Streams. Page 1175 in AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts.

Yifan, Y., Z. Yongqing, and L. Weiqing. 2009. Simulation study on blue-green algae blooms in Dianshan Lake and its impact factors [In Chinese]. Environmental Pollution & Control 6:016.

Zhang, L., J. Liu, Y. Li, and Y. Zhao. 2013. Applying AQUATOX in determining the ecological risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyl contamination in Baiyangdian Lake, North China. Ecological Modelling 265:239-249.

ZHU, Y.-q., W.-q. LIN, and S.-q. LU. 2011. Study on Application of Water Quality and Ecological Model in Olympic Rowing-Canoeing Park. [In Chinese] Environmental Science and Technology 1:004.

Zijian, L. B. H. S. W. 2009. Theories and Methods of Ecological Risk Assessment. [In Chinese]Progress in Chemistry:Z1.

Zouiten, H., C. Á. Díaz, A. G. Gómez, J. A. R. Cortezón, and J. G. Alba. 2013. An advanced tool for eutrophication modeling in coastal lagoons: Application to the Victoria lagoon in the north of Spain. Ecological Modelling 265:99-113.

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