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Light-Duty Vehicle CO2 and Fuel Economy Trends

Introduction to CO2 and Fuel Economy Trends

The Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends report is the authoritative reference for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, fuel economy, and powertrain technology trends for new personal vehicles in the United States.

The “Trends report” has been published annually since 1975 to summarize trends in EPA’s best estimate of real world tailpipe CO2 emissions and fuel economy, and associated technologies. All data are based on annual production volumes of new personal vehicles, including passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, minivans, and all but the largest pickup trucks and vans.

The data supporting this report were obtained by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), directly from automobile manufacturers, in support of EPA’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the U.S. Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) programs. These data have been collected and maintained by EPA since 1975, and comprise the most comprehensive database of its kind.

Trends Database Features

  • Data for Model Year (MY) 1975 through 2016 are final. These data are submitted to the EPA and NHTSA at the conclusion of the model year and include actual production data and the results of emission and fuel economy testing performed by the manufacturers and EPA.
  • Data for MY 2017 are preliminary. These data are based on projected production data provided to EPA by automakers for vehicle certification and labeling prior to MY 2017 sales. MY 2017 values will be finalized in next year’s report.
  • Data from alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) are integrated into the overall database, beginning with MY 2011 data. These vehicles include electric vehicles, plug-in hybrids, fuel cell vehicles, and compressed natural gas vehicles.
  • Most data are reported as fleetwide averages. Most of the data in this report reflect arithmetic production-weighted averages of individual CO2 emissions values and harmonic production-weighted averages of individual fuel economy values.

For more information about the Trends Database see About the Data.