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Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP)

GHGRP 2016: Reported Data

All greenhouse gas data presented here reflect the information reported to EPA as of August 5, 2017. The reported emissions exclude biogenic CO2. GHG data displayed are in units of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) and reflect the global warming potential (GWP) values from Table A-1 Exit, which is generally based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)’s Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) Exit. The GWPs  for some fluorinated GHGs that did not have GWPs in the AR4 are from the IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report. 

7,631 facilities in nine industry sectors reported direct emissions.For reporting year (RY) 2016, over 8,100 facilities and suppliers reported to the greenhouse gas reporting program. Among these reporters,

  • Reported direct emissions totaled 2.99 billion metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e), about half of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions;
  • 950 suppliers of fossil fuels and industrial gases reported; and
  • 104 facilities reported injecting CO2 underground.

Summary GHGRP data has been broken into several sections. Click the links below to expand each section.


  • Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program Background

    As directed by Congress, EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP) collects annual greenhouse gas information from the top emitting sectors of the U.S. economy (Table 1). The GHGRP is the only dataset containing facility-level greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions data from large industrial sources across the United States. With six consecutive years of reporting for most sectors, GHGRP data are providing important new information on industrial emissions—showing variation in emissions across facilities within an industry, variation in industrial emissions across geographic areas, and changes in emissions over time at the sector and facility level. EPA is using this facility-level data to improve estimates of national greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory.

    This document summarizes national industrial sector emissions and trends.

    Table 1: GHGRP Sector Classifications
    Industry Sector Number of Reporters Emissions (Million Metric Tons CO2e)
    Power Plants 1,405 1,876.3
    Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems 2,248 282.9
    Onshore Petroleum & Nat. Gas Prod. 512 85.4
    Offshore Petroleum & Nat. Gas Prod. 134 7.3
    Onshore Pet. & Nat. Gas Gathering & Boosting 299 83.0
    Natural Gas Processing 447 55.9
    Natural Gas Transmission/Compression 525 22.4
    Onshore Natural Gas Transmission Pipelines 27 4.4
    Underground Natural Gas Storage 53 1.5
    Natural Gas Local Distribution Companies 169 14.2
    Liquefied Natural Gas Import/Export Equp. 6 2.0
    LNG Storage 6 **
    Other Petroleum & Natural Gas Systems 92 6.8
    Refineries 145 179.3
    Chemicals 454 176.6
    Non-Fluorinated Chemicals
    Adipic Acid Production 3 8.7
    Ammonia Manufacturing 26 28.3
    Hydrogen Production 112 44.7
    Nitric Acid Production 34 10.3
    Petrochemical Production 66 53.5
    Phosphoric Acid Production 12 1.5
    Silicon Carbide Production 1 0.1
    Titanium Dioxide Production 6 2.4
    Other Chemicals 204 19.8
    Fluorinated Chemicals
    Fluorinated GHG Production 14 4.5
    HCFC-22 Prod./HFC-23 Dest. 4 2.8
    Waste 1,505 107.4
    Industrial Waste Landfills 172 8.7
    MSW Landfills 1,137 86.6
    Solid Waste Combustion 63 10.2
    Industrial Wastewater Treatment 140 2.0
    Metals 298 86.7
    Aluminum Production 8 3.1
    Ferroalloy Production 10 1.8
    Iron and Steel Production 124 69.5
    Lead Production 11 1.0
    Magnesium Production 10 1.2
    Zinc Production 5 0.6
    Other Metals 130 9.4
    Minerals 370 109.9
    Cement Production 95 65.7
    Glass Production 102 8.1
    Lime Manufacturing 75 27.7
    Soda Ash Manufacturing 3 3.8
    Other Minerals 97 4.8
    Pulp and Paper 228 37.7
    Chemical Pulp and Paper Production 107 27.0
    Other Paper Producers 121 10.8
    Other 1,352 133.3
    Food Processing 338 29.9
    Ethanol Production 172 19.1
    Other Manufacturing 279 15.1
    Universities 114 8.7
    Military 34 1.7
    Other Combustion 173 10.7
    Underground Coal Mines 94 38.8
    Electronics Manufacturing 53 6.2
    Electrical Equipment Manufacturers 7 0.1
    Use of Electrical Equipment 88 3.0

    ** Total reported emissions are less than 0.05 million metric tons CO2e.

    The GHGRP does not represent total U.S. GHG emissions, but provides facility level data for large sources of direct emissions, thus representing the majority of U.S. GHG emissions. The GHGRP data collected from direct emitters represent about half of all U.S. emissions. When including greenhouse gas information reported to the GHGRP by suppliers, emissions coverage reaches approximately 85–90% (See Figure 1). The Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2015 contains information on all GHG emissions sources and sinks in the United States.

    Learn more about the differences between the Inventory and the GHGRP.

    Figure 1: U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory and the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program

    GHGRP 2015 Reported Data bar graph

    Suppliers report the quantity of GHGs that would be emitted if the fuels and industrial GHGs that they place into the economy each year are used/released. Reporting by suppliers helps account for the greenhouse gas emissions by the numerous low-emitting sources that are not required to report emissions under the GHGRP (e.g., mobile sources, residential sources). Learn more about suppliers and their 2016 reported data.

    Table 2: Overview of GHG Data Reported (2016)
    Direct emitters
    Number of facilities reporting 7,631
    Reported direct emissions (billion metric tons CO2e) 2.99
    Suppliers of fuel and industrial gases
    Number of suppliers 950
    Underground injection of carbon dioxide
    Number of carbon dioxide injection facilities 104
  • Who reports?

    For 2016, 7,631 direct emitters submitted a GHG report. The Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems sector had the largest number of reporting facilities, followed by the Waste Sector and the Power Plants Sector. Among suppliers, Suppliers of Natural Gas and Natural Gas Liquids had the largest number of reporting facilities.

    Table 3: Number of Direct Emitters that Reported (2016)
    Industry Sector Number of Reporters1
    Power Plants 1,405
    Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems 2,248
    Refineries 145
    Chemicals 454
      Fluorinated Chemicals 15
      Non-fluorinated Chemicals 439
    Waste 1,505
    Metals 298
    Minerals 370
    Pulp and Paper 228
    Other 1,352
      Underground Coal Mines 94
      Electrical Equipment Production & Use 95
      Electronics Manufacturing 53
      Other Combustion 1,110

    1 Totals sum to more than 7,631 because facilities whose activities fall within more than one sector are counted multiple times.

  • Reported Emissions

    In 2016, 2.99 billion metric tons CO2e were reported by direct emitters. The largest emitting sector was the Power Plants Sector with 1.9 billion metric tons CO2e, followed by the Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Sector with 283 million metric tons (MMT) CO2e and the Refineries Sector with 179 MMT CO2e. This information, as well as average emissions per reporter, is shown in the following chart.

    Figure 2: Direct GHG Emissions Reported by Sector (2016)

    Chart displaying reporting 2016 GHGRP emissions (MMT CO2e) by sector in 2016.

    View this information in FLIGHT.

  • Emissions Trends

    National level trends in greenhouse gas emissions are available through the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2015. The Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program is different from the U.S. GHG Inventory in that it collects information from the largest stationary sources in the U.S. and provides nearly complete emissions coverage for many of the largest emitting industries. Trends in emissions reported for individual industries are discussed in the industry-specific reports.

    Total U.S. emissions decreased by 2.3 percent from 2014 to 2015, based on the U.S. GHG Inventory. Between 2014 and 2015, emissions reported to the GHGRP decreased by 4.7 percent (Table 4).

    The U.S. GHG Inventory is not yet available for 2016. For sources reporting to the GHGRP, excluding emissions from the oil and gas sector (which reported new sources this year), emissions decreased by 4.0 percent from 2015 to 2016. Over the past six reporting years (2011-2016), GHGRP reported direct emissions from sectors other than oil and gas (also excluding suppliers) declined by 12.6 percent. This decline is primarily caused by a 15.5 percent decline in reported power plant emissions since 2011.

    Table 4: Emissions Trends for U.S. GHG Inventory and GHGRP (2011-2016)
      2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
    U.S. GHG Inventory
    Total emissions (million metric tons CO2e) 6,776.7 6,538.3 6,680.1 6,739.7 6,586.7 Not available
    Percent change in emissions from previous year -2.1% -3.5% 2.2% 0.9% -2.3% Not available
    Number of direct-emitting facilities 7,643 7,891 7,975 8,200 8,035 7,631
    Direct emissions (million metric tons CO2e) 3,318.3 3,168.2 3,187.0 3,201.4 3,052.0 2,990.11
    Percent change in emissions from previous year -4.5% 0.6% 0.5% -4.7% N/A1
    Table 5: Emission Trends by Sector (2011-2016)
    Sector 2011 Emissions (MMT CO2e) 2012 Emissions (MMT CO2e) 2013 Emissions (MMT CO2e) 2014 Emissions (MMT CO2e) 2015 Emissions (MMT CO2e) 2016 Emissions (MMT CO2e)
    Power Plants 2,221.7 2,088.9 2,104.1 2,100.1 1,970.7 1,876.3
    Oil & Gas 222.2 226.1 227.9 235.9 232.9 282.91
    Refineries 178.2 172.5 174.1 175.2 175.1 179.3
    Chemicals 180.4 172.5 174.0 176.5 176.9 176.6
       Fluorinated Chemicals 17.4 14.1 13.1 11.4 9.9 7.3
       Non-fluorinated Chemicals 163.0 158.4 160.9 165.2 167.0 169.3
    Waste 114.9 115.4 111.6 112.0 110.8 107.4
    Metals 112.0 106.8 106.9 104.4 90.8 86.7
    Minerals 103.2 107.5 111.5 116.6 115.7 109.9
    Pulp & Paper 44.2 42.7 39.4 39.3 38.4 37.7
    Other 141.5 135.8 137.6 141.3 140.6 133.3
       Underground Coal Mines 40.9 38.8 41.0 41.2 43.9 38.8
       Electrical Equipment Production & Use 4.3 3.4 3.4 3.3 2.9 3.2
       Electronics Manufacturing 7.0 6.4 5.2 6.2 6.3 6.2
       Other Combustion 89.4 87.2 88.0 90.5 87.4


    1 GHG data for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems source category is not directly comparable between 2011-2015 and 2016 onwards. Facilities in the Onshore Oil & Gas gathering & Boosting and Onshore Gas Transmission Pipelines industry segments began reporting in 2016.

    Figure 3: Trends in Direct GHG Emissions (2011-2016) 1,2

    Chart displaying trends in direct GHG emissions from all GHGRP sectors from 2011 to 2016.

    View this information in FLIGHT.

    1 Non-fluorinated Chemicals and Fluorinated Chemicals are components of “Chemicals” in FLIGHT.
    2 Other Combustion, Underground Coal Mines, Electronics Manufacturing and Electrical Equipment Production & Use comprise “Other” in FLIGHT.

  • Emissions by GHG

    Carbon dioxide is the GHG emitted in the largest quantities. The 2.7 billion metric tons of CO2 reported for 2016 represent 90.7 percent of the GHGs reported in 2016a.  Methane emissions represent 7.9 percent of reported 2016 GHG emissions, N2O represents 0.9 percent, and fluorinated gases (HFCs, PFCs, SF6) represent 0.6 percent (Figure 4).

    aThe Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions And Sinks for 2016 is not yet available. In 2015, CO2 represented 82 percent of total U.S. GHG emissions.

    Figure 4: Direct Emissions by GHG (2016)

    Chart displaying total GHGRP emissions by GHG for reporting year 2016.

    The table below lists the primary sectors emitting each GHG.

    Table 6: Largest Sources of GHG Emissions
    Greenhouse Gas Source Categories Contributing Most to Emissions1 Sectors Contributing Most to Emissions
    CO2 Electricity Generation (D), Stationary Combustion (C) Power Plants
    CH4 Petroleum & Natural Gas Systems (W), Municipal Landfills (HH) Petroleum & Natural Gas Systems, Waste
    N2O Nitric Acid Production (V), Adipic Acid Production (E), Electricity Generation (D) Chemicals, Power Plants
    SF6 SF6 from Electrical Equipment (DD), Electronics Manufacturing (I), Magnesium Production (T) Other, Metals
    NF3 Electronics Manufacturers (I), Fluorinated Gas Production (L) Other
    HFCs HCFC–22 Production and HFC–23 Destruction (O), Fluorinated Gas Production (L) Chemicals
    PFCs Electronics Manufacturers (I), Aluminum Production (F) Metals, Other

    1 These source categories account for 75 percent or more of the reported emissions of the corresponding GHG. The subpart under which the emissions were reported is shown in parentheses.

  • Geographic Distribution of Emissions

    Figure 5: Location and Total Reported Emissions from GHGRP Facilities (2016)

    Map depicting location and total reported emissions from GHGRP facilities (2016).

    This map shows the locations of direct-emitting facilities. The size of a circle corresponds to the quantity of emissions reported by that facility. There are also facilities located in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and Guam.

    Map depicting Location and total reported emissions from GHGRP facilities in Alaska (2016).Map depicting location and total reported emissions from GHGRP facilities in Hawaii (2016).Map depicting location and total reported emissions from GHGRP facilities in Puerto Ricon and the U.S. Virgin Islands  (2016).Map depicting location and total reported emissions from GHGRP facilities in Guam (2016)

    Readers can identify facilities in their state, territory, county, or city by visiting the Facility Level Information on GreenHouse gases Tool (FLIGHT).

    Because it generally applies to facilities that emit greater than 25,000 metric tons CO2e per year, the GHGRP provides total reported emissions from large stationary sources in each state. Figure 6 shows the reported emissions in each state broken out by industrial sector.

    Figure 6: Direct GHG Emissions by State and Sector (2016)

    Chart displaying GHGRP direct emissions broken out by state and industry sector for 2016.

    View this information in FLIGHT.

  • Emissions Range

    The GHGRP provides a comprehensive dataset that can be used to determine the number of facilities at various emissions levels in many industry sectors. The GHGRP can also be used to determine the total GHG emissions from individual facilities, including emissions from fossil fuel combustion and other processes.

    Figure 7: Percentage of All Reporting Facilities at Various Emission Ranges (2016)

    Chart displaying percentage of all GHGRP reporting facilities at various emission ranges in 2016.

    Eighty percent of reporting facilities had emissions less than 250,000 metric tons CO2e. In 2016, the 636 largest-emitting facilities—those emitting more than one million metric tons CO2e—accounted for 2.1 billion metric tons CO2e. These emissions represent 70.7 percent of the total 2.99 billion metric tons CO2e reported. These high-emitting facilities are mainly power plants, but they also include petroleum refineries and facilities in the Chemicals and Metals sectors.

    You can use FLIGHT to list and sort facilities based on total reported emissions. This tool also allows you to sort facilities by specific industry types.

    Figure 8: Facility Emission Ranges (2016)

    Chart displaying emissions ranges for all GHGRP facilities

  • GHGRP Calculation Methods Used

    The GHGRP prescribes methodologies that must be used to determine GHG emissions from each source category. Reporters generally have the flexibility to choose among several methods to compute GHG emissions. The decision of which method to use may be influenced by the existing environmental monitoring systems in place and other factors. Reporters can change emission calculation methods from year to year and within the same year, as long as they meet the requirements for use of the method selected.

    Additional information on the methodologies that reporters use to determine GHG emissions

  • Report Verification

    All reports submitted to EPA are evaluated by electronic validation and verification checks. If potential errors are identified, EPA will notify the reporter, who can resolve the issue either by providing an acceptable response describing why the flagged issue is not an error or by correcting the flagged issue and resubmitting their annual GHG report.

    Additional information describing EPA’s verification process in more details

  • For More Information

    For more detailed information from each industrial sector, view the GHGRP Data Highlights and select an industry from the left hand side.

    Use FLIGHT to view maps of facility locations, obtain summary data for individual facilities, create customized searchers, and display search results graphically.

    Downloadable spreadsheets containing summary data reported to the GHGRP from each reporter are available on the Data Downloads page.

    All other publicly available data submitted to the GHGRP are available for download through Envirofacts.

    The U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory contains information on all sources of GHG emissions and sinks in the United States from 1990 to 2015.

    All GHG emissions data reflect the global warming potential (GWP) values from the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, Pachauri, R.K. and Reisinger, A. (eds)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 2007). The AR4 values also can be found in the current version of Table A-1 in subpart A of 40 CFR part 98.

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