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Pathogen Sample Collection Information — Query Results

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General Notes:

  1. The sample sizes listed are based on the amount needed for analysis of a single sample. If requested by the laboratory, additional sample(s) must be collected for laboratory quality control analyses (e.g., duplicates, matrix spikes). It is also recommended that additional sample(s) be collected in case of the need for reanalysis due to sample spillage or unforeseen analytical difficulties.

  2. Any sample collected for cultivation-based analysis must not be allowed to freeze.
 
Analyte:
Adenoviruses: Enteric and non-enteric (A-F)
Sample Type:
Aerosol
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
MCE/PTFE filter: 120 - 960 L;
gel filter: 40 - 135 L;
impinger: 750 - 6000 L;
impactor: 84.9 - 849 L

NOTE: If using impingers that do not replenish the liquid as it is evaporated by the air stream, the maximum recommended sampling volume is 200 L (Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Duchaine et al., 2001, 67(6): 2775-2780).
Container:
Sterile MCE/PTFE filter, gel filter, impinger, and/or impactor (agar plate)

MCE and PTFE filters are available as cassettes.
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice).
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Kienlen, 2015: Kienlen, L.L.  2015.  Comparison of Bioaerosol Collection Methods in the Detection of Airborne Influenza Virus. Masters thesis. The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.
• Ge et al., 2014:  Ge, S., Kuehn, T.H., Abin, M., Verma, H., Bekele, A., Mor, S.K., Zuo, Z.  2014.  Airborne Virus Survivability during Long-Term Sampling Using a Non-Viable Andersen Cascade Impactor in an Environmental Chamber. Aerosol Science and Technology, 48(12):1360-1368.
• Cooper, 2010:  Cooper, C.W.  2010.  High Volume Air Sampling for Viral Aerosols: A Comparative Approach. Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. No. AFIT/GES/ENV/10-M01.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Adenoviruses: Enteric and non-enteric (A-F)
Sample Type:
Liquid (Water, Wastewater)
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
2 - 20 L (wastewater); 
200 - 300 L (surface/recreational water); 
1500 - 2000 L (drinking water/groundwater)
Container:
Positively charged 1MDS cartridge filter 
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice). 

For collection of aqueous samples containing residual chlorine, add a stock solution of filter-sterilized 10% sodium thiosulfate at 0.5 mL/L.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Xagoraraki et al., 2014:  Xagoraraki, I., Yin, Z. and Svambayev, Z.  2014.  Fate of Viruses in Water Systems. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 140(7): 04014020-1-18.
• Cashdollar and Wymer, 2013:  Cashdollar, J.L. and Wymer, L.  2013.  Methods for Primary Concentration of Viruses from Water Samples: A Review and Meta-Analysis of Recent Studies. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 115:1-11.
• Ikner et al., 2011:  Ikner, L. A., Soto-Beltran, M. and Bright, K.R.  2011.  New Method Using a Positively Charged Microporous Filter and Ultrafiltration for Concentration of Viruses from Tap Water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 77(10):3500-3506.
• Williams et al., 2001a:  Williams, F.P., Stetler, R.E. and Safferman, R.S.  2001.  USEPA Manual of Methods for Virology. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/4-84/013 (N16).
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Adenoviruses: Enteric and non-enteric (A-F)
Sample Type:
Solid
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
50 - 100 g (gravimetric)

Fill 50 mL sample tube to at least 40 mL mark (volumetric)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice). 
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Horswell et al., 2010:  Horswell, J., Hewitt, J., Prosser, J., Van Schaik, A., Croucher, D., Macdonald, C., Burford, P., Susarla, P., Bickers, P. and Speir, T.  2010.  Mobility and Survival of Salmonella typhimurium and Human Adenovirus from Spiked Sewage Sludge Applied to Soil Columns. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 108(1):104-114.
• Rigotto et al., 2010:  Rigotto, C., Victoria, M., Moresco, V., Kolesnikovas, C.K., Corrêa, A.A., Souza, D.S.M., Miagostovich, M.P., Simões, C.M.O. and Barardi, C.R.M.  2010.  Assessment of Adenovirus, Hepatitis A Virus and Rotavirus Presence in Environmental Samples in Florianopolis, South Brazil. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 109(6):1979-1987.
• Ahmed et al., 2015:  Ahmed, W., Harwood, V.J., Gyawalia, P., Sidhu, J.P.S. and Toze, S.  2015.  Comparison of Concentration Methods for Quantitative Detection of Sewage-Associated Viral Markers in Environmental Waters. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 81(6):2042-2049.
• ASTM. 2016. E2721-16: Standard Practice for Evaluation of Effectiveness of Decontamination Procedures for Surfaces When Challenged with Droplets Containing Human Pathogenic Viruses. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Adenoviruses: Enteric and non-enteric (A-F)
Sample Type:
Surfaces (Swab, Wipe, Dust Socks)
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
At least 2 sterile, synthetic, and moistened wipes, swabs, or dust socks
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice). 
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Williams et al., 2001b:  Williams, J.C., Stone, D., Smith-Arica, J.R., Morris, I.D., Lowenstein, P.R., and Castro, M.G.  2001.  Regulated Adenovirus-Mediated Delivery of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Suppresses Growth of Estrogen-Induced Pituitary Prolactinomas. Mol Ther. 4:593-602.
• ASTM. 2016. E2721-16: Standard Practice for Evaluation of Effectiveness of Decontamination Procedures for Surfaces When Challenged with Droplets Containing Human Pathogenic Viruses. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania.
• Xagoraraki et al., 2014:  Xagoraraki, I., Yin, Z. and Svambayev, Z.  2014.  Fate of Viruses in Water Systems. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 140(7): 04014020-1-18.
• Tuladhar et al., 2012:  Tuladhar, E., Hazeleger, W.C., Koopmans, M., Zwietering, M.H., Beumer, R.R. and Duizer, E.  2012.  Residual Viral and Bacterial Contamination of Surfaces after Cleaning and Disinfection. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78(21):7769-7775.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Astroviruses
Sample Type:
Aerosol
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
MCE/PTFE filter: 120 - 960 L;
gel filter: 40 - 135 L;
impinge: 750 - 6000 L;
impactor: 84.9 - 849 L

NOTE: If using impingers that do not replenish the liquid as it is evaporated by the air stream, the maximum recommended sampling volume is 200 L (Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Duchaine et al., 2001, 67(6): 2775-2780).
Container:
Sterile MCE/PTFE filter, gel filter, impinger, and/or impactor (agar plate)

MCE and PTFE filters are available as cassettes.
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice). 
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• D'Arcy, N.  2014.  Exploring the Nature and Diversity of Microorganisms in Healthcare and Educational Settings. Doctoral Dissertations. Eastman Dental Institute, University College London, United Kingdom.
• Carducci, A.  2013.  Sampling Strategies for Virus Detection in Foods, Food-Processing Environments, Water and Air. Viruses in Food and Water: Risks, Surveillance and Control, 10:79.
• Uhrbrand et al., 2012:  Uhrbrand, K., Hedlund, K.O., Myrmel, M. and Christensen, L.S.  2012.  Development and Evaluation of Methods for Recovery of Noroviruses from Food, Water and Air. Doctoral dissertation. Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Astroviruses
Sample Type:
Liquid (Water, Wastewater)
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
2 - 20 L (wastewater); 
200 - 300 L (surface/recreational water); 
1500 - 2000 L (drinking water/groundwater)

Filter apparatus should be allowed to run overnight.
Container:
Positively charged 1MDS cartridge filter
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice).

For collection of aqueous samples containing residual chlorine, add a stock solution of filter-sterilized 10% sodium thiosulfate at 0.5 mL/L.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Cashdollar and Wymer, 2013:  Cashdollar, J.L. and Wymer, L.  2013.  Methods for Primary Concentration of Viruses from Water Samples: A Review and Meta-Analysis of Recent Studies. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 115:1-11.
• Rodriguez-Làzaro et al., 2012:  Rodriguez-Làzaro, D., Cook, N., Ruggeri, F. M., Sellwood, J., Nasser, A., Nascimento, M.S.J., D'Agostino, M., Santos, R., Saiz, J.C., Rzezutka, A., Bosch, A., Gironés, R., Carducci, A., Muscillo, M., Kovac, K., Diez-Valcarce, M., Vantarakis, A., von Bonsdorff, C.-H., de Roda Husman, A.M., Hernàndez, M. and van der Poel, W.H.M.  2012.  Virus Hazards from Food, Water and Other Contaminated Environments. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 36:786-814.
• Espinosa et al., 2009:  Espinosa, A.C., Arias, C.F., Sànchez-Colón, S. and Mazari-Hiriart, M.  2009.  Comparative Study of Enteric Viruses, Coliphages and Indicator Bacteria for Evaluating Water Quality in a Tropical High-Altitude System. Environmental Health, 8:49.
• Williams et al., 2001a:  Williams, F.P., Stetler, R.E. and Safferman, R.S.  2001.  USEPA Manual of Methods for Virology. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/4-84/013 (N16).
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Astroviruses
Sample Type:
Solid
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
50 - 100 g (gravimetric)

Fill 50 mL sample tube to at least 40 mL mark (volumetric)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice). 
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Rodriguez et al., 2009:  Rodriguez, R.A., Pepper, I.L. and Gerba, C.P.  2009.  Application of PCR-based Methods to Assess the Infectivity of Enteric Viruses in Environmental Samples. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 75(2):297-307.
• ASTM.  2016.  E2721-16: Standard Practice for Evaluation of Effectiveness of Decontamination Procedures for Surfaces When Challenged with Droplets Containing Human Pathogenic Viruses. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania.
• Amoah et al., 2017:  Amoah, I.D., Singh, G., Stenströma, T.A. and Reddy, P.  2017.  Detection and Quantification of Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Environmental Samples: A Review of Current State-Of-The-Art And Future Perspectives. Acta Tropica, 169:187-201.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Astroviruses
Sample Type:
Surfaces (Swab, Wipe, Dust Socks)
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
At least 2 sterile, synthetic, and moistened wipes, swabs, or dust socks
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice).
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Williams et al., 2001b:  Williams, J.C., Stone, D., Smith-Arica, J.R., Morris, I.D., Lowenstein, P.R., and Castro, M.G.  2001.  Regulated Adenovirus-Mediated Delivery of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Suppresses Growth of Estrogen-Induced Pituitary Prolactinomas. Mol Ther. 4:593-602.
• U.S. EPA.  2015.  Water Contaminant Information Tool: Pathogen Contaminant Profile - Comprehensive Report Format - Data Package for Yersinia pestis. EPA/600/S-15/172.
• ASTM.  2016.  E2721-16: Standard Practice for Evaluation of Effectiveness of Decontamination Procedures for Surfaces When Challenged with Droplets Containing Human Pathogenic Viruses. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania.
• Scherer et al., 2009:  Scherer, K., Mäde, D., Ellerbroek, L., Schulenburg, J., Johne, R. and Klein, G.  2009.  Application of a Swab Sampling Method for the Detection of Norovirus and Rotavirus on Artificially Contaminated Food and Environmental Surfaces. Food and Environmental Virology, 1:42.
• Tuladhar et al., 2012:  Tuladhar, E., Hazeleger, W.C., Koopmans, M., Zwietering, M.H., Beumer, R.R. and Duizer, E.  2012.  Residual Viral and Bacterial Contamination of Surfaces after Cleaning and Disinfection. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78(21):7769-7775.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Bacillus anthracis [Anthrax]
Sample Type:
Aerosol
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
MCE/PTFE filter: 120 - 960 L;
gel filter: 40 - 135 L;
impinger: 750 - 6000 L;
impactor: 84.9 - 849 L

NOTE: If using impingers that do not replenish the liquid as it is evaporated by the air stream, the maximum recommended sampling volume is 200 L (Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Duchaine et al., 2001, 67(6): 2775-2780).
Container:
Sterile MCE/PTFE filter, gel filter, impinger, and/or impactor (agar plate)

MCE and PTFE filters are available as cassettes.
Preservation:
Room temperature if held for 2 hours or less; keep on ice (e.g., ice packs, secure double-bagged ice) if longer.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Teshale et al., 2002:  Teshale, E.H., Painter, J.A., Burr, G.A., Mead, P., Wright, S.V., Cseh, L.F., Zabrocki, R., Collins, R., Kelley, K.A., Hadler, J.L. and Swerdlow, D.L.  2002.  Environmental Sampling for Spores of Bacillus anthracis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(10):1083-1087.
• Estill et al., 2009:  Estill, C.F., Baron, P.A., Beard, J.K., Hein, M.J., Larsen, L.D., Rose, L., Deye, G.J.  2009.  Recovery Efficiency and Limit of Detection of Aerosolized Bacillus anthracis Sterne from Environmental Surface Samples. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 75(13):4297-4306.
• NIST.  2012.  Challenges in Microbial Sampling in the Indoor Environment: Workshop Summary Report. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland. Report No. NIST Technical Note 1737.
• U.S. EPA.  2012.  Protocol for Detection of Bacillus anthracis in Environmental Samples During the Remediation Phase of an Anthrax Event. EPA/600/R-12/577.
• U.S. EPA.  2013.  Systematic Evaluation of Aggressive Air Sampling for Bacillus anthracis Spores Assessment and Evaluation Report. EPA 600/R-13/068.
• Xu et al., 2013:  Xu, Z., Wei, K., Wu, Y., Shen, F., Chen, Q., Li, M. and Yao, M.  2013.  Enhancing Bioaerosol Sampling by Andersen Impactors Using Mineral-Oil-Spread Agar Plate. PLoS ONE, 8(2):e56896.
• Clauss, 2015:  Clauss, M.  2015.  Particle Size Distribution of Airborne Micro-Organisms in the Environment—A Review. Landbauforschung Applied Agricultural and Forestry Research, 65(2):77-100.
• Grinshpun et al., 2016:  Grinshpun, S.A., Buttner, M.P., Mainelis, G. and Willeke, K.  2016.  Sampling for Airborne Microorganisms. Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition (pp. 3-2). American Society of Microbiology.
• Haig et al., 2016:  Haig, C.W., Mackay, W.G., Walker, J.T. and Williams, C.  2016.  Bioaerosol Sampling: Sampling Mechanisms, Bioefficiency and Field Studies. Journal of Hospital Infection, 93(3):242-255.
Notes:
NA
 
Analyte:
Bacillus anthracis [Anthrax]
Sample Type:
Liquid (Water, Wastewater)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
200 mL (minimum)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Room temperature if held for 1 hour or less; keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice) if longer.  Care should be taken to avoid freezing the samples.

For collection of aqueous samples containing residual chlorine, add a stock solution of filter-sterilized 10% sodium thiosulfate at 0.5 mL/L.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Celebi et al., 2016:  Celebi, O., Buyuk, F., Pottage, T., Crook, A., Hawkey, S., Cooper, C., Bennett, A., Sahin, M. and Baillie, L.  2016.  The Use of Germinants to Potentiate the Sensitivity of Bacillus anthracis Spores to Peracetic Acid. Frontiers in Microbiology, 7:18.
• Singh et al., 2015:  Singh, L.K., Dhasmana, N., Sajid, A., Kumar, P., Bhaduri, A., Bharadwaj, M., Gandotra, S. Kalia, V.C., Das, T.K., Goel, A.K., Pomerantsev, A.P., Misra, R., Gerth, U., Leppla, S.H. and Singh, Y.  2015.  clpC Operon Regulates Cell Architecture and Sporulation in Bacillus anthracis.  Environmental Microbiology, 17(3):855-865.
• U.S. EPA.  2012.  Protocol for Detection of Bacillus anthracis in Environmental Samples During the Remediation Phase of an Anthrax Event. EPA/600/R-12/577.
• Létant et al., 2011:  Létant, S.E., Murphy, G.A., Alfaro, T.M., Avila, J.R., Kane, S.R., Raber, E., Bunt, T.M. and Shah, S.R.  2011.  Rapid-Viability PCR Method for Detection of Live, Virulent Bacillus anthracis in Environmental Samples. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 77(18):6570-6578.
• Perez et al., 2005:  Perez, A., Hohn, C. and Higgins, J.  2005.  Filtration Methods for Recovery of Bacillus anthracis Spores Spiked Into Source and Finished Water. Water Research, 39(20):5199-5211.
Notes:
NA
 
Analyte:
Bacillus anthracis [Anthrax]
Sample Type:
Solid
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
50 - 100 g (gravimetric)

Fill 50 mL sample tube to at least 40 mL mark (volumetric)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Room temperature if held for 2 hours or less; keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice) if longer. Care should be taken to avoid freezing the samples.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• U.S. EPA/USGS.  2014.  Sample Collection Protocol for Bacterial Pathogens in Surface Soil. Cincinnati, OH, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. EPA/600/R-14/027.
• Silvestri, E.E., Feldhake, D., Griffin, D., III, Lisle, J., Nichols, T., Shah, S., Pemberton, A. and Schaefer, F.W.  2016. Optimization of a Sample Processing Protocol for Recover of Bacillus anthracis Spores from Soil. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 130:6-13.
• Mott et al., 2017:  Mott, T.M., Shoe, J.L., Hunter, M., Woodson, A.M., Fritts, K.A., Klimko, C.P., Quirk, A.V., Welkos, S.L. and Cote, C.K.  2017.  Comparison of Sampling Methods to Recover Germinated Bacillus Anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis Endospores from Surface Coupons. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 122(5):1219-1232.
• Olm et al., 2017:  Olm, M.R., Butterfield, C.N., Copeland, A., Boles, T.C., Thomas, B.C. and Banfield, J.F.  2017.  The Source and Evolutionary History of a Microbial Contaminant Identified Through Soil Metagenomic Analysis. mBio, 8(1): e01969-16.
Notes:
NA
 
Analyte:
Bacillus anthracis [Anthrax]
Sample Type:
Surfaces (Swab, Wipe, Dust Socks)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
At least 2 sterile, synthetic, and moistened wipes, swabs, or dust socks
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Room temperature if held for 1 hour or less; keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice) if longer.  Care should be taken to avoid freezing the samples.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• ASTM.  2010.  ASTM E2458-10, Standard Practices for Bulk Sample Collection and Swab Sample Collection of Visible Powders Suspected of Being Biological Agents from Nonporous Surfaces. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania.
• Brown et al., 2007a:  Brown, G.S., Betty, R.G., Brockmann, J.E., Lucero, D.A., Souza, C.A., Walsh, K.S., Rudolph, T.  2007a. Evaluation of a Wipe Surface Sample Method for Collection of Bacillus Spores from Nonporous Surfaces. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 73(3):706-710. 
• Brown et al., 2007b:  Brown, G.S., Betty, R.G., Brockmann, J.E., Lucero, D.A., Souza, C.A., Walsh, K.S., Rudolph, T.  2007b. Evaluation of Rayon Swab Surface Sample Collection Method for Bacillus Spores From Nonporous Surfaces. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 103(4):1074-80.
• Hodges et al., 2010:  Hodges, L.R., Rose, L.J., O'Connell, H. and Arduino, M.J.  2010.  National Validation Study of a Swab Protocol for the Recovery of Bacillus anthracis Spores from Surfaces. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 81(2):141-146.
• Rose et al., 2011:  Rose, L.J., Hodges, L., O'Connell, H. and Noble-Wang, J.  2011.  National Validation Study of a Cellulose Sponge Wipe-processing Method for Use after Sampling Bacillus anthracis Spores from Surfaces. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 77(23):8355-8359.
• CDC. 2012.  Guidance on Packaging and Shipping Vacuum Socks used for the Collection of Bacillus anthracis Samples. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
• Piepel et al., 2015:  Piepel, G.F., Hutchison, J.R., Deatherage Kaiser, B.L., Amidan, B.G., Sydor, M.A. and Barrett, C.A.  2015.  Recovery Efficiency, False Negative Rate, and Limit of Detection Performance of a Validated Macrofoam-Swab Sampling Method with Low Surface Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. PNNL-23955.
• Hutchison et al., 2015:  Hutchison, J.R., Piepel, G.F., Amidan, B.G., Sydor, M.A. and Deatherage Kaiser B.L.  2015.  False Negative Rates of a Macrofoam-Swab Sampling Method with Low Surface Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates via Real-Time PCR. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. PNNL-24204 Rev 0.
Notes:
NA
 
Analyte:
Baylisascaris procyonis [Raccoon roundworm infection]
Sample Type:
Aerosol
Pathogen Type:
Helminth
Sample Size:
Unlikely to be found.
Container:
NA
Preservation:
NA
Packaging Requirements:
NA
Shipping Label:
NA
Source:
NA
Notes:
NA
 
Analyte:
Baylisascaris procyonis [Raccoon roundworm infection]
Sample Type:
Liquid (Water, Wastewater)
Pathogen Type:
Helminth
Sample Size:
1 L (minimum)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice). Store at 2 - 5°C at laboratory; do not freeze samples. 

For collection of aqueous samples containing residual chlorine, add a stock solution of filter-sterilized 10% sodium thiosulfate at 0.5 mL/L.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Graeff-Teixeira et al., 2016:  Graeff-Teixeira, C., Morassutti, A.L. and Kazacos, K.R.  2016.  Update on Baylisascariasis, a Highly Pathogenic Zoonotic Infection. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 29:375-399.
• Gatcombe et al., 2010:  Gatcombe, R.R., Jothikumar, N., Dangoudoubiyam, S., Kazacos, K.R. and Hill, V.R.  2010.  Evaluation of a Molecular Beacon Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection of Baylisascaris procyonis in Different Soil Types and Water Samples. Parasitology Research, 106:499-504.
Notes:
NA
 
Analyte:
Baylisascaris procyonis [Raccoon roundworm infection]
Sample Type:
Solid
Pathogen Type:
Helminth
Sample Size:
300 - 600 g (gravimetric)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice). Store at 2 - 5°C at laboratory; do not freeze samples.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Gavin et al., 2005:  Gavin, P.J., Kazacos, K.R. and Shulman, S.T.  2005.  Baylisascariasis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 18(4):703-718.
• Gatcombe et al., 2010:  Gatcombe, R.R., Jothikumar, N., Dangoudoubiyam, S., Kazacos, K.R. and Hill, V.R.  2010.  Evaluation of a Molecular Beacon Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection of Baylisascaris procyonis in Different Soil Types and Water Samples. Parasitology Research, 106:499-504.
• Collender et al., 2015:  Collender, P.A., Kirby, A.E., Addiss, D.G., Freeman, M.C. and Remais, J.V.  2015.  Methods for Quantification of Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Environmental Media: Current Techniques and Recent Advances. Trends in Parasitology, 31(12):625-639.
• Amoah et al., 2017:  Amoah, I.D., Singh, G., Stenströma, T.A. and Reddy, P.  2017.  Detection and Quantification of Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Environmental Samples: A Review of Current State-Of-The-Art And Future Perspectives. Acta Tropica, 169:187-201.
Notes:
NA
 
Analyte:
Baylisascaris procyonis [Raccoon roundworm infection]
Sample Type:
Surfaces (Swab, Wipe, Dust Socks)
Pathogen Type:
Helminth
Sample Size:
At least 2 sterile, synthetic, and moistened wipes, swabs, or dust socks
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice).  Samples may be stored at 2 - 5°C in the laboratory.

Care should be taken to avoid freezing the samples.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Ogdee et al., 2016:  Ogdee, J.L., Henke, S.E., Wester, D.B. and Fedynich, A.M.  2016.  Permeability and Viability of Baylisascaris procyonis Eggs in Southern Texas Soils. Journal of Parasitology, 102(6):608-612.
• Hernandez et al., 2013:  Hernandez, S.M., Galbreath, B., Riddle, D.F., Moore, A.P., Palamer, M.B., Levy, M.G., Yabsley, M.J.  2013.  Baylisascaris procyonis in Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) from North Carolina and Current Status of the Parasite in the USA. Parasitology Research, 112:693-698.
• Sorvillo et al., 2002:  Sorvillo, F., Ash, L.R., Berlin, O.G.W., Yatabe, J., Degiorgio, C. and Morse, S.A.  2002.  Baylisascaris procyonis: An Emerging Helminthic Zoonosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(4):355-359.
• Gavin et al., 2005:  Gavin, P.J., Kazacos, K.R. and Shulman, S.T.  2005.  Baylisascariasis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 18(4):703-718.
Notes:
NA
 
Analyte:
Brucella spp. [Brucellosis]
Sample Type:
Aerosol
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
MCE/PTFE filter: 120 - 960 L;
gel filter: 40 - 135 L;
impinger: 750 - 6000 L;
impactor: 84.9 - 849 L

NOTE: If using impingers that do not replenish the liquid as it is evaporated by the air stream, the maximum recommended sampling volume is 200 L (Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Duchaine et al., 2001, 67(6): 2775-2780).
Container:
Sterile MCE/PTFE filter, gel filter, impinger, and/or impactor (agar plate)

MCE and PTFE filters are available as cassettes.
Preservation:
Room temperature if held for 15 minutes or less; keep on ice (e.g., ice packs, secure double-bagged ice) if longer.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Fatah et al., 2007:  Fatah, A.A., Arcilesi, Jr., R.D., Chekol, T., Lattin, C.H., Sadik, O.A. and Aluoch, A.  2007.  Guide for the Selection of Biological Agent Detection Equipment for Emergency First Responders. Guide 101-06. U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, D.C.
• NIST.  2012.  Challenges in Microbial Sampling in the Indoor Environment: Workshop Summary Report. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland. Report No. NIST Technical Note 1737.
• Dybwad, 2014:  Dybwad, M.  2014.  Characterization of Airborne Bacteria at a Subway Station: Implications for Testing and Evaluation of Biological Detection, Identification, and Monitoring Systems. Doctoral Dissertations. Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
Notes:
NA
 
Analyte:
Brucella spp. [Brucellosis]
Sample Type:
Liquid (Water, Wastewater)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
100 mL (minimum)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Room temperature if held for 2 hours or less; keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice) if longer. 

For collection of aqueous samples containing residual chlorine, add a stock solution of filter-sterilized 10% sodium thiosulfate at 0.5 mL/L.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Saraswathy et al., 2015:  Saraswathy, H., Felsia, M.H., Senthil, N.R.R. and Allwin, B.  2015.  Evaluation of Clinical Samples by Various Serological, Biochemical and Polymerase Chain Reaction Techniques for Brucellosis. International Journal of Advanced Research in Biological Sciences, 2(4):252-263.
• Goenka et al., 2012:  Goenka, R., Guirnalda, P.D., Black, S.J. and Baldwin, C.L.  2012.  B Lymphocytes Provide an Infection Niche for Intracellular Bacterium Brucella Abortus. The Journal of Infectious Disease, 206(1):91-98.
• Martin et al., 2012:  Martin, D.W., Baumgartner, J.E., Gee, J.M., Anderson, E.S. and Roop, R.M., II.  2012.  SodA is a Major Metabolic Antioxidant in Brucella abortus 2308 that Plays a Significant, but Limited, Role in the Virulence of this Strain in the Mouse Model. Microbiology, 158:1767-1774.
• Corbel, M.J.  2006.  Brucellosis in Humans and Animals. World Health Organization. Report WHO/CDS/EPR/2006.7.
Notes:
NA
 
Analyte:
Brucella spp. [Brucellosis]
Sample Type:
Solid
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
50 - 100 g (gravimetric)

Fill 50 mL sample tube to at least 40 mL mark (volumetric)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Room temperature if held for 2 hours or less; keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice) if longer.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Scholz et al., 2008:  Scholz, H. C., Hubalek, Z., Nesvadbova, J., Tomaso, H., Vergnaud, G., Le Fleche, P., Whatmore, A.M., Al Dahouk, S., Krüger, M., Lodri, C. and Pfeffer, M.  2008.  Isolation of Brucella microti from Soil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8):1316-1317.
• USAMRIID.  2016.  Specimen Collection and Submission Manual. United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Diagnostic Systems Division, Fort Detrick, Maryland. Report # TR-16-161.
Notes:
NA
 
Analyte:
Brucella spp. [Brucellosis]
Sample Type:
Surfaces (Swab, Wipe, Dust Socks)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
At least 2 sterile, synthetic, and moistened wipes, swabs, or dust socks
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Room temperature if held for 2 hours or less; keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice) if longer.

Care should be taken to avoid freezing the samples.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• USAMRIID.  2016.  Specimen Collection and Submission Manual. United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Diagnostic Systems Division, Fort Detrick, Maryland. Report # TR-16-161.
• Arizona Department of Health Services.  2017.  Guide to Laboratory Services: Microbiology. Arizona Department of Health Services, Bureau of State Laboratory Services, Phoenix, Arizona.
• Ohio Department of Health.  2013.  Microbiology Client Services Manual. Bureau of Public Health Laboratory, The Ohio Department of Health, Reynoldsburg, OH.
Notes:
NA
 
Analyte:
Burkholderia mallei [Glanders]
Sample Type:
Aerosol
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
MCE/PTFE filter: 120 - 960 L;
gel filter: 40 - 135 L;
impinger: 750 - 6000 L;
impactor: 84.9 - 849 L

NOTE: If using impingers that do not replenish the liquid as it is evaporated by the air stream, the maximum recommended sampling volume is 200 L (Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Duchaine et al., 2001, 67(6): 2775-2780).
Container:
Sterile MCE/PTFE filter, gel filter, impinger, and/or impactor (agar plate)

MCE and PTFE filters are available as cassettes.
Preservation:
Room temperature if held for 15 minutes or less; keep on ice (e.g., ice packs, secure double-bagged ice) if longer.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Fatah et al., 2007:  Fatah, A.A., Arcilesi, Jr., R.D., Chekol, T., Lattin, C.H., Sadik, O.A. and Aluoch, A.  2007.  Guide for the Selection of Biological Agent Detection Equipment for Emergency First Responders. Guide 101-06. U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, D.C.
• Blatny et al., 2008:  Blatny, J.M., Fykse, E.M., Olsen, J.S., Skogan, G. and Aarskaug, T.  2008. Identification of Biological Threat Agents in the Environment and its Challenge. Forsvarets forskningsinstitutt/Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI). FFI-rapport 2008/01371.
• Dabisch et al., 2012:  Dabisch, P., Bower, K., Dorsey, B. and Wronka, L.  2012.  Recovery Efficiencies for Burkholderia thailandensis from Various Aerosol Sampling Media. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 2:78.
• U.S. EPA.  2013.  Systematic Evaluation of Aggressive Air Sampling for Bacillus anthracis Spores Assessment and Evaluation Report. EPA 600/R-13/068.
• Grinshpun et al., 2016:  Grinshpun, S.A., Buttner, M.P., Mainelis, G. and Willeke, K.  2016.  Sampling for Airborne Microorganisms. Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition (pp. 3-2). American Society of Microbiology.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Burkholderia mallei [Glanders]
Sample Type:
Liquid (Water, Wastewater)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
100 mL (minimum)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Room temperature if held for 1 hour or less; keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice) if longer. 

For collection of aqueous samples containing residual chlorine, add a stock solution of filter-sterilized 10% sodium thiosulfate at 0.5 mL/L.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Prakash et al., 2014:  Prakash, A., Thavaselvam, D., Kumar, A., Kumar, A., Arora, S., Tiwari, S., Barua, A. and Sathyaseelan, K.  2014.  Isolation, Identification and Characterization of Burkholderia pseudomallei from Soil of Coastal Region of India. SpringerPlus, 3:438.
• Thaipadungpanit et al., 2014:  Thaipadungpanit, J., Chierakul, W., Pattanaporkrattana, W., Phoodaeng, A., Wongsuvan, G., Huntrakun, V. et al.  2014.  Burkholderia pseudomallei in Water Supplies, Southern Thailand. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 20(11):1947-1949.
• Vongphayloth et al., 2012:  Vongphayloth, K., Rattanavong, S., Moore, C.E., Phetsouvanh, R., Wuthiekanun, V., Sengdouangphachanh, A., Phouminh, P., Newton, P.N., and Buisson, Y.  2012.  Burkholderia pseudomallei Detection in Surface Water in Southern Laos Using Moore's Swabs. AmJTrop Med Hyg. 86:872-877.
• Baker et al., 2011:  Baker, A., Pearson, T., Price, E.P., Dale, J., Keim, P., Hornstra, H., Greenhill, A., Padilla, G. and Warner, J.  2011.  Molecular Phylogeny of Burkholderia pseudomallei from a Remote Region of Papua New Guinea. PLoS One, 6(3), p.e18343.
• Lever et al., 2003:  Lever, M.S., Nelson, M., Ireland, P.I., Stagg, A.J., Beedham, R.J., Hall, G.A., Knight, G. and Titball, R.W.  2003.  Experimental Aerogenic Burkholderia mallei (Glanders) Infection in the BALB/C Mouse. Journal of Medical Microbiology 52(12):1109-1115.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Burkholderia mallei [Glanders]
Sample Type:
Solid
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
50 - 100 g (gravimetric) 
 
Fill 50 mL sample tube to at least 40 mL mark (volumetric)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Room temperature if held for 2 hours or less; keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice) if longer. 
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Velasco et al., 1998:  Velasco, J., Romero, C., Lopez-Got, I., Leiva, J., Diaz, R., and Moriydn, I.  1998.  Evaluation of the Relatedness of Brucella spp. and Ochrobactrum anthropi and Description of Ochrobactrum intermedium sp. nov., a New Species with a Closer Relationship to Brucella spp. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 48:759-768.
• Prakash et al., 2014:  Prakash, A., Thavaselvam, D., Kumar, A., Kumar, A., Arora, S., Tiwari, S., Barua, A. and Sathyaseelan, K.  2014.  Isolation, Identification and Characterization of Burkholderia pseudomallei from Soil of Coastal Region of India. SpringerPlus, 3:438.
• U.S. EPA/USGS.  2014.  Sample Collection Protocol for Bacterial Pathogens in Surface Soil. Cincinnati, OH, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. EPA/600/R-14/027.
• USAMRIID.  2016.  Specimen Collection and Submission Manual. United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Diagnostic Systems Division, Fort Detrick, Maryland. Report # TR-16-161.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Burkholderia mallei [Glanders]
Sample Type:
Surfaces (Swab, Wipe, Dust Socks)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
At least 2 sterile, synthetic, and moistened wipes, swabs, or dust socks
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Room temperature if held for 2 hours or less; keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice) if longer.

Care should be taken to avoid freezing the samples.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• USAMRIID.  2016.  Specimen Collection and Submission Manual. United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Diagnostic Systems Division, Fort Detrick, Maryland. Report # TR-16-161.
• Arizona Department of Health Services.  2017.  Guide to Laboratory Services: Microbiology. Arizona Department of Health Services, Bureau of State Laboratory Services, Phoenix, Arizona.
• Downey et al., 2012:  Downey, A.S., Da Silva, S.M., Olson, N.D., Filiben, J.J. and Morrow, J.B.  2012.  Impact of Processing Method on Recovery of Bacteria from Wipes Used in Biological Surface Sampling. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78(16):5872-5881.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Burkholderia pseudomallei [Melioidosis]
Sample Type:
Aerosol
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
MCE/PTFE filter: 120 - 960 L;
gel filter: 40 - 135 L;
impinger: 750 - 6000 L;
impactor: 84.9 - 849 L

NOTE: If using impingers that do not replenish the liquid as it is evaporated by the air stream, the maximum recommended sampling volume is 200 L (Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Duchaine et al., 2001, 67(6): 2775-2780).
Container:
Sterile MCE/PTFE filter, gel filter, impinger, and/or impactor (agar plate)

MCE and PTFE filters are available as cassettes.
Preservation:
Room temperature if held for 15 minutes or less; keep on ice (e.g., ice packs, secure double-bagged ice) if longer.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Fatah et al., 2007:  Fatah, A.A., Arcilesi, Jr., R.D., Chekol, T., Lattin, C.H., Sadik, O.A. and Aluoch, A.  2007.  Guide for the Selection of Biological Agent Detection Equipment for Emergency First Responders. Guide 101-06. U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, D.C.
• Dabisch et al., 2012:  Dabisch, P., Bower, K., Dorsey, B. and Wronka, L.  2012.  Recovery Efficiencies for Burkholderia thailandensis from Various Aerosol Sampling Media. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 2:78.
• U.S. EPA.  2013.  Systematic Evaluation of Aggressive Air Sampling for Bacillus anthracis Spores Assessment and Evaluation Report. EPA 600/R-13/068.
• Grinshpun et al., 2016:  Grinshpun, S.A., Buttner, M.P., Mainelis, G. and Willeke, K.  2016.  Sampling for Airborne Microorganisms. Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition (pp. 3-2). American Society of Microbiology.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Burkholderia pseudomallei [Melioidosis]
Sample Type:
Liquid (Water, Wastewater)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
100 mL (minimum)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Room temperature if held for 2 hours or less; keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice) if longer.

For collection of aqueous samples containing residual chlorine, add a stock solution of filter-sterilized 10% sodium thiosulfate at 0.5 mL/L.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Delgado-Gardea et al., 2016:  Delgado-Gardea, M.C.E., Tamez-Guerra, P., Gomez-Flores, R., Zavala-Diaz de la Serna, F.J., Eroza-de la Vega, G., Nevàrez-Moorillón, G.V., Pérez-Recoder, M.C., Sànchez-Ramirez, B., Gonzàlez-Horta, M.D.C. and Infante-Ramirez, R.  2016.  Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Surface Water in Bassaseachic Falls National Park, Mexico. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13(6):597.
• Limmathurotsakul et al., 2013:  Limmathurotsakul, D., Dance, D.A., Wuthiekanun, V., Kaestli, M., Mayo, M., Warner, J., Wagner, D.M., Tuanyok, A., Wertheim, H., Cheng, T.Y. and Mukhopadhyay, C.  2013.  Systematic Review and Consensus Guidelines for Environmental Sampling of Burkholderia pseudomallei. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 7(3): p.e2105.
• Limmathurotsakul et al., 2012:  Limmathurotsakul, D., Wuthiekanun, V., Amornchai, P., Wongsuwan, G., Day, N.P. and Peacock, S.J.  2012.  Effectiveness of a Simplified Method for Isolation of Burkholderia pseudomallei from Soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 78(3):876-877.
• Vongphayloth et al., 2012:  Vongphayloth, K., Rattanavong, S., Moore, C.E., Phetsouvanh, R., Wuthiekanun, V., Sengdouangphachanh, A., Phouminh, P., Newton, P.N., and Buisson, Y.  2012.  Burkholderia pseudomallei Detection in Surface Water in Southern Laos Using Moore's Swabs. AmJTrop Med Hyg. 86:872-877.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Burkholderia pseudomallei [Melioidosis]
Sample Type:
Solid
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
50 - 100 g (gravimetric)

Fill 50 mL sample tube to at least 40 mL mark (volumetric)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Room temperature if held for 2 hours or less; keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice) if longer. 
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Velasco et al., 1998:  Velasco, J., Romero, C., Lopez-Got, I., Leiva, J., Diaz, R., and Moriydn, I.  1998.  Evaluation of the Relatedness of Brucella spp. and Ochrobactrum anthropi and Description of Ochrobactrum intermedium sp. nov., a New Species with a Closer Relationship to Brucella spp. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 48:759-768.
• Prakash et al., 2014:  Prakash, A., Thavaselvam, D., Kumar, A., Kumar, A., Arora, S., Tiwari, S., Barua, A. and Sathyaseelan, K.  2014.  Isolation, Identification and Characterization of Burkholderia pseudomallei from Soil of Coastal Region of India. SpringerPlus, 3:438.
• U.S. EPA/USGS.  2014.  Sample Collection Protocol for Bacterial Pathogens in Surface Soil. Cincinnati, OH, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. EPA/600/R-14/027.
• USAMRIID.  2016.  Specimen Collection and Submission Manual. United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Diagnostic Systems Division, Fort Detrick, Maryland. Report # TR-16-161.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Burkholderia pseudomallei [Melioidosis]
Sample Type:
Surfaces (Swab, Wipe, Dust Socks)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
At least 2 sterile, synthetic, and moistened wipes, swabs, or dust socks
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Room temperature if held for 2 hours or less; keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice) if longer.

Care should be taken to avoid freezing the samples. 
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• USAMRIID.  2016.  Specimen Collection and Submission Manual. United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Diagnostic Systems Division, Fort Detrick, Maryland. Report # TR-16-161.
• Arizona Department of Health Services.  2017.  Guide to Laboratory Services: Microbiology. Arizona Department of Health Services, Bureau of State Laboratory Services, Phoenix, Arizona.
• Downey et al., 2012:  Downey, A.S., Da Silva, S.M., Olson, N.D., Filiben, J.J. and Morrow, J.B.  2012.  Impact of Processing Method on Recovery of Bacteria from Wipes Used in Biological Surface Sampling. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78(16):5872-5881.
• Hong-Geller et al., 2010:  Hong-Geller, E., Valdez, Y.E., Shou, Y., Yoshida, T.M., Marrone, B.L. and Dunbar, J.M.  2010.  Evaluation of Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis Sample Collection from Nonporous Surfaces by Quantitative Real-Time PCR. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 50(4):431-437.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Caliciviruses: Norovirus
Sample Type:
Aerosol
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
MCE/PTFE filter: 120 - 960 L;
gel filter: 40 - 135 L;
impinger: 750 - 6000 L;
impactor: 84.9 - 849 L

NOTE: If using impingers that do not replenish the liquid as it is evaporated by the air stream, the maximum recommended sampling volume is 200 L (Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Duchaine et al., 2001, 67(6): 2775-2780).
Container:
Sterile MCE/PTFE filter, gel filter, impinger, and/or impactor (agar plate)

MCE and PTFE filters are available as cassettes.
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice).
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Ge et al., 2014:  Ge, S., Kuehn, T.H., Abin, M., Verma, H., Bekele, A., Mor, S.K., Zuo, Z.  2014.  Airborne Virus Survivability during Long-Term Sampling Using a Non-Viable Andersen Cascade Impactor in an Environmental Chamber. Aerosol Science and Technology, 48(12):1360-1368.
• Carducci, A.  2013.  Sampling Strategies for Virus Detection in Foods, Food-Processing Environments, Water and Air. Viruses in Food and Water: Risks, Surveillance and Control, 10:79.
• Grinshpun et al., 2007:  Grinshpun, S.A., Adhikari, A., Honda, T., Kim, K.Y., Toivola, M., Rao, K.S.R. and Reponen, T.  2007.  Control of Aerosol Contaminants in Indoor Air: Combining the Particle Concentration Reduction with Microbial Inactivation. Environmental Science & Technology, 41(2):606-612.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Caliciviruses: Norovirus
Sample Type:
Liquid (Water, Wastewater)
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
2 - 20 L (wastewater); 
200 - 300 L (surface/recreational water); 
1500 - 2000 L (drinking water/groundwater)
Container:
Positively charged 1MDS cartridge filter
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice).  

For collection of aqueous samples containing residual chlorine, add a stock solution of filter-sterilized 10% sodium thiosulfate at 0.5 mL/L.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Gabrieli et al., 2009:  Gabrieli, R., Maccari, F., Ruta, A., Pana, A. and Divizia, M.  2009.  Norovirus Detection in Groundwater. Food and Environmental Virology, 1(2):92-96.
• Karim et al., 2009:  Karim, M.R., Rhodes, E.R., Brinkman, N., Wymer, L. and Fout, G.S.  2009.  New Electropositive Filter for Concentrating Enteroviruses and Noroviruses from Large Volumes of Water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 75(8):2393-2399.
• USGS.  2001. Occurrence and Distribution of Enteric Viruses in Shallow Ground Water and Factors Affecting Well Vulnerability to Microbiological Contamination in Worcester and Wicomico Counties, Maryland. Water-Resources Investigations Report 01-4147.
• Williams et al., 2001a:  Williams, F.P., Stetler, R.E. and Safferman, R.S.  2001.  USEPA Manual of Methods for Virology. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/4-84/013 (N16).
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Caliciviruses: Norovirus
Sample Type:
Solid
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
50 - 100 g (gravimetric)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice).  
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Jones et al., 2007:  Jones, E.L., Kramer, A., Gaither, M. and Gerba, C.P.  2007.  Role of Fomite Contamination during an Outbreak of Norovirus on Houseboats. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 17(2):123-131.
• La Rosa et al., 2010: La Rosa, G., Pourshaban, M., Iaconelli, M. and Muscillo, M. (2010). Quantitative real-time PCR of enteric viruses in influent and effluent samples from wastewater treatment plants in Italy. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 46:266-73.
• Bibby and Peccia, 2013:  Bibby, K. and Peccia, J.  2013.  Identification of Viral Pathogen Diversity in Sewage Sludge by Metagenome Analysis. Environmental Science & Technology 47(4):1945.
• Boehm et al., 2016:  Boehm, A.B., Wang, D., Ercumen, A., Shea, M., Harris, A.R., Shanks, O.C., Kelty, C., Ahmed, A., Mahmud, Z.H., Arnold, B.F. and Chase, C.  2016.  Occurrence of Host-Associated Fecal Markers on Child Hands, Household Soil, and Drinking Water in Rural Bangladeshi Households. Environmental Science & Technology Letters, 3(11):393-398.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Caliciviruses: Norovirus
Sample Type:
Surfaces (Swab, Wipe, Dust Socks)
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
At least 2 sterile, synthetic, and moistened wipes, swabs, or dust socks
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice).
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Williams et al., 2006:  Williams, J.V., Wang, C.K., Yang, C.F., Tollefson, S.J., House, F.S., Heck, J.M. et al.  2006.  The Role of Human Metapneumovirus in Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Children: A 20-Year Experience. J Infect Dis. 193:387-395.
• U.S. EPA.  2015.  Water Contaminant Information Tool: Pathogen Contaminant Profile - Comprehensive Report Format - Data Package for Yersinia pestis. EPA/600/S-15/172.
• Kimmitt and Redway 2016:  Kimmitt, P.T. and Redway, K.F.  2016.  Evaluation of the Potential for Virus Dispersal during Hand Drying: A Comparison of Three Methods. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 120(2):478-486.
• Tuladhar et al., 2012:  Tuladhar, E., Hazeleger, W.C., Koopmans, M., Zwietering, M.H., Beumer, R.R. and Duizer, E.  2012.  Residual Viral and Bacterial Contamination of Surfaces after Cleaning and Disinfection. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78(21):7769-7775.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Caliciviruses: Sapovirus
Sample Type:
Aerosol
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
MCE/PTFE filter: 120 - 960 L;
gel filter: 40 - 135 L;
impinger: 750 - 6000 L;
impactor: 84.9 - 849 L

NOTE: If using impingers that do not replenish the liquid as it is evaporated by the air stream, the maximum recommended sampling volume is 200 L (Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Duchaine et al., 2001, 67(6): 2775-2780).
Container:
Sterile MCE/PTFE filter, gel filter, impinger, and/or impactor (agar plate)

MCE and PTFE filters are available as cassettes.
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice).
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Ge et al., 2014:  Ge, S., Kuehn, T.H., Abin, M., Verma, H., Bekele, A., Mor, S.K., Zuo, Z.  2014.  Airborne Virus Survivability during Long-Term Sampling Using a Non-Viable Andersen Cascade Impactor in an Environmental Chamber. Aerosol Science and Technology, 48(12):1360-1368.
• Carducci, A.  2013.  Sampling Strategies for Virus Detection in Foods, Food-Processing Environments, Water and Air. Viruses in Food and Water: Risks, Surveillance and Control, 10:79.
• Grinshpun et al., 2007:  Grinshpun, S.A., Adhikari, A., Honda, T., Kim, K.Y., Toivola, M., Rao, K.S.R. and Reponen, T.  2007.  Control of Aerosol Contaminants in Indoor Air: Combining the Particle Concentration Reduction with Microbial Inactivation. Environmental Science & Technology, 41(2):606-612.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Caliciviruses: Sapovirus
Sample Type:
Liquid (Water, Wastewater)
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
2 - 20 L (wastewater); 
200 - 300 L (surface/recreational water); 
1500 - 2000 L (drinking water/groundwater)
Container:
Positively charged 1MDS cartridge filter
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice). 

For collection of aqueous samples containing residual chlorine, add a stock solution of filter-sterilized 10% sodium thiosulfate at 0.5 mL/L.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Hata et al., 2015:  Hata, A., Matsumori, K., Kitajima, M. and Katayama, H.  2015.  Concentration of Enteric Viruses in Large Volumes of Water Using a Cartridge-Type Mixed Cellulose Ester Membrane. Food and Environmental Virology, 7(1):7-13.
• Williams et al., 2001a:  Williams, F.P., Stetler, R.E. and Safferman, R.S.  2001.  USEPA Manual of Methods for Virology. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/4-84/013 (N16).
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Caliciviruses: Sapovirus
Sample Type:
Solid
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
50 - 100 g (gravimetric)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice).  
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Jones et al., 2007:  Jones, E.L., Kramer, A., Gaither, M. and Gerba, C.P.  2007.  Role of Fomite Contamination during an Outbreak of Norovirus on Houseboats. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 17(2):123-131.
• La Rosa et al., 2010: La Rosa, G., Pourshaban, M., Iaconelli, M. and Muscillo, M. (2010). Quantitative real-time PCR of enteric viruses in influent and effluent samples from wastewater treatment plants in Italy. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 46:266-73.
• Bibby and Peccia, 2013:  Bibby, K. and Peccia, J.  2013.  Identification of Viral Pathogen Diversity in Sewage Sludge by Metagenome Analysis. Environmental Science & Technology 47(4):1945.
• Boehm et al., 2016:  Boehm, A.B., Wang, D., Ercumen, A., Shea, M., Harris, A.R., Shanks, O.C., Kelty, C., Ahmed, A., Mahmud, Z.H., Arnold, B.F. and Chase, C.  2016.  Occurrence of Host-Associated Fecal Markers on Child Hands, Household Soil, and Drinking Water in Rural Bangladeshi Households. Environmental Science & Technology Letters, 3(11):393-398.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Caliciviruses: Sapovirus
Sample Type:
Surfaces (Swab, Wipe, Dust Socks)
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
At least 2 sterile, synthetic, and moistened wipes, swabs, or dust socks
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice).
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Williams et al., 2006:  Williams, J.V., Wang, C.K., Yang, C.F., Tollefson, S.J., House, F.S., Heck, J.M. et al.  2006.  The Role of Human Metapneumovirus in Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Children: A 20-Year Experience. J Infect Dis. 193:387-395.
• U.S. EPA.  2015.  Water Contaminant Information Tool: Pathogen Contaminant Profile - Comprehensive Report Format - Data Package for Yersinia pestis. EPA/600/S-15/172.
• Kimmitt and Redway 2016:  Kimmitt, P.T. and Redway, K.F.  2016.  Evaluation of the Potential for Virus Dispersal during Hand Drying: A Comparison of Three Methods. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 120(2):478-486.
• Tuladhar et al., 2012:  Tuladhar, E., Hazeleger, W.C., Koopmans, M., Zwietering, M.H., Beumer, R.R. and Duizer, E.  2012.  Residual Viral and Bacterial Contamination of Surfaces after Cleaning and Disinfection. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78(21):7769-7775.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Campylobacter jejuni [Campylobacteriosis]
Sample Type:
Aerosol
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
MCE/PTFE filter: 120 - 960 L;
gel filter: 40 - 135 L;
impinger: 750 - 6000 L

NOTE: If using impingers that do not replenish the liquid as it is evaporated by the air stream, the maximum recommended sampling volume is 200 L (Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Duchaine et al., 2001, 67(6): 2775-2780).
Container:
Sterile MCE/PTFE filter, gel filter, impinger

MCE and PTFE filters are available as cassettes.
Preservation:
Keep on ice (e.g. ice packs, secure double bagged ice).
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Zhao et al., 2011a:  Zhao, Y., Aarnink, A.J.A., Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G., Hagenaars, T.J., Katsma, W.E.A. and de Jong, M.C.M.  2011.  Detection of Airborne Campylobacter with Three Bioaerosol Samplers for Alarming Bacteria Transmission in Broilers. Biological Engineering, 3(4): 177-186.
• Zhao et al., 2011b:  Zhao, Y., Aarnink, A.J.A., Doornenbal, P., Huynh, T.T.T., Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G., Landman, W.J.M. and de Jong, M.C.M.  2011b. Investigation of the Efficiencies of Bioaerosol Samplers for Collecting Aerosolized Bacteria using a Fluorescent Tracer. II: Sampling Efficiency and Half-Life Time. Aerosol Science and Technology, 45(3):432-442.
• Dybwad et al., 2014:  Dybwad, M., Skogan, G. and Blatny, J.M.  2014.  Comparative Testing and Evaluation of Nine Different Air Samplers: End-To-End Sampling Efficiencies as Specific Performance Measurements for Bioaerosol Applications. Aerosol Science and Technology, 48(3): 282-295.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Campylobacter jejuni [Campylobacteriosis]
Sample Type:
Liquid (Water, Wastewater)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
1 - 5 L
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Keep on ice (secure double-bagged ice). 

For collection of aqueous samples containing residual chlorine, add a stock solution of filter-sterilized 10% sodium thiosulfate at 0.5 mL/L.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Khan et al., 2009:  Khan, I.U., Gannon, V., Loughborough, A., Jokinen, C., Kent, R., Koning, W., Lapen, D.R., Medeiros, D., Miller, J., Neumann, N. and Phillips, R.  2009.  A Methods Comparison for the Isolation and Detection of Thermophilic Campylobacter in Agricultural Watersheds. 
• Pitkänen et al., 2009:  Pitkänen, T., Bräcker, J., Miettinen, I.T., Heitto, A., Pesola, J. and Hakalehto, E.  2009.  Enhanced Enrichment and Detection of Thermotolerant Campylobacter Species from Water using the Portable Microbe Enrichment Unit and Real-Time PCR. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 55(7):849-858.
• ISO.  2005.  ISO 17995:2005: Water Quality.Detection and Enumeration of Thermotolerant Campylobacter Species. Geneva: International Organization of Standardization.
• Hänninen et al., 2003:  Hänninen, M.L., Haajanen, H., Pummi, T., Wermundsen, K., Katila, M.L., Sarkkinen, H., Miettinen, I. and Rautelin, H.  2003.  Detection and Typing of Campylobacter Jejuni and Campylobacter coli and Analysis of Indicator Organisms in Three Waterborne Outbreaks in Finland. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69(3):1391-1396.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Campylobacter jejuni [Campylobacteriosis]
Sample Type:
Solid
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
50 - 100 g (gravimetric)
 
Fill 50 mL sample tube to at least 40 mL mark (volumetric)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Keep on ice (secure double-bagged ice).  
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Rivoal et al., 2005:  Rivoal, K., Ragimbeau, C., Salvat, G., Colin, P. and Ermel, G.  2005.  Genomic Diversity of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni Isolates Recovered from Free-range Broiler Farms and Comparison with Isolates of Various Origins. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71(10):6216-6227.
• Carrillo et al., 2017:  Carrillo, C.D., Kenwell, R., Iugovaz, I. and Oyarzabal, O.A.  2017.  Recovery of Campylobacter spp. from Food and Environmental Sources. Campylobacter jejuni: Methods and Protocols, 9-18.
• Hiett, 2017:  Hiett, K.L.  2017.  Campylobacter jejuni Isolation/Enumeration from Environmental Samples. Campylobacter jejuni: Methods and Protocols, 1-8.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Campylobacter jejuni [Campylobacteriosis]
Sample Type:
Surfaces (Swab, Wipe, Dust Socks)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
At least 2 sterile, synthetic, and moistened wipes, swabs, or dust socks
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice).

Care should be taken to avoid freezing the samples.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Vidal et al., 2016:  Vidal, A.B., Colles, F.M., Rodgers, J.D., McCarthy, N.D., Davies, R.H., Maiden, M.C.J. and Clifton-Hadley, F.A.  2016.  Genetic Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates from Conventional Broiler Flocks and the Impacts of Sampling Strategy and Laboratory Method. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 82(8):2347-2355.
• Arizona Department of Health Services.  2017.  Guide to Laboratory Services: Microbiology. Arizona Department of Health Services, Bureau of State Laboratory Services, Phoenix, Arizona.
• Standard Methods.  2006.  9060 Samples. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Environment Federation.  
• Standard Methods.  2007.  9020 Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria, G. Campylobacter. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Environment Federation.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Chlamydophila psittaci (formerly Chlamydophila psittaci) [Psittacosis]
Sample Type:
Aerosol
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
MCE/PTFE filter: 120 - 960 L;
gel filter: 40 - 135 L;
impinger: 750 - 6000 L;
impactor: 84.9 - 849 L

NOTE: If using impingers that do not replenish the liquid as it is evaporated by the air stream, the maximum recommended sampling volume is 200 L (Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Duchaine et al., 2001, 67(6): 2775-2780).
Container:
Sterile MCE/PTFE filter, gel filter, impinger, and/or impactor (agar plate)

MCE and PTFE filters are available as cassettes.
Preservation:
Keep on ice (e.g. ice packs, secure double bagged ice).
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Van Droogenbroeck, et al., 2009:  Van Droogenbroeck, C., Van Risseghem, M., Braeckman, L. and Vanrompay, D.  2009.  Evaluation of Bioaerosol Sampling Techniques for the Detection of Chlamydophila psittaci in Contaminated Air. Veterinary Microbiology, 135 (1-2):31-7.
• NIST.  2012.  Challenges in Microbial Sampling in the Indoor Environment: Workshop Summary Report. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland. Report No. NIST Technical Note 1737.
• Dybwad, 2014:  Dybwad, M.  2014.  Characterization of Airborne Bacteria at a Subway Station: Implications for Testing and Evaluation of Biological Detection, Identification, and Monitoring Systems. Doctoral Dissertations. Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Chlamydophila psittaci (formerly Chlamydophila psittaci) [Psittacosis]
Sample Type:
Liquid (Water, Wastewater)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
100 mL (minimum)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Keep on ice (secure double-bagged ice). 

For collection of aqueous samples containing residual chlorine, add a stock solution of filter-sterilized 10% sodium thiosulfate at 0.5 mL/L.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Hulin et al., 2015b:  Hulin, V., Oger, S., Vorimore, F., Aaziz, R., de Barbeyrac, B., Berruchon, J., Sachse, K. and Laroucau, K.  2015.  Host Preference and Zoonotic Potential of Chlamydia psittaci and C. gallinacea in Poultry. Pathogens and Disease 73(1):1-11.
• USDA.  2014.  FSIS compliance guideline: Controlling Listeria monocytogenes in Post-Lethality Exposed Ready-To-Eat Meat and Poultry Products. United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service, Washington, DC.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Chlamydophila psittaci (formerly Chlamydophila psittaci) [Psittacosis]
Sample Type:
Solid
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
50 - 100 g (gravimetric)

Fill 50 mL sample tube to at least 40 mL mark (volumetric)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Keep on ice (secure double-bagged ice).
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Hulin et al., 2015a:  Hulin, V., Bernard, P., Vorimore, F., Aaziz, R., Cléva, D., Robineau, J., Durand, B., Angelis, L., Siarkou, V.I. and Laroucau, K.  2015.  Assessment of Chlamydia psittaci Shedding and Environmental Contamination as Potential Sources of Worker Exposure throughout the Mule Duck Breeding Process. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 82(5):1504-1518.
• Koskela, 2017:  Koskela, K.  2017.  Use of Molecular Methods in Biothreat Preparedness. National Defense University, Helsinki, Finland. Series 1: Research Publications No. 13.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Chlamydophila psittaci (formerly Chlamydophila psittaci) [Psittacosis]
Sample Type:
Surfaces (Swab, Wipe, Dust Socks)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
At least 2 sterile, synthetic, and moistened wipes, swabs, or dust socks
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice).

Care should be taken to avoid freezing the samples.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• U.S. EPA.  2015.  Water Contaminant Information Tool: Pathogen Contaminant Profile - Comprehensive Report Format - Data Package for Yersinia pestis. EPA/600/S-15/172.
• Hulin et al., 2015a:  Hulin, V., Bernard, P., Vorimore, F., Aaziz, R., Cléva, D., Robineau, J., Durand, B., Angelis, L., Siarkou, V.I. and Laroucau, K.  2015.  Assessment of Chlamydia psittaci Shedding and Environmental Contamination as Potential Sources of Worker Exposure throughout the Mule Duck Breeding Process. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 82(5):1504-1518.
• NRC.  2014.  Science Needs for Microbial Forensics: Developing Initial International Research Priorities. National Research Council. National Academies Press, Washington, DC.
• Madico et al., 2000:  Madico, G., Quinn, T.C., Boman, J. and Gaydos, C.A.  2000.  Touchdown Enzyme Time Release-PCR for Detection and Identification of Chlamydia trachomatis, C. pneumoniae, and C. psittaci using the 16S and 16S-23S Spacer rRNA Genes. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 38(3):1085-1093.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Coronaviruses: SARS-associated human coronavirus
Sample Type:
Aerosol
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
MCE/PTFE filter: 120 - 960 L;
gel filter: 40 - 135 L;
impinger: 750 - 6000 L;
impactor: 84.9 - 849 L

NOTE: If using impingers that do not replenish the liquid as it is evaporated by the air stream, the maximum recommended sampling volume is 200 L (Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Duchaine et al., 2001, 67(6): 2775-2780).
Container:
Sterile MCE/PTFE filter, gel filter, impinger, and/or impactor (agar plate)

MCE and PTFE filters are available as cassettes.
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice). 
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Kienlen, 2015: Kienlen, L.L.  2015.  Comparison of Bioaerosol Collection Methods in the Detection of Airborne Influenza Virus. Masters thesis. The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.
• Xu et al., 2013:  Xu, Z., Wei, K., Wu, Y., Shen, F., Chen, Q., Li, M. and Yao, M.  2013.  Enhancing Bioaerosol Sampling by Andersen Impactors Using Mineral-Oil-Spread Agar Plate. PLoS ONE, 8(2):e56896.
• Wu et al., 2013:  Wu, C.Y., Theodore, A.D., Lee, J.H. and Riemenschneider, L.A.  2013.  High-Efficiency Viable Sampler for Ultrafine Bioaerosols. University of Florida Research Foundation, Inc. U.S. Patent 8,349,582.
• Verreault et al., 2008:  Verreault, D., Moineau, S. and Duchaine, C.  2008.  Methods for Sampling of Airborne Viruses. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 72(3):413-444.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Coronaviruses: SARS-associated human coronavirus
Sample Type:
Liquid (Water, Wastewater)
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
2 - 20 L (wastewater); 
200 - 300 L (surface/recreational water); 
1500 - 2000 L (drinking water/groundwater)
Container:
Positively charged 1MDS cartridge filter
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice).

For collection of aqueous samples containing residual chlorine, add a stock solution of filter-sterilized 10% sodium thiosulfate at 0.5 mL/L.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• AWWA.  2007.  Optimizing Molecular Methods to Detect Human Caliciviruses in Environmental Samples. American Water Works Associations Research Foundation, Denver, Colorado.
• Williams et al., 2001:  Williams, F.P., Stetler, R.E. and Safferman, R.S.  2001.  USEPA Manual of Methods for Virology. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/4-84/013 (N16).
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Coronaviruses: SARS-associated human coronavirus
Sample Type:
Solid
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
50 - 100 g (gravimetric)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice).  
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Derbyshire and Brown, 1978:  Derbyshire, J.B. and Brown, E.G.  1978.  Isolation of Animal Viruses from Farm Livestock Waste, Soil and Water. Journal of Hygiene, 81(2):295-302.
• De Paoli, 2005:  De Paoli, P.  2005.  Biobanking in Microbiology: From Sample Collection to Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Research. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 29(5):897-910.
• Staggemeier et al., 2015:  Staggemeier, R., Bortoluzzi, M., da Silva Heck, T.M., da Luz, R.B., Fabres, R.B., Soliman, M.C., Rigotto, C., Baldasso, N.A., Spilki, F.R. and de Matos Almeida, S.E.  2015.  Animal and Human Enteric Viruses in Water and Sediment Samples from Dairy Farms. Agricultural Water Management, 152:135-141.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Coronaviruses: SARS-associated human coronavirus
Sample Type:
Surfaces (Swab, Wipe, Dust Socks)
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
At least 2 sterile, synthetic, and moistened wipes, swabs, or dust socks
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice). 
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Weir, 2016:  Weir, M.H.  2016.  Dose-Response Modeling and Use: Challenges and Uncertainties in Environmental Exposure. In Manual of Environmental Microbiology, 4th ed., 3.5.3-1 - 3.5.3-17. ASM Press.
• Julian et al., 2011:  Julian, T.R., Tamayo, F.J., Leckie, J.O. and Boehm, A.B.  2011.  Comparison of Surface Sampling Methods for Virus Recovery from Fomites. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 77(19):6918-6925.
• Casanova et al., 2010:  Casanova, L.M., Jeon, S., Rutala, W.A., Weber, D.J., Sobsey, M.D.  2010.  Effects of Air Temperature and Relative Humidity on Coronavirus Survival on Surfaces. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 76(9):2712-2717.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Coxiella burnetii [Q-fever]
Sample Type:
Aerosol
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
MCE/PTFE filter: 120 - 960 L;
gel filter: 40 - 135 L;
impinger: 750 - 6000 L;
impactor: 84.9 - 849 L

NOTE: If using impingers that do not replenish the liquid as it is evaporated by the air stream, the maximum recommended sampling volume is 200 L (Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Duchaine et al., 2001, 67(6): 2775-2780).
Container:
Sterile MCE/PTFE filter, gel filter, impinger, and/or impactor (agar plate)

MCE and PTFE filters are available as cassettes.
Preservation:
Room temperature if held for 15 minutes or less; keep on ice (e.g., ice packs, secure double-bagged ice) if longer.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• NIST.  2012.  Challenges in Microbial Sampling in the Indoor Environment: Workshop Summary Report. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland. Report No. NIST Technical Note 1737.
• Aarnink et al., 2015:  Aarnink, A.J.A., Y. Zhao and Ogink, N.W.M.  2015.  Measurement Protocol for Emissions of Bio-Aerosols from Animal Houses. Wageningen UR (University & Research Centre) Livestock Research, Livestock Research Report 878.
• Nuñez et al., 2016:  Nuñez, A., Amo de Paz, G., Rastrojo, A., Garcia, A.M., Alcami, A., Gutiérrez-Bustillo, A.M. and Moreno, D.A.  2016.  Monitoring of Airborne Biological Particles in Outdoor Atmosphere. Part 2: Metagenomics Applied to Urban Environments. International Microbiology, 19:69-80.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Coxiella burnetii [Q-fever]
Sample Type:
Liquid (Water, Wastewater)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
500 mL (minimum)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Room temperature if held for 1 hour or less; keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice) if longer.  

For collection of aqueous samples containing residual chlorine, add a stock solution of filter-sterilized 10% sodium thiosulfate at 0.5 mL/L.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Deshmukh et al., 2016:  Deshmukh, R.A., Joshi, K., Bhand, S. and Roy, U.  2016.  Recent Developments in Detection and Enumeration of Waterborne Bacteria: A Retrospective Minireview. MicrobiologyOpen, DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.383.
• Schets et al., 2013:  Schets, F.M., De Heer, L. and de Roda Husman, A.M.  2013.  Coxiella burnetii in Sewage Water at Sewage Water Treatment Plants in a Q Fever Epidemic Area. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 216(6):698-702.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Coxiella burnetii [Q-fever]
Sample Type:
Solid
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
50 - 100 g (gravimetric)

Fill 50 mL sample tube to at least 40 mL mark (volumetric)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Room temperature if held for 2 hours or less; keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice) if longer. 
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Fitzpatrick et al., 2010:  Fitzpatrick, K.A., Kersh, G.J. and Massung, R.F.  2010.  Practical Method for Extraction of PCR-Quality DNA from Environmental Soil Samples. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 76(13):4571-4573.
• Bruin et al., 2013:  Bruin, A., Janse, I., Koning, M., Heer, L., Plaats, R.Q.J., Leuken, J.P.G. and Rotterdam, B.J.  2013.  Detection of Coxiella burnetii DNA in the Environment during and after a Large Q Fever Epidemic in the Netherlands. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 114(5):1395-1404.
• Duncan et al., 2013:  Duncan, C., Savage, K., Williams, M., Dickerson, B., Kondas, A.V., Fitzpatrick, K.A., Guerrero, J.L., Spraker, T. and Kersh, G.J.  2013.  Multiple Strains of Coxiella burnetii are Present in the Environment of St. Paul Island, Alaska. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 60(4):345-350.
• Hong et al., 2013:  Hong, P.Y., Yannarell, A.C., Dai, Q., Ekizoglu, M. and Mackie, R.I.  2013.  Monitoring the Perturbation of Soil and Groundwater Microbial Communities Due to Pig Production Activities. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 79(8):2620-2629.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Coxiella burnetii [Q-fever]
Sample Type:
Surfaces (Swab, Wipe, Dust Socks)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
At least 2 sterile, synthetic, and moistened wipes, swabs, or dust socks
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Room temperature if held for 2 hours or less; keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice) if longer.

Care should be taken to avoid freezing the samples.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• USAMRIID.  2016.  Specimen Collection and Submission Manual. United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Diagnostic Systems Division, Fort Detrick, Maryland. Report # TR-16-161.
• Arizona Department of Health Services.  2017.  Guide to Laboratory Services: Microbiology. Arizona Department of Health Services, Bureau of State Laboratory Services, Phoenix, Arizona.
• Kersch et al., 2010:  Kersch, G.J., Wolfe, T.M., Fitzpatrick, K.A., Candee, A.J., Oliver, L.D., Patterson, N.E., Massung, R.F.  2010.  Presence of Coxiella burnetii DNA in the Environment of the United States, 2006 To 2008. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 76(13):4469-4475.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Cryptosporidium spp. [Cryptosporidiosis]
Sample Type:
Aerosol
Pathogen Type:
Protozoa
Sample Size:
Unlikely to be found.
Container:
NA
Preservation:
NA
Packaging Requirements:
NA
Shipping Label:
NA
Source:
NA
Notes:
NA
 
Analyte:
Cryptosporidium spp. [Cryptosporidiosis]
Sample Type:
Liquid (Water, Wastewater)
Pathogen Type:
Protozoa
Sample Size:
10 L - 15 L
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container

or Filter in sterile leak-proof container
Preservation:
Keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice); do not freeze.

For collection of aqueous samples containing residual chlorine, add a stock solution of filter-sterilized 10% sodium thiosulfate at 0.5 mL/L.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Prystajecky et al., 2014:  Prystajecky, N., Huck, P.M., Schreier, H. and Isaac-Renton, J.L.  2014.  Assessment of Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. as a Microbial Source Tracking Tool for Surface Water: Application in a Mixed-Use Watershed. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 80(8):2328-2336.
• Bonilla et al., 2015:  Bonilla, J.A., Bonilla, T.D., Abdelzaher, A.M., Scott, T.M., Lukasik, J., Solo-Gabriele, H.M. and Palmer, C.J.  2015.  Quantification of Protozoa and Viruses from Small Water Volumes. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12(7):7118-7132.
• U.S. EPA. 2005. Method 1623: Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Water by Filtration/IMS/FA. EPA 815-R-05-002.
Notes:
NA
 
Analyte:
Cryptosporidium spp. [Cryptosporidiosis]
Sample Type:
Solid
Pathogen Type:
Protozoa
Sample Size:
50 - 100 g (gravimetric)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice); do not freeze.  
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Prystajecky et al., 2014:  Prystajecky, N., Huck, P.M., Schreier, H. and Isaac-Renton, J.L.  2014.  Assessment of Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. as a Microbial Source Tracking Tool for Surface Water: Application in a Mixed-Use Watershed. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 80(8):2328-2336.
• Bonilla et al., 2015:  Bonilla, J.A., Bonilla, T.D., Abdelzaher, A.M., Scott, T.M., Lukasik, J., Solo-Gabriele, H.M. and Palmer, C.J.  2015.  Quantification of Protozoa and Viruses from Small Water Volumes. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12(7):7118-7132.
Notes:
NA
 
Analyte:
Cryptosporidium spp. [Cryptosporidiosis]
Sample Type:
Surfaces (Swab, Wipe, Dust Socks)
Pathogen Type:
Protozoa
Sample Size:
At least 2 sterile, synthetic, and moistened wipes, swabs, or dust socks
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice).

Care should be taken to avoid freezing the samples.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Edmonds et al., 2009:  Edmonds, J.M., Collett, P.J., Valdes, E.R., Skowronski, E.W., Pellar, G.J. and Emanuel P.A.  2009.  Surface Sampling of Spores in Dry-Deposition Aerosols. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 75(1):39-44.
• McDermott, 2004:  McDermott, H. J.  2004.  Surface Sampling Methods, Chapter 19. Air Monitoring for Toxic Exposures, Second Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.
• Carlsen et al., 2001:  Carlsen, T. M., MacQueen, D.H., Krauter, P.W.  2001.  Sampling Requirements for Chemical and Biological Agent Decontamination Efficacy Verification. UCRL-AR-143245. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California.
Notes:
NA
 
Analyte:
Entamoeba histolytica
Sample Type:
Aerosol
Pathogen Type:
Protozoa
Sample Size:
Unlikely to be found.
Container:
NA
Preservation:
NA
Packaging Requirements:
NA
Shipping Label:
NA
Source:
NA
Notes:
NA
 
Analyte:
Entamoeba histolytica
Sample Type:
Liquid (Water, Wastewater)
Pathogen Type:
Protozoa
Sample Size:
10L - 50 L
Container:
Polypropylene carboys
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice); do not freeze. 

For collection of aqueous samples containing residual chlorine, add a stock solution of filter-sterilized 10% sodium thiosulfate at 0.5 mL/L.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Skotarczak, 2009:  Skotarczak, B.  2009.  Methods for Parasitic Protozoans Detection in the Environmental Samples. Parasite, 16:183-190.
• Guy et al., 2003:  Guy, R.A., Payment, P., Krull, U.J. and Horgen, P.A.  2003.  Real-Time PCR for Quantification of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Environmental Water Samples and Sewage. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69(9):5178-5185.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Entamoeba histolytica
Sample Type:
Solid
Pathogen Type:
Protozoa
Sample Size:
50 - 100 g (gravimetric)
Container:
Sterile, sealed, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice); do not freeze. 
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Branco et al., 2012:  Branco, N., Leal, D.A.G. and Franco, R.M.B.  2012.  A Parasitological Survey of Natural Water Springs and Inhabitants of a Tourist City in Southeastern Brazil. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 12(5):410-417.
• Calegar et al., 2016:  Calegar, D.A., Nunes, B.C., Monteiro, K.J.L., Santos, J.P.D., Toma, H.K., Gomes, T.F., Lima, M.M., Bóia, M.N. and Carvalho-Costa, F.A.  2016.  Frequency and Molecular Characterisation of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, and Entamoeba hartmanni in the Context of Water Scarcity in Northeastern Brazil. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 111(2):114-119.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Entamoeba histolytica
Sample Type:
Surfaces (Swab, Wipe, Dust Socks)
Pathogen Type:
Protozoa
Sample Size:
At least 2 sterile, synthetic, and moistened wipes, swabs, or dust socks
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice).

Care should be taken to avoid freezing the samples.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Miller et al., 2010:  Miller, J.M., Astles, R., Baszler, T., Chapin, K., Carey, R., Garcia, L., Wiedbrauk, D.  2010.  Guidelines for Safe Work Practices in Human and Animal Medical Diagnostic Laboratories. Recommendations of a CDC-convened, Biosafety Blue Ribbon Panel. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 61(01):1-101. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Escherichia coli O157:H7
Sample Type:
Aerosol
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
MCE/PTFE filter: 120 - 960 L;
gel filter: 40 - 135 L;
impinger: 750 - 6000 L;
impactor: 84.9 - 849 L

NOTE: If using impingers that do not replenish the liquid as it is evaporated by the air stream, the maximum recommended sampling volume is 200 L (Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Duchaine et al., 2001, 67(6): 2775-2780).
Container:
Sterile MCE/PTFE filter, gel filter, impinger, and/or impactor (agar plate)

MCE and PTFE filters are available as cassettes.
Preservation:
Keep on ice (e.g. ice packs, secure double bagged ice)
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Kesavan et al., 2008:  Kesavan, J., Bottiger, J.R. and McFarland, A.R.  2008.  Bioaerosol Concentrator Performance: Comparative Tests with Viable and with Solid and Liquid Nonviable Particles. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 104:285-295.
• Riemenschneider et al., 2010:  Riemenschneider, L., Woo, M.-H., Wu, C.-Y., Lundgren, D., Wander, J., Lee, J.-H., Li, H.-W. and Heimbuch, B.  2010.  Characterization of Reaerosolization from Impingers in an Effort to Improve Airborne Virus Sampling. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 108:315-324.
• NIST.  2012.  Challenges in Microbial Sampling in the Indoor Environment: Workshop Summary Report. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland. Report No. NIST Technical Note 1737.
• Xu et al., 2013:  Xu, Z., Wei, K., Wu, Y., Shen, F., Chen, Q., Li, M. and Yao, M.  2013.  Enhancing Bioaerosol Sampling by Andersen Impactors Using Mineral-Oil-Spread Agar Plate. PLoS ONE, 8(2):e56896.
• Grinshpun et al., 2016:  Grinshpun, S.A., Buttner, M.P., Mainelis, G. and Willeke, K.  2016.  Sampling for Airborne Microorganisms. Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition (pp. 3-2). American Society of Microbiology.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Escherichia coli O157:H7
Sample Type:
Liquid (Water, Wastewater)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
100 mL (minimum)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Room temperature if held for 1 hour or less; keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice) if longer.  

For collection of aqueous samples containing residual chlorine, add a stock solution of filter-sterilized 10% sodium thiosulfate at 0.5 mL/L.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• U.S. EPA.  2010.  Single-Laboratory Verification of Culture-Based Procedure for Detection of Salmonella typhi in Drinking Water and Surface Water. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. EPA/600/R-10/132.
• Brewster, 2009:  Brewster, J.D., 2009.  Large-Volume Filtration for Recovery and Concentration of Escherichia coli O157: H7 from Ground Beef. Journal of Rapid Methods & Automation in Microbiology 17(2):242-256.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Escherichia coli O157:H7
Sample Type:
Solid
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
50 - 100 g (gravimetric) 
 
Fill 50 mL sample tube to at least 40 mL mark (volumetric)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Room temperature if held for 2 hours or less; keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice) if longer. 
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Gagliardi and Karns, 2000:  Gagliardi, J.V. and Karns, J.S.  2000.  Leaching of Escherichia coli O157: H7 in Diverse Soils under Various Agricultural Management Practices. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66(3):877-883.
• Jiang et al., 2002:  Jiang, X., Morgan, J. and Doyle, M.P.  2002.  Fate of Escherichia coli O157: H7 in Manure-Amended Soil. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68(5):2605-2609.
• Park et al., 2015:  Park, S., Navratil, S., Gregory, A., Bauer, A., Srinath, I., Szonyi, B., Nightingale, K., Anciso, J., Jun, M., Han, D. and Lawhon, S.  2015.  Multifactorial Effects of Ambient Temperature, Precipitation, Farm Management, and Environmental Factors Determine the Level of Generic Escherichia coli Contamination on Preharvested Spinach. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 81(7):2635-2650.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Escherichia coli O157:H7
Sample Type:
Surfaces (Swab, Wipe, Dust Socks)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
At least 2 sterile, synthetic, and moistened wipes, swabs, or dust socks
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Room temperature if held for 2 hours or less; keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice) if longer.

Care should be taken to avoid freezing the samples. 
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Ismail et al., 2013:  Ismail, R., Aviat, F., Michel, V., Le Bayon, I., Gay-Perret, P., Kutnik, M. and Fédérighi, M.  2013.  Methods for Recovering Microorganisms from Solid Surfaces used in the Food Industry: A Review of the Literature. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 10(11):6169-6183.
• Downey et al., 2012:  Downey, A.S., Da Silva, S.M., Olson, N.D., Filiben, J.J. and Morrow, J.B.  2012.  Impact of Processing Method on Recovery of Bacteria from Wipes Used in Biological Surface Sampling. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78(16):5872-5881.
• Arizona Department of Health Services.  2017.  Guide to Laboratory Services: Microbiology. Arizona Department of Health Services, Bureau of State Laboratory Services, Phoenix, Arizona.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Francisella tularensis [Tularemia]
Sample Type:
Aerosol
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
MCE/PTFE filter: 120 - 960 L;
gel filter: 40 - 135 L;
impinger: 750 - 6000 L;
impactor: 84.9 - 849 L

NOTE: If using impingers that do not replenish the liquid as it is evaporated by the air stream, the maximum recommended sampling volume is 200 L (Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Duchaine et al., 2001, 67(6): 2775-2780).
Container:
Sterile MCE/PTFE filter, gel filter, impinger, and/or impactor (agar plate)

MCE and PTFE filters are available as cassettes.
Preservation:
Room temperature if held for 2 hours or less; keep on ice (e.g., ice packs, secure double-bagged ice) if longer.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Burton et al., 2007:  Burton, N.C., Grinshpun, S.A. and Reponen, T.  2007.  Physical Collection Efficiency of Filter Materials for Bacteria and Viruses. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 51(2):143-151.
• Srikanth et al., 2008:  Srikanth, P., Sudharsanam, S., and Steinberg, R.  2008.  Bio-Aerosols in Indoor Environment: Composition, Health Effects and Analysis. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, 26(4):302-12.
• Dabisch et al., 2012:  Dabisch, P., Bower, K., Dorsey, B. and Wronka, L.  2012.  Recovery Efficiencies for Burkholderia thailandensis from Various Aerosol Sampling Media. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 2:78.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Francisella tularensis [Tularemia]
Sample Type:
Liquid (Water, Wastewater)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
100 mL (minimum)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Room temperature if held for 1 hour or less; keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice) if longer.

For collection of aqueous samples containing residual chlorine, add a stock solution of filter-sterilized 10% sodium thiosulfate at 0.5 mL/L.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• U.S. EPA.  2015.  Water Contaminant Information Tool: Pathogen Contaminant Profile - Comprehensive Report Format - Data Package for Yersinia pestis. EPA/600/S-15/172.
• Forsman et al., 1995:  Forsman, M., Nyrén, A., Sjöstedt, A., Sjökvist, L., and G. Sandström.  1995.  Identification of Francisella tularensis in Natural Water Samples by PCR. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 16(1):83-92.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Francisella tularensis [Tularemia]
Sample Type:
Solid
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
50 - 100 g (gravimetric)

Fill 50 mL sample tube to at least 40 mL mark (volumetric)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Room temperature if held for 1 hour or less; keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice) if longer. 
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Barns et al., 2005:  Barns, S.M., Grow, C.C., Okinaka, R.T., Keim, P. and Kuske, C.R.  2005.  Detection of Diverse New Francisella-Like Bacteria in Environmental Samples. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71(9):5494-5500.
• Petersen et al., 2009:  Petersen, J.M., Carlson, J., Yockey, B., Pillai, S., Kuske, C., Garbalena, G., Pottumarthy, S. and Chalcraft, L.  2009.  Direct Isolation of Francisella spp. from Environmental Samples. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 48(6):663-667.
• Berrada and Telford, 2010:  Berrada, Z.L. and Telford, S.R.  2010.  Diversity of Francisella Species in Environmental Samples from Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. Microbial Ecology, 59(2):277-283.
• Baird et al., 2012:  Baird, C., Colburn, H., Seiner, D., Straub, T., Ozanich, R., Bruckner-Lea, C. and Bartholomew, R.  2012.  Biodetection Technologies for First Responders. Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Francisella tularensis [Tularemia]
Sample Type:
Surfaces (Swab, Wipe, Dust Socks)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
At least 2 sterile, synthetic, and moistened wipes, swabs, or dust socks
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Room temperature if held for 1 hour or less; keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice) if longer.

Care should be taken to avoid freezing the samples.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• USAMRIID.  2016.  Specimen Collection and Submission Manual. United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Diagnostic Systems Division, Fort Detrick, Maryland. Report # TR-16-161.
• Arizona Department of Health Services.  2017.  Guide to Laboratory Services: Microbiology. Arizona Department of Health Services, Bureau of State Laboratory Services, Phoenix, Arizona.
• U.S. EPA/CDC.  2012. Method Development for Optimum Recovery of Yersinia Pestis from Transport Media and Swabs. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. EPA/600/R-12/620.
• U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command.  2016.  Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 08-2-065 Developmental Testing of Liquid and Gaseous/Vaporous Decontamination on Bacterial Spores and other Biological Warfare Agents on Military-Relevant Surfaces. Defense Technical Information Center, Fort Belvoir, VA. DTIC AD No: AD1003462.
• Rastogi et al., 2008:  Rastogi, V.K., Wallace, L., Smith, L.S. and Pfarr, J.  2008.  Surface Sampling-based Decontamination Studies and Protocol for Determining Sporicidal Efficacy of Gaseous Fumigants on Military-Relevant Surfaces. Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Command, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD. ECBC-TR-595.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Giardia spp. [Giardiasis]
Sample Type:
Aerosol
Pathogen Type:
Protozoa
Sample Size:
Unlikely to be found.
Container:
NA
Preservation:
NA
Packaging Requirements:
NA
Shipping Label:
NA
Source:
NA
Notes:
NA
 
Analyte:
Giardia spp. [Giardiasis]
Sample Type:
Liquid (Water, Wastewater)
Pathogen Type:
Protozoa
Sample Size:
100 L - 1000 L through cartridge filtration

Note: 95% confidence level considering the data available as of 2017. Note that the volume varies depending on the type of analysis, number of replicates, other relevant water quality parameters, and other factors.
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container/ Polypropylene carboys
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice); do not freeze. 

For collection of aqueous samples containing residual chlorine, add a stock solution of filter-sterilized 10% sodium thiosulfate at 0.5 mL/L.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Skotarczak, 2009:  Skotarczak, B.  2009.  Methods for Parasitic Protozoans Detection in the Environmental Samples. Parasite, 16:183-190.
• U.S. EPA. 2005. Method 1623: Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Water by Filtration/IMS/FA. EPA 815-R-05-002.
• Guy et al., 2003:  Guy, R.A., Payment, P., Krull, U.J. and Horgen, P.A.  2003.  Real-Time PCR for Quantification of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Environmental Water Samples and Sewage. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69(9):5178-5185.
• McCuin and Clancy, 2003:  McCuin, R.M. and Clancy, J.L.  2003.  Modifications to United States Environmental Protection Agency Methods 1622 and 1623 for Detection of Cryptosporidium Oocysts and Giardia Cysts in Water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69(1):267-274.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Giardia spp. [Giardiasis]
Sample Type:
Solid
Pathogen Type:
Protozoa
Sample Size:
50 - 100 g (gravimetric)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice); do not freeze. 
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Covert et al., 1999:  Covert, T.C., Rodgers, M.R., Reyes, A.L. and Stelma, G.N.  1999.  Occurrence of Nontuberculous mycobacteria in Environmental Samples. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 65(6):2492-2496.
• Olson et al., 1999:  Olson, M.E., Goh, J., Phillips, M., Guselle, N. and McAllister, T.A.  1999.  Giardia Cyst and Cryptosporidium Oocyst Survival in Water, Soil, and Cattle Feces. Journal of Environmental Quality, 28(6):1991-1996.
• Guy et al., 2003:  Guy, R.A., Payment, P., Krull, U.J. and Horgen, P.A.  2003.  Real-Time PCR for Quantification of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Environmental Water Samples and Sewage. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69(9):5178-5185.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Giardia spp. [Giardiasis]
Sample Type:
Surfaces (Swab, Wipe, Dust Socks)
Pathogen Type:
Protozoa
Sample Size:
At least 2 sterile, synthetic, and moistened wipes, swabs, or dust socks
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice).

Care should be taken to avoid freezing the samples.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Rhodes et al., 2012:  Rhodes, E.R., Villegas, L.F., Shaw, N.J., Miller, C. and Villegas, E.N.  2012.  A Modified EPA Method 1623 that uses Tangential Flow Hollow-fiber Ultrafiltration and Heat Dissociation Steps to Detect Waterborne Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. Journal of Visualized Experiments, 65:4177.
• Palomar Health.  2014.  Specimen Collection & Handling Manual, Laboratory, Revision 8. Document ID: 25512.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Hepatitis E virus (HEV)
Sample Type:
Aerosol
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
MCE/PTFE filter: 120 - 960 L;
gel filter: 40 - 135 L;
impinger: 750 - 6000 L;
impactor: 84.9 - 849 L

NOTE: If using impingers that do not replenish the liquid as it is evaporated by the air stream, the maximum recommended sampling volume is 200 L (Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Duchaine et al., 2001, 67(6): 2775-2780).
Container:
Sterile MCE/PTFE filter, gel filter, impinger, and/or impactor (agar plate)

MCE and PTFE filters are available as cassettes.
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice). 
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Aarnink et al., 2015:  Aarnink, A.J.A., Y. Zhao and Ogink, N.W.M.  2015.  Measurement Protocol for Emissions of Bio-Aerosols from Animal Houses. Wageningen UR (University & Research Centre) Livestock Research, Livestock Research Report 878.
• Verreault et al., 2008:  Verreault, D., Moineau, S. and Duchaine, C.  2008.  Methods for Sampling of Airborne Viruses. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 72(3):413-444.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Hepatitis E virus (HEV)
Sample Type:
Liquid (Water, Wastewater)
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
2 - 20 L (wastewater); 
200 - 300 L (surface/recreational water); 
1500 - 2000 L (drinking water/groundwater)
Container:
Double layer 142 mm diameter 1MDS cartridge filter
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice).

For collection of aqueous samples containing residual chlorine, add a stock solution of filter-sterilized 10% sodium thiosulfate at 0.5 mL/L.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Williams et al., 2001a:  Williams, F.P., Stetler, R.E. and Safferman, R.S.  2001.  USEPA Manual of Methods for Virology. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/4-84/013 (N16).
• Jothikumar et al., 1993:  Jothikumar, N., Aparna, K., Kamatchiammal, S., Paulmurugan, L.R., Saravanadevi, L.S. and Khanna, P.  1993.  Detection of Hepatitis E Virus in Raw and Treated Wastewater with the Polymerase Chain Reaction. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 59(8):2558-2562.
• Rose et al., 1984:  Rose, J.B., Singh, S.N., Gerba, C.P. and Kelley, L.M.  1984.  Comparison of Microporous Filters for Concentration of Viruses from Wastewater. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 47(5):989-992.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Hepatitis E virus (HEV)
Sample Type:
Solid
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
50 - 100 g (gravimetric)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice). 
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Sobsey et al., 1986:  Sobsey, M. D., Shields, P. A., Hauchmann, F. H., Hazard, R. L., and Caton, L. W.  1986.  Survival and Transport of Hepatitis A Virus in Soils, Groundwater, and Wastewater. Water Sci. Technol. 18:97-106.
• Rigotto et al., 2010:  Rigotto, C., Victoria, M., Moresco, V., Kolesnikovas, C.K., Corrêa, A.A., Souza, D.S.M., Miagostovich, M.P., Simões, C.M.O. and Barardi, C.R.M.  2010.  Assessment of Adenovirus, Hepatitis A Virus and Rotavirus Presence in Environmental Samples in Florianopolis, South Brazil. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 109(6):1979-1987.
• Parashar et al., 2011:  Parashar, D., Khalkar, P., and V.A. Arankalle.  2011.  Survival of Hepatitis A and E Viruses in Soil Samples. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 17: E1-4.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Hepatitis E virus (HEV)
Sample Type:
Surfaces (Swab, Wipe, Dust Socks)
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
At least 2 sterile, synthetic, and moistened wipes, swabs, or dust socks
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice).
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Givens et al., 2016:  Givens, C.E., Kolpin, D.W., Borchardt, M.A., Duris, J.W., Moorman, T.B. and Spencer, S.K.  2016.  Detection of Hepatitis E Virus and Other Livestock-Related Pathogens in Iowa Streams. Science of the Total Environment, 566-567:1042-1051.
• Julian et al., 2011:  Julian, T.R., Tamayo, F.J., Leckie, J.O. and Boehm, A.B.  2011.  Comparison of Surface Sampling Methods for Virus Recovery from Fomites. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 77(19):6918-6925.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Influenza H5N1 virus
Sample Type:
Aerosol
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
MCE/PTFE filter: 120 - 960 L;
gel filter: 40 - 135 L;
impinger: 750 - 6000 L;
impactor: 84.9 - 849 L

NOTE: If using impingers that do not replenish the liquid as it is evaporated by the air stream, the maximum recommended sampling volume is 200 L (Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Duchaine et al., 2001, 67(6): 2775-2780).
Container:
Sterile MCE/PTFE filter, gel filter, impinger, and/or impactor (agar plate)

MCE and PTFE filters are available as cassettes.
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice).
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Lednicky et al., 2016:  Lednicky, J., Pan, M., Loeb, J., Hsieh, H., Eiguren-Fernandez, A., Hering, Fan, Z., Wu, C-Y.  2016.  Highly Efficient Collection of Infectious Pandemic Influenza H1N1 Virus (2009) through Laminar-Flow Water Based Condensation. Aerosol Science and Technology, 50(7): i-iv.
• Fennelly et al., 2015:  Fennelly, K.P., Tribby, M.D., Wu, C.Y., Heil, G.L., Radonovich, L.J., Loeb, J.C. and Lednicky, J.A.  2015.  Collection and Measurement of Aerosols of Viable Influenza Virus in Liquid Media in an Andersen Cascade Impactor. Virus Adaptation and Treatment, 7:1-9.
• Tang et al., 2015:  Tang, J.W., Wilson, P., Shetty, N. and Noakes, C.J.  2015.  Aerosol-Transmitted Infections - A New Consideration for Public Health and Infection Control Teams. Current Treatment Options in Infectious Diseases. University of Leeds, United Kingdom.
• Cooper, 2010:  Cooper, C.W.  2010.  High Volume Air Sampling for Viral Aerosols: A Comparative Approach. Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. No. AFIT/GES/ENV/10-M01.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Influenza H5N1 virus
Sample Type:
Liquid (Water, Wastewater)
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
2 - 20 L (wastewater); 
200 - 300 L (surface/recreational water); 
1500 - 2000 L (drinking water/groundwater)
Container:
Positively charged 1MDS cartridge filter
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice).

For collection of aqueous samples containing residual chlorine, add a stock solution of filter-sterilized 10% sodium thiosulfate at 0.5 mL/L.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Deboosere et al., 2011:  Deboosere, N., Horm, S.V., Pinon, A., Gachet, J., Coldefy, C., Buchy, P. and Vialette, M.  2011.  Development and Validation of a Concentration Method for the Detection of Influenza A Viruses from Large Volumes of Surface Water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 77(11):3802-3808.
• Nazir et al., 2011:  Nazir, J., Haumacher, R., Ike, A.C. and Marschang, R.E.  2011.  Persistence of Avian Influenza Viruses in Lake Sediment, Duck Feces, and Duck Meat. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 77(14):4981-4985.
• Williams et al., 2001a:  Williams, F.P., Stetler, R.E. and Safferman, R.S.  2001.  USEPA Manual of Methods for Virology. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/4-84/013 (N16).
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Influenza H5N1 virus
Sample Type:
Solid
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
50 - 100 g (gravimetric)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice). 
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Vong et al., 2008:  Vong, S., Ly, S., Mardy, S., Holl, D., and Buchy, P.  2008.  Environmental contamination during Influenza A virus (H5N1) outbreaks, Cambodia, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8):1303-1305.
• Gutiérrez and Buchy, 2012:  Gutiérrez, R. A. and Buchy, P.  2012.  Contaminated Soil and Transmission of Influenza Virus (H5N1). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(9):1530-1532.
• Horm et al., 2012:  Horm, S.V., Gutiérrez, R.A., Sorn, S. and Buchy, P.  2012.  Environment: A Potential Source of Animal and Human Infection with Influenza A (H5N1) Virus. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, 6(6):442-448.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Influenza H5N1 virus
Sample Type:
Surfaces (Swab, Wipe, Dust Socks)
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
At least 2 sterile, synthetic, and moistened wipes, swabs, or dust socks
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice).
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Ip et al., 2012:  Ip, H.S., Dusek, R.J. and Heisey, D.M.  2012.  The Effect of Swab Sample Choice on the Detection of Avian Influenza in Apparently Healthy Wild Ducks. Avian Diseases, 56(1):114-119.
• Indriani et al., 2010:  Indriani, R., Samaan, G., Gultom, A., Loth, L., Irianti, S., Adjid, R., Darminto.  2010.  Environmental Sampling for Avian Influenza Virus A (H5N1) in Live-Bird Markets, Indonesia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(12):1889-1895.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Legionella pneumophila [Legionellosis - a) Pontiac fever; and b) Legionnaires' disease]
Sample Type:
Aerosol
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
MCE/PTFE filter: 120 - 960 L;
gel filter: 40 - 135 L;
impinger: 750 - 6000 L;
impactor: 84.9 - 849 L

NOTE: If using impingers that do not replenish the liquid as it is evaporated by the air stream, the maximum recommended sampling volume is 200 L (Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Duchaine et al., 2001, 67(6): 2775-2780).
Container:
Sterile MCE/PTFE filter, gel filter, impinger, and/or impactor (agar plate)

MCE and PTFE filters are available as cassettes.
Preservation:
Keep frozen at ≤ -20°C (dry ice or super cold packs rated for temps below -70°C)
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• CDC. 2015.  Shipping Instructions for CDC Legionella Testing. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
• AS/NZS 2011:  AS/NZS 3666.2:2011.  Air-Handling and Water Systems of Buildings - Microbial Control - Operation and Maintenance.
• Mandal and Brandl, 2011:  Mandal, J. and Brandl, H.  2011.  Bioaerosols in Indoor Environment- A Review with Special Reference to Residential and Occupational Locations. The Open Environmental & Biological Monitoring Journal, 4(1):83-96.
• CDC. 2003.  Water Sampling Strategies and Culture Techniques for Detecting Legionellae. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 52(RR10):43.
• Ishimatsu et al., 2001:  Ishimatsu, S., Miyamoto, H., Hori, H., Tanaka, I. and Yoshid, S-I.  2001.  Sampling and Detection of Legionella pneumophila Aerosols Generated from an Industrial Cooling Tower. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 45(6):421-427.
Notes:
NA
 
Analyte:
Legionella pneumophila [Legionellosis - a) Pontiac fever; and b) Legionnaires' disease]
Sample Type:
Liquid (Water, Wastewater)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
100 mL (minimum)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container. Water and swab samples must be packed into a container that protects the samples from exposure to light and temperature fluctuation.
Preservation:
Do not pack any samples with chilled or frozen ice packs or chiller packs. All samples other than compost material must reach the laboratory within 24 hours of collection. Compost material to be reached within three days to the laboratory. Avoid sampling for at least 72 hours after on-line disinfection or system decontamination or cleaning.

For collection of aqueous samples containing residual chlorine, add a stock solution of filter-sterilized 10% sodium thiosulfate at 0.5 mL/L.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• ASHRAE.  2015.  Legionellosis: Risk Management for Building Water Systems. ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 188-2015. Atlanta, GA. Accessed on September 18, 2017 from: 
• AS/NZS 2011a: AS/NZS 3666.1:2011.  Air-Handling and Water Systems of Buildings - Microbial Control - Design, Installation and Commissioning.
• AS/NZS 2011c: AS/NZS 3666.3:2011.  Air-Handling and Water Systems of Buildings - Microbial Control - Performance-Based Maintenance of Cooling Water Systems.
• Flanders et al., 2014:  Flanders, W.D., Kirkland, K.H. and Shelton, B.G.  2014.  Effects of Holding Time and Measurement Error on Culturing Legionella in Environmental Water Samples. Wat. Res. 62:293-301.
Notes:
NA
 
Analyte:
Legionella pneumophila [Legionellosis - a) Pontiac fever; and b) Legionnaires' disease]
Sample Type:
Solid
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
100 g (gravimetric)

Fill ≥120mL (volumetric)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container. Water and swab samples must be packed into a container that protects the samples from exposure to light and temperature fluctuation.
Preservation:
Do not pack any samples with chilled or frozen ice packs or chiller packs. Samples must reach the laboratory within 24 hours of collection.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Steele et al., 1990:  Steele, T.W., Moore, C.V. and Sangster, N.  1990.  Distribution of Legionella longbeachae serogroup 1 and other Legionellae in Potting Soils in Australia. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 56(10):2984-2988.
• Yang, 2004:  Yang, C.S.  2004.  Sampling and Controlling Legionella Bacteria in Domestic Water Systems. Cherry Hill, NJ: P & K Microbiology Services.
• Kuroki et al., 2007:  Kuroki, H., Miyamoto, H., Fukuda, K., Iihara, H., Kawamura, Y., Ogawa, M., Wang, Y., Ezaki, T. and Taniguchi, H.  2007.  Legionella impletisoli sp. nov. and Legionella yabuuchiae sp. nov., Isolated from Soils Contaminated with Industrial Wastes in Japan. Systematic and Applied Microbiology, 30(4):273-279.
• Environmental Microbiology Laboratory.  2014.  Environmental Sampling for Legionella Bacteria. LEG/GUIDELINE/1/003.
Notes:
NA
 
Analyte:
Legionella pneumophila [Legionellosis - a) Pontiac fever; and b) Legionnaires' disease]
Sample Type:
Surfaces (Swab, Wipe, Dust Socks)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
At least 2 sterile, synthetic, and moistened wipes, swabs, or dust socks
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Room temperature if held for 2 hours or less; keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice) if longer.

Care should be taken to avoid freezing the samples.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Arizona Department of Health Services.  2017.  Guide to Laboratory Services: Microbiology. Arizona Department of Health Services, Bureau of State Laboratory Services, Phoenix, Arizona.
• OSHA.  2016.  Legionnaires' Disease. Occupational Safety & Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC.
Notes:
NA
 
Analyte:
Leptospira spp. (L. interrogans serovars: L. icteroheamorrhagiae, L. autralis, L. balum, L. bataviae, L. sejro, L. pomona) [Leptospirosis]
Sample Type:
Aerosol
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
MCE/PTFE filter: 120 - 960 L;
gel filter: 40 - 135 L;
impinger: 750 - 6000 L;
impactor: 84.9 - 849 L

NOTE: If using impingers that do not replenish the liquid as it is evaporated by the air stream, the maximum recommended sampling volume is 200 L (Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Duchaine et al., 2001, 67(6): 2775-2780).
Container:
Sterile MCE/PTFE filter, gel filter, impinger, and/or impactor (agar plate)

MCE and PTFE filters are available as cassettes.
Preservation:
Keep on ice (e.g. ice packs, secure double bagged ice)
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• VanDyke-Gonnerman, 2013:  VanDyke-Gonnerman, A.L.  2013.  Comparative Analysis of Bacterial and Fungal Communities in Two Dairy Parlors through the use of Pyrosequencing, Riboprinting, Culture Techniques, and Microscopic Analysis. Masters thesis. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.
• Li et al., 2012:  Li, L.W., Simmons III, O.D. and Wheeler, E.F.  2012. Bioaerosol Sampling in Animal Environments.
Notes:
NA
 
Analyte:
Leptospira spp. (L. interrogans serovars: L. icteroheamorrhagiae, L. autralis, L. balum, L. bataviae, L. sejro, L. pomona) [Leptospirosis]
Sample Type:
Liquid (Water, Wastewater)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
100 mL - 1000 mL
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
A small amount of sterile deionized water should be present in container to prevent drying. Room temperature within 72 hours of collection; if longer, keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice).

For collection of aqueous samples containing residual chlorine, add a stock solution of filter-sterilized 10% sodium thiosulfate at 0.5 mL/L.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Riediger et al., 2016:  Riediger, I.N., Hoffmaster, A.R., Casanovas-Massana, A., Biondo, A.W., Ko, A.I. and Stoddard, R.A.  2016.  An Optimized Method for Quantification of Pathogenic Leptospira in Environmental Water Samples. PLoS ONE, 11(8):e0160523.
• Wójcik-Fatla et al., 2014:  Wójcik-Fatla, A. Zajac, V., Wasinski, B., Sroka, J., Cisak, E., Sawczyn, A. and Dutkiewicz, J.  2014.  Occurrence of Leptospira DNA in Water and Soil Samples Collected in Eastern Poland. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 21(4):730-732.
• Benacer et al., 2013:  Benacer, D., Woh, P.Y., Zain, S.N.M., Amran, F. and Thong, K.L.  2013.  Pathogenic and Saprophytic Leptospira Species in Water and Soils from Selected Urban Sites in Peninsular Malaysia. Microbes and Environments, 28(1):135-140.
• U.S. EPA.  2008.  Method Development and Preliminary Applications for Leptospira spirochetes in Water Samples. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. EPA/600/R-08/017.
Notes:
NA
 
Analyte:
Leptospira spp. (L. interrogans serovars: L. icteroheamorrhagiae, L. autralis, L. balum, L. bataviae, L. sejro, L. pomona) [Leptospirosis]
Sample Type:
Solid
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
10 - 20 g (gravimetric)
Container:
Small, tightly sealed sterile bottle or plastic bag.  A small amount of sterile deionized water may be added to prevent drying.
Preservation:
A small amount of sterile deionized water should be present in container to prevent drying. Room temperature within 72 hours of collection; if longer, keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice).
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Benacer et al., 2013:  Benacer, D., Woh, P.Y., Zain, S.N.M., Amran, F. and Thong, K.L.  2013.  Pathogenic and Saprophytic Leptospira Species in Water and Soils from Selected Urban Sites in Peninsular Malaysia. Microbes and Environments, 28(1):135-140.
• Saito et al., 2013:  Saito, M., Villanueva, S.Y., Chakraborty, A., Miyahara, S., Segawa, T., Asoh, T., Ozuru, R., Gloriani, N.G., Yanagihara, Y. and Yoshida, S.I.  2013.  Comparative Analysis of Leptospira Strains Isolated from Environmental Soil and Water in the Philippines and Japan. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 79(2):601-609.
Notes:
NA
 
Analyte:
Leptospira spp. (L. interrogans serovars: L. icteroheamorrhagiae, L. autralis, L. balum, L. bataviae, L. sejro, L. pomona) [Leptospirosis]
Sample Type:
Surfaces (Swab, Wipe, Dust Socks)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
At least 2 sterile, synthetic, and moistened wipes, swabs, or dust socks
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container. A small amount of sterile deionized water may be added to prevent drying.
Preservation:
Ambient temperature within 72 hours of collection; keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice) if longer.

Care should be taken to avoid freezing the samples.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• U.S. EPA.  2008.  Method Development and Preliminary Applications for Leptospira spirochetes in Water Samples. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. EPA/600/R-08/017.
• U.S. EPA.  1978.  Quality Assurance Guidelines for Biological Testing. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV. EPA-600/4-78-043.
• Firth et al., 2014:  Firth, C., Bhat, M., Firth, M.A., Williams, S.H., Frye, M.J., Simmonds, P., Lipkin, W.I.  2014.  Detection of Zoonotic Pathogens and Characterization of Novel Viruses Carried by Commensal Rattus norvegicus in New York City. mBio, 5(5): e01933-14.
• Burroughs et al., 2007:  Burroughs, E.G, Damer, K.S., Belgrader, P. Raab, B.  2007.  Devices for Collection and Preparation of Biological Agents. US Patent US 20090126514 A1.
• Riediger et al., 2016:  Riediger, I.N., Hoffmaster, A.R., Casanovas-Massana, A., Biondo, A.W., Ko, A.I. and Stoddard, R.A.  2016.  An Optimized Method for Quantification of Pathogenic Leptospira in Environmental Water Samples. PLoS ONE, 11(8):e0160523.
Notes:
NA
 
Analyte:
Listeria monocytogenes [Listeriosis]
Sample Type:
Aerosol
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
MCE/PTFE filter: 120 - 960 L;
gel filter: 40 - 135 L;
impinger: 750 - 6000 L;
impactor: 84.9 - 849 L

NOTE: If using impingers that do not replenish the liquid as it is evaporated by the air stream, the maximum recommended sampling volume is 200 L (Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Duchaine et al., 2001, 67(6): 2775-2780).
Container:
Sterile MCE/PTFE filter, gel filter, impinger, and/or impactor (agar plate)

MCE and PTFE filters are available as cassettes.
Preservation:
Keep on ice (e.g. ice packs, secure double bagged ice). If sample is already frozen do not thaw until analysis.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Kretzer et al., 2008:  Kretzer, J.W., Biebl, M. and Miller, S.  2008.  Sample Preparation-An Essential Prerequisite for High-Quality Bacteria Detection. Principles of bacterial detection: Biosensors, recognition receptors and microsystems (pp. 15-30). Springer New York.
• Srikanth et al., 2008:  Srikanth, P., Sudharsanam, S., and Steinberg, R.  2008.  Bio-Aerosols in Indoor Environment: Composition, Health Effects and Analysis. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, 26(4):302-12.
• Pillai and Ricke, 2002:  Pillai, S.D. and Ricke, S.C.  2002.  Review/Synthese Bioaerosols from Municipal and Animal Wastes: Background and Contemporary Issues. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 48(8):681-696.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Listeria monocytogenes [Listeriosis]
Sample Type:
Liquid (Water, Wastewater)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
100 mL (minimum)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice).  If sample is already frozen, do not thaw until analysis.

For collection of aqueous samples containing residual chlorine, add a stock solution of filter-sterilized 10% sodium thiosulfate at 0.5 mL/L.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Gorski et al., 2014: Gorski, L., Walker, S., Liang, A. S., Nguyen, K. M., Govoni, J., Carychao, D., Cooley, M.B. and Mandrell, R.E.  2014.  Comparison of Subtypes of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Naturally Contaminated Watershed Samples with and without a Selective Secondary Enrichment. PLoS ONE, 9(3): e92467.
• USDA.  2014.  FSIS compliance guideline: Controlling Listeria monocytogenes in Post-Lethality Exposed Ready-To-Eat Meat and Poultry Products. United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service, Washington, DC.
• Taherkhani et al., 2013:  Taherkhani, A., Attar, H.M., Moazzam, M.M.A., Mirzaee, S.A. and M. Jalali.  2013.  Prevalence of Listeria Monocytogenes in the River Receiving the Effluent of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant. International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering, 2:49.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Listeria monocytogenes [Listeriosis]
Sample Type:
Solid
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
At least 100 g (gravimetric)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice).  If sample is already frozen, do not thaw until analysis.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Beuchat and Ryu, 1997:  Beuchat, L.R. and Ryu, J.H.  1997.  Produce Handling and Processing Practices. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 3(4):459.
• Locatelli et al., 2013:  Locatelli, A., Spor, A., Jolivet, C., Piveteau, P. and Hartmann, A.  2013.  Biotic and Abiotic Soil Properties Influence Survival of Listeria Monocytogenes in Soil. PLoS ONE, 8(10): e75969.
• U.S. FDA.  2016.  Microbiological Methods & Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM). U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Listeria monocytogenes [Listeriosis]
Sample Type:
Surfaces (Swab, Wipe, Dust Socks)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
At least 2 sterile, synthetic, and moistened wipes, swabs, or dust socks
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice). If frozen, do not thaw until analysis.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Lahou and Uyttendaele, 2014:  Lahou, E. and Uyttendaele, M.  2014.  Evaluation of Three Swabbing Devices for Detection of Listeria monocytogenes on Different Types of Food Contact Surfaces. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11(1):804-814.
• Gómez et al., 2012:  Gómez, D., Ariño, A., Carramiñana, J.J., Rota, C. and Yangüela, J.  2012. Comparison of Sampling Procedures for Recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from Stainless Steel Food Contact Surfaces. Journal of Food Protection, 75(6):1077-1082.
• Zhu et al., 2012:  Zhu, L., Stewart, D., Reineke, K., Ravishankar, S., Palumbo, S., Cirigliano, M. and Tortorello, M.  2012.  Comparison of Swab Transport Media for Recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from Environmental Samples. Journal of Food Protection, 75(3):580-584.
• Downey et al., 2012:  Downey, A.S., Da Silva, S.M., Olson, N.D., Filiben, J.J. and Morrow, J.B.  2012.  Impact of Processing Method on Recovery of Bacteria from Wipes Used in Biological Surface Sampling. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78(16):5872-5881.
• Lim et al., 2005:  Lim, D.V., Simpson, J.M., Kearns, E.A. and Kramer, M.F.  2005.  Current and Developing Technologies for Monitoring Agents of Bioterrorism and Biowarfare. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 18(4)583-607.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Naegleria fowleri [Naegleriasis - primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM)/ amebic encephalitis]
Sample Type:
Aerosol
Pathogen Type:
Protozoa
Sample Size:
MCE/PTFE filter: 120 - 960 L;
gel filter: 40 - 135 L;
impinger: 750 - 6000 L;
impactor: 84.9 - 849 L

NOTE: If using impingers that do not replenish the liquid as it is evaporated by the air stream, the maximum recommended sampling volume is 200 L (Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Duchaine et al., 2001, 67(6): 2775-2780).
Container:
Sterile MCE/PTFE filter, gel filter, impinger, and/or impactor (agar plate)

MCE and PTFE filters are available as cassettes.
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice). 
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Srikanth et al., 2008:  Srikanth, P., Sudharsanam, S., and Steinberg, R.  2008.  Bio-Aerosols in Indoor Environment: Composition, Health Effects and Analysis. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, 26(4):302-12.
• Fink and Gilman, 2000:  Fink, R. and Gilman, E.A.  2000.  Biological Contamination of the Building Environment: Sampling and Analysis. Journal of the American Biological Safety Association, 5(1):19-29.
Notes:
NA
 
Analyte:
Naegleria fowleri [Naegleriasis - primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM)/ amebic encephalitis]
Sample Type:
Liquid (Water, Wastewater)
Pathogen Type:
Protozoa
Sample Size:
250 mL - 10 L
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice); do not freeze. 

For collection of aqueous samples containing residual chlorine, add a stock solution of filter-sterilized 10% sodium thiosulfate at 0.5 mL/L.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Mahittikorn et al., 2015:  Mahittikorn, A., Mori, H., Popruk, S., Roobthaisong, A., Sutthikornchai, C., Koompapong, K., Siri, S., Sukthana, Y., Nacapunchai, D.  2015.  Development of a Rapid, Simple Method for Detecting Naegleria fowleri Visually in Water Samples by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP). PLoS ONE, 10(3): e0120997.
• Morgan et al., 2016:  Morgan, M.J., Halstrom, S., Wylie, J.T., Walsh, T. Kaksonen, A.H., Sutton, D., Braun, K. and Puzon, G.J.  2016.  Characterization of a Drinking Water Distribution Pipeline Terminally Colonized By Naegleria fowleri. Environmental Science & Technology, 50:2890-2898.
• Moussa et al., 2013:  Moussa, M., De Jonckheere, J.F., Guerlotté, J., Richard, V., Bastaraud, A., Romana, M. and Talarmin, A. 2013. Survey of Naegleria fowleri in Geothermal Recreational Waters of Guadeloupe (French West Indies). PLoS ONE, 8(1): e54414.
• Mull et al., 2013:  Mull, B.J., Narayanan, J. and Hill, V.R. 2013. Improved Method for the Detection and Quantification of Naegleria fowleri in Water and Sediment Using Immunomagnetic Separation and Real-Time PCR. Journal of Parasitology Research, 608367:1-8.
Notes:
NA
 
Analyte:
Naegleria fowleri [Naegleriasis - primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM)/ amebic encephalitis]
Sample Type:
Solid
Pathogen Type:
Protozoa
Sample Size:
100 g (gravimetric)

250 mL - 10 L (volumetric)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice); do not freeze. 
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Mahittikorn et al., 2015:  Mahittikorn, A., Mori, H., Popruk, S., Roobthaisong, A., Sutthikornchai, C., Koompapong, K., Siri, S., Sukthana, Y., Nacapunchai, D.  2015.  Development of a Rapid, Simple Method for Detecting Naegleria fowleri Visually in Water Samples by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP). PLoS ONE, 10(3): e0120997.
• Morgan et al., 2016:  Morgan, M.J., Halstrom, S., Wylie, J.T., Walsh, T. Kaksonen, A.H., Sutton, D., Braun, K. and Puzon, G.J.  2016.  Characterization of a Drinking Water Distribution Pipeline Terminally Colonized By Naegleria fowleri. Environmental Science & Technology, 50:2890-2898.
• Moussa et al., 2013:  Moussa, M., De Jonckheere, J.F., Guerlotté, J., Richard, V., Bastaraud, A., Romana, M. and Talarmin, A. 2013. Survey of Naegleria fowleri in Geothermal Recreational Waters of Guadeloupe (French West Indies). PLoS ONE, 8(1): e54414.
• Mull et al., 2013:  Mull, B.J., Narayanan, J. and Hill, V.R. 2013. Improved Method for the Detection and Quantification of Naegleria fowleri in Water and Sediment Using Immunomagnetic Separation and Real-Time PCR. Journal of Parasitology Research, 608367:1-8.
Notes:
NA
 
Analyte:
Naegleria fowleri [Naegleriasis - primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM)/ amebic encephalitis]
Sample Type:
Surfaces (Swab, Wipe, Dust Socks)
Pathogen Type:
Protozoa
Sample Size:
At least 2 sterile, synthetic, and moistened wipes, swabs, or dust socks
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice).

Care should be taken to avoid freezing the samples.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• NIST.  2012.  Challenges in Microbial Sampling in the Indoor Environment: Workshop Summary Report. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland. Report No. NIST Technical Note 1737.
• Khan, 2008:  Khan, N.A.  2008.  Emerging Protozoan Pathogens. New York: Taylor & Francis Group Journal of Microbiological Methods 79(3):307-313.
Notes:
NA
 
Analyte:
Non-typhoidal Salmonella [Salmonellosis]
Sample Type:
Aerosol
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
MCE/PTFE filter: 120 - 960 L;
gel filter: 40 - 135 L;
impinger: 750 - 6000 L;
impactor: 84.9 - 849 L

NOTE: If using impingers that do not replenish the liquid as it is evaporated by the air stream, the maximum recommended sampling volume is 200 L (Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Duchaine et al., 2001, 67(6): 2775-2780).
Container:
Sterile MCE/PTFE filter, gel filter, impinger, and/or impactor (agar plate)

MCE and PTFE filters are available as cassettes.
Preservation:
Room temperature if held for 15 minutes or less; keep on ice (e.g., ice packs, secure double-bagged ice) if longer.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Adell et al., 2014:  Adell, E., Moset, V., Zhao, Y., Jiménez-Belenguer, A., Cerisuelo, A. and Cambra-López, M.  2014.  Comparative Performance of Three Sampling Techniques to Detect Airborne Salmonella Species in Poultry Farms. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 21(1):15-24.
• Riemenschneider et al., 2010:  Riemenschneider, L., Woo, M.-H., Wu, C.-Y., Lundgren, D., Wander, J., Lee, J.-H., Li, H.-W. and Heimbuch, B.  2010.  Characterization of Reaerosolization from Impingers in an Effort to Improve Airborne Virus Sampling. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 108:315-324.
• Barker and Jones, 2005:  Barker, J. and Jones, M.V.  2005.  The Potential Spread of Infection Caused by Aerosol Contamination of Surfaces After Flushing a Domestic Toilet. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 99(2):339-347.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Non-typhoidal Salmonella [Salmonellosis]
Sample Type:
Liquid (Water, Wastewater)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
1000 mL and above
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice).

For collection of aqueous samples containing residual chlorine, add a stock solution of filter-sterilized 10% sodium thiosulfate at 0.5 mL/L.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Cabral, 2010:  Cabral, J.P.S.  2010.  Water Microbiology. Bacterial Pathogens and Water. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 7(10):3657-3703.
• Obi et al., 2004:  Obi, C.L., Potgieter, N., Musie, E.M., Igumbor, E.O., Bessong, P.O., Samie, A. and Venter, S.N.  2004.  Human and Environmental-Associated Non-typhoidal Salmonella Isolates from Different Sources in the Venda Region of South Africa. Proceedings of the Water Institute of Southern Africa (WISA) Biennial Conference, Cape Town, South Africa.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Non-typhoidal Salmonella [Salmonellosis]
Sample Type:
Solid
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
50 - 100 g (gravimetric) 
 
Fill 50 mL sample tube to at least 40 mL mark (volumetric)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice).
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Hutchison et al., 2004:  Hutchison, M.L., Walters, L.D., Moore, A., Crookes, K.M. and Avery, S.M.  2004.  Effect of Length of Time Before Incorporation on Survival of Pathogenic Bacteria Present in Livestock Wastes Applied to Agricultural Soil. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 70(9):5111-5118.
• Boes et al., 2005:  Boes, J., Alban, L., Bagger, J., Møgelmose, V., Baggesen, D.L. and Olsen, J.E.  2005.  Survival of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium in Slurry Applied to Clay Soil on a Danish Swine Farm. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 69(3), 213-228.
• Courty et al., 2008:  Courty, B., Le Curieux, F., Belkessam, L., Laboudigue, A. and Marzin, D.  2008.  Mutagenic Potency in Salmonella typhimurium of Organic Extracts of Soil Samples Originating from Urban, Suburban, Agricultural, Forest and Natural Areas. Mutation Research, 653(1-2):1-5.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Non-typhoidal Salmonella [Salmonellosis]
Sample Type:
Surfaces (Swab, Wipe, Dust Socks)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
At least 2 sterile, synthetic, and moistened wipes, swabs, or dust socks
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice).
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Williams et al., 2015:  Williams, S., Patel, M., Markey, P., Muller, R., Benedict, S., Ross, I., Krause, V.  2015.  Salmonella in the Tropical Household Environment - Everyday, Everywhere. Journal of Infection, 71(6):642-648.
• Tu et al., 2015:  Tu, L.T.P., Hoang, N.V.M., Cuong, N.V., Campbell, J., Bryant, J.E., Hoa, N.T., and Carrique-Mas, J.J.  2015.  High Levels of Contamination and Antimicrobial-Resistant Non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars on Pig and Poultry Farms in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. Epidemiology & Infection, 143(14):3074-3086.
• Rose et al., 2004:  Rose L, Jensen BJ, Peterson A, Banerjee SN, Arduino MJ.  2004.  Swab Materials and Bacillus anthracis Spore Recovery from Nonporous Surfaces. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(6):1023-1029.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Picornaviruses: Enteroviruses
Sample Type:
Aerosol
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
MCE/PTFE filter: 120 - 960 L;
gel filter: 40 - 135 L;
impinger: 750 - 6000 L;
impactor: 84.9 - 849 L

NOTE: If using impingers that do not replenish the liquid as it is evaporated by the air stream, the maximum recommended sampling volume is 200 L (Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Duchaine et al., 2001, 67(6): 2775-2780).
Container:
Sterile MCE/PTFE filter, gel filter, impinger, and/or impactor (agar plate)

MCE and PTFE filters are available as cassettes.
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice). 
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Kienlen, 2015: Kienlen, L.L.  2015.  Comparison of Bioaerosol Collection Methods in the Detection of Airborne Influenza Virus. Masters thesis. The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.
• Verreault et al., 2008:  Verreault, D., Moineau, S. and Duchaine, C.  2008.  Methods for Sampling of Airborne Viruses. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 72(3):413-444.
• Sattar et al., 1987:  Sattar, S.A., Ijaz, M.K. and Gerba, C.P.  1987.  Spread of Viral Infections by Aerosols. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 17(2):89-131.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Picornaviruses: Enteroviruses
Sample Type:
Liquid (Water, Wastewater)
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
2 - 20 L (wastewater); 
200 - 300 L (surface/recreational water); 
1500 - 2000 L (drinking water/groundwater)

Filter apparatus should be allowed to run overnight.
Container:
Positively charged 1MDS cartridge filter
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice). 

For collection of aqueous samples containing residual chlorine, add a stock solution of filter-sterilized 10% sodium thiosulfate at 0.5 mL/L.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Faleye et al., 2016:  Faleye, T.O.C., Adewumi, M.O., Coker, B.A., Nudamajo, F.Y. and Adeniji, J.A.  2016.  Direct Detection and Identification of Enteroviruses from Faeces of Healthy Nigerian Children Using a Cell-Culture Independent RT-Seminested PCR Assay. Advances in Virology, 1412838:12.
• CDC/WHO.  2015.  Enterovirus Surveillance Guidelines: Guidelines for Enterovirus Surveillance in Support of the Polio Eradication Initiative. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization.
• Spilki et al., 2013:  Spilki, F.R., da Luz, R.B., Fabres, R.B., Soliman, M.C., Kluge, M., Fleck, J.D., Rodrigues, M.T., Comerlato, J., Cenci, A., Cerva, C., Dasso, M.G. and Roehe, P.M.  2013.  Detection of Human Adenovirus, Rotavirus and Enterovirus in Water Samples Collected on Dairy Farms from Tenente Portela, Northwest of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 44(3):953-957.
• Williams et al., 2001a:  Williams, F.P., Stetler, R.E. and Safferman, R.S.  2001.  USEPA Manual of Methods for Virology. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/4-84/013 (N16).
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Picornaviruses: Enteroviruses
Sample Type:
Solid
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
50 - 100 g (gravimetric)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice).
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Spilki et al., 2013:  Spilki, F.R., da Luz, R.B., Fabres, R.B., Soliman, M.C., Kluge, M., Fleck, J.D., Rodrigues, M.T., Comerlato, J., Cenci, A., Cerva, C., Dasso, M.G. and Roehe, P.M.  2013.  Detection of Human Adenovirus, Rotavirus and Enterovirus in Water Samples Collected on Dairy Farms from Tenente Portela, Northwest of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 44(3):953-957.
• Faleye et al., 2016:  Faleye, T.O.C., Adewumi, M.O., Coker, B.A., Nudamajo, F.Y. and Adeniji, J.A.  2016.  Direct Detection and Identification of Enteroviruses from Faeces of Healthy Nigerian Children Using a Cell-Culture Independent RT-Seminested PCR Assay. Advances in Virology, 1412838:12.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Picornaviruses: Enteroviruses
Sample Type:
Surfaces (Swab, Wipe, Dust Socks)
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
At least 2 sterile, synthetic, and moistened wipes, swabs, or dust socks
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice).
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Rönnqvist 2014:  Rönnqvist, M.  2014.  Noroviruses on Surfaces: Detection, Transfer, and Inactivation. University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. ISBN: 978-951-51-0128-0.
• Tuladhar et al., 2012:  Tuladhar, E., Hazeleger, W.C., Koopmans, M., Zwietering, M.H., Beumer, R.R. and Duizer, E.  2012.  Residul Viral and Bacterial Contamination of Surfaces after Cleaning and Disinfection. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78(21):7769-7775.
• Sanderson et al., 2010:  Sanderson, W.T., Hein, M.J., Taylor, L., Curwin, B.D., Kinnes, G.M., Seitz, T.A., Bridges, J.H.  2010.  Surface Sampling Methods for Bacillus anthracis Spore Contamination. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 8(10):1145-1151.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Picornaviruses: Hepatitis A virus (HAV)
Sample Type:
Aerosol
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
MCE/PTFE filter: 120 - 960 L;
gel filter: 40 - 135 L;
impinger: 750 - 6000 L;
impactor: 84.9 - 849 L

NOTE: If using impingers that do not replenish the liquid as it is evaporated by the air stream, the maximum recommended sampling volume is 200 L (Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Duchaine et al., 2001, 67(6): 2775-2780).
Container:
Sterile MCE/PTFE filter, gel filter, impinger, and/or impactor (agar plate)

MCE and PTFE filters are available as cassettes.
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice).
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Kienlen, 2015: Kienlen, L.L.  2015.  Comparison of Bioaerosol Collection Methods in the Detection of Airborne Influenza Virus. Masters thesis. The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.
• Verreault et al., 2008:  Verreault, D., Moineau, S. and Duchaine, C.  2008.  Methods for Sampling of Airborne Viruses. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 72(3):413-444.
• Burton et al., 2007:  Burton, N.C., Grinshpun, S.A. and Reponen, T.  2007.  Physical Collection Efficiency of Filter Materials for Bacteria and Viruses. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 51(2):143-151.
• Sattar et al., 1987:  Sattar, S.A., Ijaz, M.K. and Gerba, C.P.  1987.  Spread of Viral Infections by Aerosols. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 17(2):89-131.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Picornaviruses: Hepatitis A virus (HAV)
Sample Type:
Liquid (Water, Wastewater)
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
2 - 20 L (wastewater); 
200 - 300 L (surface/recreational water); 
1500 - 2000 L (drinking water/groundwater)

Filter apparatus should be allowed to run overnight.
Container:
Positively charged 1MDS cartridge filter
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice). 

For collection of aqueous samples containing residual chlorine, add a stock solution of filter-sterilized 10% sodium thiosulfate at 0.5 mL/L.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Rodriguez-Làzaro et al., 2012:  Rodriguez-Làzaro, D., Cook, N., Ruggeri, F. M., Sellwood, J., Nasser, A., Nascimento, M.S.J., D'Agostino, M., Santos, R., Saiz, J.C., Rzezutka, A., Bosch, A., Gironés, R., Carducci, A., Muscillo, M., Kovac, K., Diez-Valcarce, M., Vantarakis, A., von Bonsdorff, C.-H., de Roda Husman, A.M., Hernàndez, M. and van der Poel, W.H.M.  2012.  Virus Hazards from Food, Water and Other Contaminated Environments. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 36:786-814.
• Xagoraraki et al., 2014:  Xagoraraki, I., Yin, Z. and Svambayev, Z.  2014.  Fate of Viruses in Water Systems. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 140(7): 04014020-1-18.
• Adefisoye et al., 2016:  Adefisoye, M.A., Nwodo, U.U., Green, E. and Okoh, A.I.  2016.  Quantitative PCR Detection and Characterisation of Human Adenovirus, Rotavirus and Hepatitis A Virus in Discharged Effluents Of Two Wastewater Treatment Facilities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Food and Environmental Virology, 8(4):262-274.
• Fout et al., 2003:  Fout, G.S., Martinson, B.C., Moyer, MW.N. and Dahling, D.R.  2003.  A Multiplex Reverse Transcription-PCR Method for Detection of Human Enteric Viruses in Groundwater. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69(6):3158-3164.
• Williams et al., 2001a:  Williams, F.P., Stetler, R.E. and Safferman, R.S.  2001.  USEPA Manual of Methods for Virology. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/4-84/013 (N16).
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Picornaviruses: Hepatitis A virus (HAV)
Sample Type:
Solid
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
50 - 100 g (gravimetric)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice).
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Rodriguez-Làzaro et al., 2012:  Rodriguez-Làzaro, D., Cook, N., Ruggeri, F. M., Sellwood, J., Nasser, A., Nascimento, M.S.J., D'Agostino, M., Santos, R., Saiz, J.C., Rzezutka, A., Bosch, A., Gironés, R., Carducci, A., Muscillo, M., Kovac, K., Diez-Valcarce, M., Vantarakis, A., von Bonsdorff, C.-H., de Roda Husman, A.M., Hernàndez, M. and van der Poel, W.H.M.  2012.  Virus Hazards from Food, Water and Other Contaminated Environments. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 36:786-814.
• Xagoraraki et al., 2014:  Xagoraraki, I., Yin, Z. and Svambayev, Z.  2014.  Fate of Viruses in Water Systems. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 140(7): 04014020-1-18.
• Adefisoye et al., 2016:  Adefisoye, M.A., Nwodo, U.U., Green, E. and Okoh, A.I.  2016.  Quantitative PCR Detection and Characterisation of Human Adenovirus, Rotavirus and Hepatitis A Virus in Discharged Effluents Of Two Wastewater Treatment Facilities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Food and Environmental Virology, 8(4):262-274.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Picornaviruses: Hepatitis A virus (HAV)
Sample Type:
Surfaces (Swab, Wipe, Dust Socks)
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
At least 2 sterile, synthetic, and moistened wipes, swabs, or dust socks
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice).
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Rönnqvist 2014:  Rönnqvist, M.  2014.  Noroviruses on Surfaces: Detection, Transfer, and Inactivation. University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. ISBN: 978-951-51-0128-0.
• Tuladhar et al., 2012:  Tuladhar, E., Hazeleger, W.C., Koopmans, M., Zwietering, M.H., Beumer, R.R. and Duizer, E.  2012.  Residual Viral and Bacterial Contamination of Surfaces after Cleaning and Disinfection. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78(21):7769-7775.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Reoviruses: Rotavirus (Group A)
Sample Type:
Aerosol
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
MCE/PTFE filter: 120 - 960 L;
gel filter: 40 - 135 L;
impinger: 750 - 6000 L;
impactor: 84.9 - 849 L

NOTE: If using impingers that do not replenish the liquid as it is evaporated by the air stream, the maximum recommended sampling volume is 200 L (Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Duchaine et al., 2001, 67(6): 2775-2780).
Container:
Sterile MCE/PTFE filter, gel filter, impinger, and/or impactor (agar plate)

MCE and PTFE filters are available as cassettes.
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice).  
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Fronczek and Yoon, 2015:  Fronczek, C.F. and Yoon, J.Y.  2015.  Biosensors for Monitoring Airborne Pathogens.  Journal of Laboratory Automation, 20(4):390-410.
• Johnson et al., 2013:  Johnson, D.L., Mead, K.R., Lynch, R.A. and Hirst, D.V.L.  2013.  Lifting the Lid on Toilet Plume Aerosol: A Literature Review with Suggestions for Future Research. American Journal of Infection Control, 41(3):254-258.
• Riemenschneider et al., 2010:  Riemenschneider, L., Woo, M.-H., Wu, C.-Y., Lundgren, D., Wander, J., Lee, J.-H., Li, H.-W. and Heimbuch, B.  2010.  Characterization of Reaerosolization from Impingers in an Effort to Improve Airborne Virus Sampling. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 108:315-324.
• Verreault et al., 2008:  Verreault, D., Moineau, S. and Duchaine, C.  2008.  Methods for Sampling of Airborne Viruses. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 72(3):413-444.
• Gerone et al., 1966 :  Gerone, P.J., Couch, R.B., Keefer, G.V., Douglas, R.G., Derrenbacher, E.B. and Knight, V.  1966.  Assessment of Experimental and Natural Viral Aerosols. Bacteriological Reviews, 30(3):576.
Notes:
NA
 
Analyte:
Reoviruses: Rotavirus (Group A)
Sample Type:
Liquid (Water, Wastewater)
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
2 - 20 L (wastewater); 
200 - 300 L (surface/recreational water); 
1500 - 2000 L (drinking water/groundwater)

Filter apparatus should be allowed to run overnight.
Container:
Positively charged 1MDS cartridge filter
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice).

For collection of aqueous samples containing residual chlorine, add a stock solution of filter-sterilized 10% sodium thiosulfate at 0.5 mL/L.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Spilki et al., 2013:  Spilki, F.R., da Luz, R.B., Fabres, R.B., Soliman, M.C., Kluge, M., Fleck, J.D., Rodrigues, M.T., Comerlato, J., Cenci, A., Cerva, C., Dasso, M.G. and Roehe, P.M.  2013.  Detection of Human Adenovirus, Rotavirus and Enterovirus in Water Samples Collected on Dairy Farms from Tenente Portela, Northwest of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 44(3):953-957.
• Trubl et al., 2016:  Trubl, G., Solonenko, N., Chittick, L., Solonenko, S.A., Rich, V.I. and Sullivan, M.B.  2016.  Optimization of Viral Resuspension Methods for Carbon-Rich Soils along a Permafrost Thaw Gradient. PeerJ, 4:e1999.
• USGS/EPA.  2004.  Environmental Factors and Chemical and Microbiological Water-Quality Constituents Related to the Presence of Enteric Viruses in Ground Water from Small Public Water Supplies in Southeastern Michigan, Report 2004-5219.
• Fout et al., 2003:  Fout, G.S., Martinson, B.C., Moyer, MW.N. and Dahling, D.R.  2003.  A Multiplex Reverse Transcription-PCR Method for Detection of Human Enteric Viruses in Groundwater. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69(6):3158-3164.
• Williams et al., 2001a:  Williams, F.P., Stetler, R.E. and Safferman, R.S.  2001.  USEPA Manual of Methods for Virology. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/4-84/013 (N16).
Notes:
NA
 
Analyte:
Reoviruses: Rotavirus (Group A)
Sample Type:
Solid
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
50 - 100 g (gravimetric)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice). 
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Horswell et al., 2010:  Horswell, J., Hewitt, J., Prosser, J., Van Schaik, A., Croucher, D., Macdonald, C., Burford, P., Susarla, P., Bickers, P. and Speir, T.  2010.  Mobility and Survival of Salmonella typhimurium and Human Adenovirus from Spiked Sewage Sludge Applied to Soil Columns. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 108(1):104-114.
• Spilki et al., 2013:  Spilki, F.R., da Luz, R.B., Fabres, R.B., Soliman, M.C., Kluge, M., Fleck, J.D., Rodrigues, M.T., Comerlato, J., Cenci, A., Cerva, C., Dasso, M.G. and Roehe, P.M.  2013.  Detection of Human Adenovirus, Rotavirus and Enterovirus in Water Samples Collected on Dairy Farms from Tenente Portela, Northwest of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 44(3):953-957.
• Trubl et al., 2016:  Trubl, G., Solonenko, N., Chittick, L., Solonenko, S.A., Rich, V.I. and Sullivan, M.B.  2016.  Optimization of Viral Resuspension Methods for Carbon-Rich Soils along a Permafrost Thaw Gradient. PeerJ, 4:e1999.
Notes:
NA
 
Analyte:
Reoviruses: Rotavirus (Group A)
Sample Type:
Surfaces (Swab, Wipe, Dust Socks)
Pathogen Type:
Viruses
Sample Size:
At least 2 sterile, synthetic, and moistened wipes, swabs, or dust socks
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice).
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Savage and Jones, 2003:  Savage, C.E. and Jones, R.C.  2003.  The Survival of Avian Reoviruses on Materials Associated with the Poultry House Environment. Avian Pathology, 32(4): 417-423.
Notes:
NA
 
Analyte:
Salmonella Typhi [Typhoid fever]
Sample Type:
Aerosol
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
MCE/PTFE filter: 120 - 960 L;
gel filter: 40 - 135 L;
impinger: 750 - 6000 L;
impactor: 84.9 - 849 L

NOTE: If using impingers that do not replenish the liquid as it is evaporated by the air stream, the maximum recommended sampling volume is 200 L (Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Duchaine et al., 2001, 67(6): 2775-2780).
Container:
Sterile MCE/PTFE filter, gel filter, impinger, and/or impactor (agar plate)

MCE and PTFE filters are available as cassettes.
Preservation:
Keep on ice (e.g. ice packs, secure double bagged ice). 
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• NIST.  2012.  Challenges in Microbial Sampling in the Indoor Environment: Workshop Summary Report. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland. Report No. NIST Technical Note 1737.
• Woodword et al., 2004:  Woodward, C.L., Park, S.Y., Jackson, D.R., Li, X., Birkhold, S.G., Pillai, S.D. and Ricke, S.C.  2004.  Optimization and Comparison of Bacterial Load and Sampling Time for Bioaerosol Detection Systems in a Poultry Layer House. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 13(3):433-442.
• Pillai and Ricke, 2002:  Pillai, S.D. and Ricke, S.C.  2002.  Review/Synthese Bioaerosols from Municipal and Animal Wastes: Background and Contemporary Issues. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 48(8):681-696.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Salmonella Typhi [Typhoid fever]
Sample Type:
Liquid (Water, Wastewater)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
1000 mL. Smaller volumes may be appropriate for highly contaminated waters.
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice). 

For collection of aqueous samples containing residual chlorine, add a stock solution of filter-sterilized 10% sodium thiosulfate at 0.5 mL/L.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• McEgan et al., 2012:  McEgan, R., Rodrigues, C.A.P., Sbodio, A., Suslow, T.V., Goodridge, L.D. and Danyluk, M.D.  2012.  Detection of Salmonella spp. From Large Volumes of Water by Modified Moore Swabs and Tangential Flow Filtration. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 56:88-94.
• Kumar et al., 2006:  Kumar, S., Balakrishna, K. and Batra, H.V.  2006.  Detection of Salmonella enterica, Serovar typhi (S. typhi) by Selective Amplification of invA, viaB, fliC-d and prt Genes by Polymerase Chain Reaction in Mutiplex Format. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 42:149-154.
• Standing Committee of Analysts.  2006.  The Microbiology of Drinking Water: Part 9 - Methods for the Isolation and Enumeration Of Salmonella and Shigella by Selective Enrichment, Membrane Filtration and Multiple Tube-Most Probable Number Techniques. Methods for the Examination of Waters and Associated Materials. Environment Agency, Bristol, UK.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Salmonella Typhi [Typhoid fever]
Sample Type:
Solid
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
50 - 100 g (gravimetric)

Fill 50 mL sample tube to at least 40 mL mark (volumetric)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice).
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Hutchison et al., 2004:  Hutchison, M.L., Walters, L.D., Moore, A., Crookes, K.M. and Avery, S.M.  2004.  Effect of Length of Time Before Incorporation on Survival of Pathogenic Bacteria Present in Livestock Wastes Applied to Agricultural Soil. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 70(9):5111-5118.
• Boes et al., 2005:  Boes, J., Alban, L., Bagger, J., Møgelmose, V., Baggesen, D.L. and Olsen, J.E.  2005.  Survival of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium in Slurry Applied to Clay Soil on a Danish Swine Farm. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 69(3), 213-228.
• Courty et al., 2008:  Courty, B., Le Curieux, F., Belkessam, L., Laboudigue, A. and Marzin, D.  2008.  Mutagenic Potency in Salmonella typhimurium of Organic Extracts of Soil Samples Originating from Urban, Suburban, Agricultural, Forest and Natural Areas. Mutation Research, 653(1-2):1-5.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Salmonella Typhi [Typhoid fever]
Sample Type:
Surfaces (Swab, Wipe, Dust Socks)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
At least 2 sterile, synthetic, and moistened wipes, swabs, or dust socks
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice).
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Weir, 2016:  Weir, M.H.  2016.  Dose-Response Modeling and Use: Challenges and Uncertainties in Environmental Exposure. In Manual of Environmental Microbiology, 4th ed., 3.5.3-1 - 3.5.3-17. ASM Press.
• U.S. EPA.  2010.  Single-Laboratory Verification of Culture-Based Procedure for Detection of Salmonella typhi in Drinking Water and Surface Water. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. EPA/600/R-10/132.
• Zewde et al., 2009:  Zewde, B.M., Robbins, R., Abley, M.J., House, B., Morgan Morrow, W.E. and Gebreyes, W.A.  2009.  Comparison of Swiffer Wipes and Conventional Drag Swab Methods for The Recovery Of Salmonella in Swine Production Systems. Journal of Food Protection, 72(1):142-146.
• Rusin et al., 2002:  Rusin, P., Maxwell, S. and Gerba, C.  2002.  Comparative Surface-to-hand and Fingertip-to-mouth Transfer Efficiency of Gram-positive Bacteria, Gram-negative Bacteria, and Phage. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 93(4):585-592.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Shigella spp. [Shigellosis]
Sample Type:
Aerosol
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
MCE/PTFE filter: 120 - 960 L;
gel filter: 40 - 135 L;
impinger: 750 - 6000 L;
impactor: 84.9 - 849 L

NOTE: If using impingers that do not replenish the liquid as it is evaporated by the air stream, the maximum recommended sampling volume is 200 L (Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Duchaine et al., 2001, 67(6): 2775-2780).
Container:
Sterile MCE/PTFE filter, gel filter, impinger, and/or impactor (agar plate)

MCE and PTFE filters are available as cassettes.
Preservation:
Keep on ice (e.g. ice packs, secure double bagged ice).
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Srikanth et al., 2008:  Srikanth, P., Sudharsanam, S., and Steinberg, R.  2008.  Bio-Aerosols in Indoor Environment: Composition, Health Effects and Analysis. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, 26(4):302-12.
• Morey, 2007:  Morey, P.R.  2007.  Microbiological Sampling Strategies in Indoor Environments. Sampling and Analysis of Indoor Microorganisms. Wiley. p.51.
• Kalogerakis et al., 2005:  Kalogerakis, N., Paschali, D., Lekaditis, V., Pantidou, A., Eleftheriadis, K. and Lazaridis, M.  2005.  Indoor Air Quality—Bioaerosol Measurements in Domestic and Office Premises. Journal of Aerosol Science, 36(5):751-761.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Shigella spp. [Shigellosis]
Sample Type:
Liquid (Water, Wastewater)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
1000 mL. Smaller volumes may be appropriate for highly contaminated waters.
Container:
Sterile plastic bags or glass or plastic bottles
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice). 

For collection of aqueous samples containing residual chlorine, add a stock solution of filter-sterilized 10% sodium thiosulfate at 0.5 mL/L.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Standing Committee of Analysts.  2006.  The Microbiology of Drinking Water: Part 9 - Methods for the Isolation and Enumeration Of Salmonella and Shigella by Selective Enrichment, Membrane Filtration and Multiple Tube-Most Probable Number Techniques. Methods for the Examination of Waters and Associated Materials. Environment Agency, Bristol, UK.
• Faruque et al., 2003:  Faruque, S.M., Chowdhury, N., Khan, R., Hasan, M.R., Nahar, J., Islam, M.J., Yamasaki, S., Ghosh, A.N., Nair, G.B. and Sack, D.A.  2003.  Shigella dysenteriae Type 1-Specific Bacteriophage from Environmental Waters in Bangladesh. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69(12):7028-7031.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Shigella spp. [Shigellosis]
Sample Type:
Solid
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
50 - 100 g (gravimetric)

Fill 50 mL sample tube to at least 40 mL mark (volumetric)
Container:
Sterile plastic bags or glass or plastic bottles
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice).
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Alvarez et al., 1995:  Alvarez, A.J., Buttner, M.P. and Stetzenbach, L.D.  1995.  PCR for Bioaerosol Monitoring: Sensitivity and Environmental Interference. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 61(10):3639-3644.
• U.S. EPA/USGS.  2014.  Sample Collection Protocol for Bacterial Pathogens in Surface Soil. Cincinnati, OH, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. EPA/600/R-14/027.
• Stanley et al., 2015:  Stanley, H. O., Amakiri, M.A. and Okerentugba, P.O.  2015.  Characterization of Hydrocarbon Utilizing Bacteria in Soil Samples Collected from Various Sites in Port Harcourt (Niger-Delta, Nigeria). Global Journal of Bio-Science and Biotechnology, 4(1): 6-11.
• Steiner-Asiedu et al., 2016:  Steiner-Asiedu, M., Harrison, O.A., Vuvor, F. and Tano-Debrah, K.  2016. Quality Evaluation of Processed Clay Soil Samples. The Pan African Medical Journal, 24:118.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Shigella spp. [Shigellosis]
Sample Type:
Surfaces (Swab, Wipe, Dust Socks)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
At least 2 sterile, synthetic, and moistened wipes, swabs, or dust socks
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice).
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Lim et al., 2005:  Lim, D.V., Simpson, J.M., Kearns, E.A. and Kramer, M.F.  2005.  Current and Developing Technologies for Monitoring Agents of Bioterrorism and Biowarfare. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 18(4)583-607.
• Sehulster and Chinn, 2003:  Sehulster, L. and Chinn, R.Y.W.  2003.  Guidelines for Environmental Infection Control in Health-Care Facilities. Recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 52(RR10):1-42. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
• Rusin et al., 2002:  Rusin, P., Maxwell, S. and Gerba, C.  2002.  Comparative Surface-to-hand and Fingertip-to-mouth Transfer Efficiency of Gram-positive Bacteria, Gram-negative Bacteria, and Phage. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 93(4):585-592.
• Page et al., 2014:  Page, A.E., Alburty, D.S., Packingham, Z.A., Murowchick, P.S. and Adolphson, A.D.  2014.  Surface Sampler for Bioterrorism Particle Detection. Patent US 8677840 B2.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Staphylococcus aureus
Sample Type:
Aerosol
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
MCE/PTFE filter: 120 - 960 L;
gel filter: 40 - 135 L;
impinger: 750 - 6000 L;
impactor: 84.9 - 849 L

NOTE: If using impingers that do not replenish the liquid as it is evaporated by the air stream, the maximum recommended sampling volume is 200 L (Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Duchaine et al., 2001, 67(6): 2775-2780).
Container:
Sterile MCE/PTFE filter, gel filter, impinger, and/or impactor (agar plate)

MCE and PTFE filters are available as cassettes.
Preservation:
Keep on ice (e.g. ice packs, secure double bagged ice).
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Haig et al., 2016:  Haig, C.W., Mackay, W.G., Walker, J.T. and Williams, C.  2016.  Bioaerosol Sampling: Sampling Mechanisms, Bioefficiency and Field Studies. Journal of Hospital Infection, 93(3):242-255.
• Chang and Wang, 2015:  Chang, C.W. and Wang, L.J.  2015.  Impact of Culture Media and Sampling Methods on Staphylococcus aureus Aerosols. Indoor Air, 25:488-498
• Tseng et al., 2014:  Tseng, C-C., Hsiao, P-K., Chang, K-C., Chen, W-T., Yiin, L-M. and Hsieh, C.J.  2014.  Optimization of Propidium Monoazide Quantitative PCR for Evaluating Performances of Bioaerosol Samplers for Sampling Airborne Staphylococcus aureus. Aerosol Science and Technology, 48(12):1308-1319.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Staphylococcus aureus
Sample Type:
Liquid (Water, Wastewater)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
100 mL (minimum)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice) if longer.

For collection of aqueous samples containing residual chlorine, add a stock solution of filter-sterilized 10% sodium thiosulfate at 0.5 mL/L.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Plano et al., 2011:  Plano, L.R., Garza, A.C., Shibata, T., Elmir, S.M., Kish, J., Sinigalliano, C.D., Gidley, M.L., Miller, G., Withum, K., Fleming, L.E. and Solo-Gabriele, H.M.  2011.  Shedding of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Adult and Pediatric Bathers in Marine Waters. BMC Microbiology, 11:5.
• Lechevallier and Seidler, 1980:  Lechevallier, M.W. and Seidler, R.J.  1980.  Staphylococcus aureus in Rural Drinking Water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 30(4):739-742.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Staphylococcus aureus
Sample Type:
Solid
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
50 - 100 g (gravimetric)

Fill 50 mL sample tube to at least 40 mL mark (volumetric)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice) if longer.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Rusin et al., 2003:  Rusin, P., Maxwell, S.L., Brooks, J.P., Gerba, C.P. and Pepper, I.L.  2003.  Evidence for the Absence of Staphylococcus aureus in Land Applied Biosolids. Environmental Science & Technology, 37:4027-4030.
• Chaudhary et al., 2013:  Chaudhary, H. S., Yadav, J., Shrivastava, A. R., Singh, S., Singh, A. K. and Gopalan, N.  2013.  Antibacterial Activity of Actinomycetes Isolated from Different Soil Samples of Sheopur (a City of Central India). Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research, 4(2):118-123.
• Mohammed and Sheikh, 2010:  Mohammed, H. and Sheikh, A.  2010.  Antimicrobial Activity of Certain Bacteria and Fungi Isolated from Soil Mixed with Human Saliva Against Pathogenic Microbes Causing Dermatological Diseases. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 17(4):331-339.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Staphylococcus aureus
Sample Type:
Surfaces (Swab, Wipe, Dust Socks)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
At least 2 sterile, synthetic, and moistened wipes, swabs, or dust socks
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice).
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Lutz et al., 2013:  Lutz, J.K., Crawford, J., Hoet, A.E., Wilkins, J.R., III and Lee, J.  2013.  Comparative Performance of Contact Plates, Electrostatic Wipes, Swabs and a Novel Sampling Device for the Detection of Staphylococcus aureus on Environmental Surfaces. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 115(1):171-178.
• Landers et al., 2010:  Landers, T.F., Hoet, A. and Wittum, T.E.  2010.  Swab Type, Moistening, and Preenrichment for Staphylococcus aureus on Environmental Surfaces. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 48(6):2235-2236.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Toxoplasma gondii [Toxoplasmosis]
Sample Type:
Aerosol
Pathogen Type:
Protozoa
Sample Size:
Unlikely to be found.
Container:
NA
Preservation:
NA
Packaging Requirements:
NA
Shipping Label:
NA
Source:
NA
Notes:
NA
 
Analyte:
Toxoplasma gondii [Toxoplasmosis]
Sample Type:
Liquid (Water, Wastewater)
Pathogen Type:
Protozoa
Sample Size:
100 L (ten 10 L containers) / 4650 L for filter cartridge
Container:
Sterile, sealed, leak-proof container / Filter in sterile leak-proof container / Polypropylene carboys
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice); do not freeze.

For collection of aqueous samples containing residual chlorine, add a stock solution of filter-sterilized 10% sodium thiosulfate at 0.5 mL/L.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Sroka and Szymanska, 2012:  Sroka, J. and Szymanska, J.  2012.  Analysis of Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Selected Rural Households in the Lublin Region. Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy, 56:529-534.
• Krueger et al., 2014:  Krueger, W.S., Hilborn, E.D., Converse, R.R. and Wade, T.J.  2014.  Drinking Water Source and Human Toxoplasma gondii Infection in the United States: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of NHANES Data. BMC Public Health, 14(1):711.
• Villena et al., 2004:  Villena, I., Aubert, D., Gomis, P., Ferté, H., Inglard, J-C., Denis-Bisiaux, H., Dondon, J-M., Pisano, E., Ortis, N. and Pinon, J.M.  2004.  Evaluation of a Strategy for Toxoplasma gondii Oocyst Detection in Water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 70(7):4035-4039.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Toxoplasma gondii [Toxoplasmosis]
Sample Type:
Solid
Pathogen Type:
Protozoa
Sample Size:
50 - 100 g 
Container:
Sterile, sealed, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Keep on ice packs (or secure double-bagged ice); do not freeze.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Afonso et al., 2008:  Afonso, E., Lemoine, M., Poulle, M.L., Ravat, M.C., Romand, S., Thulliez, P., Villena, I., Aubert, D., Rabilloud, M., Riche, B. and Gilot-Fromont, E.  2008.  Spatial Distribution of Soil Contamination by Toxoplasma gondii In Relation to Cat Defecation Behaviour in an Urban Area. International Journal for Parasitology, 38(8):1017-1023.
• Sroka and Szymanska, 2012:  Sroka, J. and Szymanska, J.  2012.  Analysis of Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Selected Rural Households in the Lublin Region. Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy, 56:529-534.
• Krueger et al., 2014:  Krueger, W.S., Hilborn, E.D., Converse, R.R. and Wade, T.J.  2014.  Drinking Water Source and Human Toxoplasma gondii Infection in the United States: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of NHANES Data. BMC Public Health, 14(1):711.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Toxoplasma gondii [Toxoplasmosis]
Sample Type:
Surfaces (Swab, Wipe, Dust Socks)
Pathogen Type:
Protozoa
Sample Size:
At least 2 sterile, synthetic, and moistened wipes, swabs, or dust socks
Container:
Sterile, sealed, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice).

Care should be taken to avoid freezing the samples.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Hoorfar, 2011:  Hoorfar, J. (ed) 2011.  Rapid Detection, Characterization, and Enumeration of Foodborne Pathogens. Washington DC: ASM Press.
• NHANES.  2006.  Lab 17 Toxoplasma IgG Antibodies. 2003-2004 Lab Methods. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
• Dumetre and Dardé, 2003:  Dumetre, A. and Dardé, M.L.  2003.  How to Detect Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts in Environmental Samples? FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 27(5):651-61.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Vibrio cholerae 01 and O139 [Cholera]
Sample Type:
Aerosol
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
MCE/PTFE filter: 120 - 960 L;
gel filter: 40 - 135 L;
impinger: 750 - 6000 L;
impactor: 84.9 - 849 L

NOTE: If using impingers that do not replenish the liquid as it is evaporated by the air stream, the maximum recommended sampling volume is 200 L (Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Duchaine et al., 2001, 67(6): 2775-2780).
Container:
Sterile MCE/PTFE filter, gel filter, impinger, and/or impactor (agar plate)

MCE and PTFE filters are available as cassettes.
Preservation:
Store at room temperature.  Do not ship on ice.  Note: unlikely to be viable - samples should be collected only for PCR analysis.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Blatny et al., 2008:  Blatny, J.M., Fykse, E.M., Olsen, J.S., Skogan, G. and Aarskaug, T.  2008.  Identification of Biological Threat Agents in the Environment and its Challenge. Forsvarets forskningsinstitutt/Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI). FFI-rapport 2008/01371.
• Crook, 1996:  Crook, B.  1996.  Review: Methods of Monitoring for Process Micro-Organisms in Biotechnology. The Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 40(3):245-260.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Vibrio cholerae 01 and O139 [Cholera]
Sample Type:
Liquid (Water, Wastewater)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
100 mL (minimum)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Store at room temperature.  Do not ship on ice. 

For collection of aqueous samples containing residual chlorine, add a stock solution of filter-sterilized 10% sodium thiosulfate at 0.5 mL/L.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Huq et al., 2012:  Huq, A., Haley, B.J., Taviani, E., Chen, A., Hasan, N.A. and Colwell, R.R.  2012.  Detection, Isolation, and Identification of Vibrio cholerae from the Environment. Current Protocols in Microbiology, Chapter, Unit 6A.5.
• Schauera et al., 2012:  Schauera, S., Sommera, R., Farnleitner, A.H. and Kirschnera, A.K.T.  2012.  Rapid and Sensitive Quantification of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio mimicus Cells in Water Samples by use of Catalyzed Reporter Deposition Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Combined with Solid-Phase Cytometry. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 78(20):7369-7375.
• CDC. 2010.  Laboratory Methods for the Diagnosis of Vibrio cholera: V. Examination of Food and Environmental Samples.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Vibrio cholerae 01 and O139 [Cholera]
Sample Type:
Solid
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
50 - 100 g (gravimetric)
 
Fill 50 mL sample tube to at least 40 mL mark (volumetric)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Store at room temperature.  Do not ship on ice.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Santamaria and Toranzos, 2003:  Santamaria, J. and Toranzos, G.A.  2003.  Enteric Pathogens and Soil: A Short Review. International Microbiology, 6(1):5-9.
• Huq et al., 2012:  Huq, A., Haley, B.J., Taviani, E., Chen, A., Hasan, N.A. and Colwell, R.R.  2012.  Detection, Isolation, and Identification of Vibrio cholerae from the Environment. Current Protocols in Microbiology, Chapter, Unit 6A.5.
• Djaouda et al., 2013:  Djaouda, M., Gaké, B., Menye, D.E., Togouet, S.H.Z., Nola, M. and Njiné, T.  2013.  Survival and Growth of Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. in Well Water used for Drinking Purposes in Garoua (North Cameroon). International Journal of Bacteriology, Article ID 127179, 7 pages.
• Menezes et al., 2014:  Menezes, F., Neves, S., Sousa, O.V., Vila-Nova, C.M.V.M., Rodrigo, T., Grace N.D., Hofer, E. and Vieira, R.H.S.F.  2014.  Detection of Virulence Genes in Environmental Strains of Vibrio cholerae from Estuaries in Northeastern Brazil. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo, 56(5):427-432.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Vibrio cholerae 01 and O139 [Cholera]
Sample Type:
Surfaces (Swab, Wipe, Dust Socks)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
At least 2 sterile, synthetic, and moistened wipes, swabs, or dust socks
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container
Preservation:
Store at room temperature.  Do not ship in ice. 
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Ley et al., 2012:  Ley, B., Khatib, A.M., Thriemer, K., von Seidlein, L., Deen, J., Mukhopadyay, A., Ali, S.M.  2012.  Evaluation of a Rapid Dipstick (Crystal VC) for the Diagnosis of Cholera in Zanzibar and a Comparison with Previous Studies. PLoS One, 7(5): e36930.
• Lim et al., 2005:  Lim, D.V., Simpson, J.M., Kearns, E.A. and Kramer, M.F.  2005.  Current and Developing Technologies for Monitoring Agents of Bioterrorism and Biowarfare. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 18(4)583-607.
• Page et al., 2014:  Page, A.E., Alburty, D.S., Packingham, Z.A., Murowchick, P.S. and Adolphson, A.D.  2014.  Surface Sampler for Bioterrorism Particle Detection. Patent US 8677840 B2.
• U.S. EPA.  1978.  Quality Assurance Guidelines for Biological Testing. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV. EPA-600/4-78-043.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Yersinia pestis [Plague]
Sample Type:
Aerosol
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
MCE/PTFE filter: 120 - 960 L;
gel filter: 40 - 135 L;
impinger: 750 - 6000 L;
impactor: 84.9 - 849 L

NOTE: If using impingers that do not replenish the liquid as it is evaporated by the air stream, the maximum recommended sampling volume is 200 L (Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Duchaine et al., 2001, 67(6): 2775-2780).
Container:
Sterile MCE/PTFE filter, gel filter, impinger, and/or impactor (agar plate)

MCE and PTFE filters are available as cassettes.
Preservation:
Room temperature if held for 2 hours or less; keep on ice (e.g., ice packs, secure double-bagged ice) if longer.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Dybwad et al., 2014:  Dybwad, M., Skogan, G. and Blatny, J.M.  2014.  Comparative Testing and Evaluation of Nine Different Air Samplers: End-To-End Sampling Efficiencies as Specific Performance Measurements for Bioaerosol Applications. Aerosol Science and Technology, 48(3): 282-295.
• Cooper, 2010:  Cooper, C.W.  2010.  High Volume Air Sampling for Viral Aerosols: A Comparative Approach. Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. No. AFIT/GES/ENV/10-M01.
• Burton et al., 2007:  Burton, N.C., Grinshpun, S.A. and Reponen, T.  2007.  Physical Collection Efficiency of Filter Materials for Bacteria and Viruses. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 51(2):143-151.
• Bergman et al., 2005:  Bergman, W., Shinn, J., Lochner, R., Sawyer, S., Milanovich, F. and Mariella, R., Jr.  2005.  High Air Flow, Low Pressure Drop, Bio-Aerosol Collector Using a Multi-Slit Virtual Impactor. Journal of Aerosol Science, 36(5):619-638.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Yersinia pestis [Plague]
Sample Type:
Liquid (Water, Wastewater)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
100 mL (minimum)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Room temperature if held for 2 hours or less; keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice) if longer.

For collection of aqueous samples containing residual chlorine, add a stock solution of filter-sterilized 10% sodium thiosulfate at 0.5 mL/L.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Deshmukh et al., 2016:  Deshmukh, R.A., Joshi, K., Bhand, S. and Roy, U.  2016.  Recent Developments in Detection and Enumeration of Waterborne Bacteria: A Retrospective Minireview. MicrobiologyOpen, DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.383.
• U.S. EPA.  2015.  Water Contaminant Information Tool: Pathogen Contaminant Profile - Comprehensive Report Format - Data Package for Yersinia pestis. EPA/600/S-15/172.
• Simon et al., 2013:  Simon, S., Demeure, C., Lamourette, P., Filali, S., Plaisance, M., Créminon, C. Volland, H. and Carniel, E.  2013.  Fast and Simple Detection of Yersinia pestis Applicable to Field Investigation of Plague Foci. PLoS ONE, 8(1):e54947.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Yersinia pestis [Plague]
Sample Type:
Solid
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
50 - 100 g (gravimetric)

Fill 50 mL sample tube to at least 40 mL mark (volumetric)
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Room temperature if held for 2 hours or less; keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice) if longer.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Pohanka and Skladal, 2009:  Pohanka, M. and Skladal, P.  2009.  Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis. The Most Important Bacterial Warfare Agents—Review. Folia Microbiologica, 54(4):263-272.
• U.S. EPA/USGS.  2014.  Sample Collection Protocol for Bacterial Pathogens in Surface Soil. Cincinnati, OH, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. EPA/600/R-14/027.
• U.S. EPA.  2016.  Protocol for Detection of Yersinia pestis in Environmental Samples during the Remediation Phase of a Plague Incident. Cincinnati, OH, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  EPA/600/R-16/109.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.
 
Analyte:
Yersinia pestis [Plague]
Sample Type:
Surfaces (Swab, Wipe, Dust Socks)
Pathogen Type:
Bacteria
Sample Size:
At least 2 sterile, synthetic, and moistened wipes, swabs, or dust socks
Container:
Sterile, leak-proof container 
Preservation:
Room temperature if held for 2 hours or less; keep on ice (e.g., secure double-bagged ice) if longer.
Packaging Requirements:
Sample transport containers are packed outside the contaminated area. Samples must be packed in a manner that protects the integrity of the sample containers and provides temperature conditions required for sample preservation. Primary receptacles should be leak-proof with a volumetric capacity of not more than 500 mL (liquid) or 4 kilograms (solid). If several individual primary containers are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be individually wrapped or separated so as to prevent contact between them. Secondary packaging should be leak-proof and surrounded by shock- and water-absorbent packing materials or ice (if required for preservation) and shipped in a cooler to ensure sample temperatures do not exceed preservation requirements. Ice should be placed in separate plastic bags or cold packs should be used to avoid leakage, and the bags placed around, among, and on top of the secondary sample containers. Further guidance can be obtained from 49 CFR 173.199 (https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2006-title49-vol2-sec173-199.pdf) and 42 CFR 72 and 73 (http://oig.hhs.gov/authorities/docs/05/032905FRselectagents.pdf). 
Shipping Label:
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) labeling requirements apply to materials that are known to contain, or are suspected of containing, an infectious substance and reflect the most recent changes, effective October 1, 2006.  Further guidance on these changes and lists of substances considered to be either category A (not listed in this document) or category B can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (DOT, PHMSA) at https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/sites/phmsa.dot.gov/files/docs/Transporting_Infectious_Substances_brochure.pdf.  Definitions and exceptions for Class 6, Division 6.2 infectious substances are described in 49 CFR 173.134.
Source:
• Silvestri et al., 2016a:  Silvestri, E.E., Yund, C., Taft, S., Bowling, C.Y., Chappie, D., Garrahan, K., Nichols, T.L.  2016.  Considerations for Estimating Microbial Environmental Data Concentrations Collected from a Field Setting. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, 27:141-151.
• AFQTP.  2015.  Journeyman Training Guide: Biological Health Hazards. Department of the Air Force, Headquarters U.S. Air Force, Washington, DC. AFQTP 4B051-10.
• Gilbert et al., 2014:  Gilbert, S.E., Rose, L.J., Howard, M., Bradley, M.D., Shah, S., Silvestri, E.,Noble-Wang, J.  2014.  Evaluation of Swabs and Transport Media for the Recovery of Yersinia pestis. Journal of Microbiological Methods 96:35-41.
• Da Silva et al., 2012:  Da Silva, S.M., Urbas, A.A., Filiben, J.J., Morrow, J.B.  2012.  Recovery Balance: A Method for Estimating Losses in a Bacillus anthracis Spore Sampling Protocol. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 114(3):807-818.
• Dauphin et al., 2010:  Dauphin, L.A., Stephens, K.W., Eufinger, S.C. and Bowen, M.D.  2010.  Comparison of Five Commercial DNA Extraction Kits for the Recovery of Yersinia pestis DNA from Bacterial Suspensions and Spiked Environmental Samples. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 108(1):163-172.
• Petrovick et al., 2007:  Petrovick, M.S., Harper, J.D., Nargi, F.E., Schwoebel, E.D., Hennessy, M.C., Rider, T.H. and Hollis, M.A.  2007.  Rapid Sensors for Biological-agent Identification. Lincoln Laboratory Journal, 17(1):63-84.
Notes:
Currently, no information is available for this analyte in this sample type. Until such time that analyte-specific information is available, collection procedures described for a similar analyte/sample type are considered to be appropriate.