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Hazardous Waste Cleanup: McFarland Cascade Holdings (Formerly: Wood Preservers Incorporated) in Warsaw, Virginia

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A Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) was performed at the Wood Preservers Inc (WPI) facility under a Facility Lead Agreement during October and November 2002.

    Cleanup Status

    The Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (VDEQ) approved an Interim Corrective Measures Design Report on May 1, 2015 for implementation of interim measures to address soil and groundwater contamination within area of concern (AOC) 1 and AOC 2, the former treatment building and cylinder areas. Interim measures include in situ stabilization of contaminants in soil and continued implementation of air sparging and enhanced co-metabolism for contaminants in groundwater. It’s anticipated that interim measures will be implemented during fall of 2015. Upon completion, a final remedy will be evaluated for on-going protection of human health and the environment. The corrective action final remedy decison issued on July 31, 2017,  includes institutional and engineering controls including periodic groundwater monitoring.

    Cleanup Background

    The Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 1 (Closed Surface Impoundment) and SWMU 2 (Closed Spray Evaporation Pond) were closed with waste in place in 1988 as landfills because “clean closure” under RCRA could not be demonstrated. Deed Notices have been recorded identifying SWMU locations and the facility performs post-closure care activities for both.

    A groundwater recovery system was installed for SWMUs 1 and 2 in the 1980’s. The system has been operating at the facility since then to contain and remove contaminants related to historical releases from the regulated units. In 2004, groundwater recovery wells at SWMU 2 were shutdown to evaluate potential rebound effects specific to this unit. No rebound in groundwater concentrations has been observed since then.

    On September 27, 2002, DEQ completed an evaluation of available information and issued a “YES” determination for the “Migration of Contaminated Groundwater Under Control” Environmental Indicator (EI) in accordance with the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA).

    On September 16, 2003, DEQ completed an evaluation of available information and issued a “YES” determination for the “Current Human Exposures Under Control” EI in accordance with the GPRA.

    WPI submitted a RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI) Report in 2004. Interim Measures (IMs) have been periodically conducted on-site since then to address soil impacts within noncontiguous SWMUs and AOCs across the site. These IMs have included soil excavation to address unacceptable risk from soil impacts within discrete areas referenced as “hot spots” and bioremediation of organic contaminants in groundwater at AOC 1 and AOC 2. However, previous IMs have also included in situ treatment of inorganics within AOC 1 and AOC 2.

    In April 2014, WPI obtained approval from DEQ to pursue design for in-situ soil stabilization as an IM to mitigate transfer of contaminants from soil to groundwater within the source area. In addition, the facility will continue to operate groundwater IMs to reduce contaminants in groundwater and periodically monitor groundwater.

    DEQ approved an Interim Corrective Measures Design Report on May 1, 2015, for implementation of interim measures to address soil and groundwater contamination within AOC 1 and AOC 2, the former treatment building and cylinder areas, including SWMU 1, the former surface impoundment.  Interim measures included in situ stabilization of contaminants in soil and injection of “FerroBlack” into groundwater for stabilization of inorganic contaminants.  Interim measures were completed in 2016.  Subsequently, the corrective action final remedy decision was issued on July 31, 2017, which includes institutional and engineering controls and periodic groundwater monitoring.  An environmental covenant, which meets requirements of the Uniform Environmental Covenants Act and established land use controls, was executed on September 19, 2017.

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    Site Description

    Interactive Map of  McFarland Cascade Holdings (Formerly: Wood Preservers

    Incorporated), Warsaw, VA

    The WPI facility occupies approximately 132 acres located in Warsaw, Virginia. WPI began operations in 1975 and is a fully integrated wood preserving plant. Raw wood is transported to the site, cut, debarked, and milled to the desired product. Historically, pentachlorophenol was used at the former treating area of the facility between 1975 and 1983. Creosote and chromate copper arsenate (CCA) were also used as wood preservatives at the former treating area. Presently, the wood is preserved using a CCA process containing Dricon, which is a fire retardant for which boron is the primary ingredient. The WPI facility uses pressurized treating cylinders and vacuum system to apply the CCA preservative solution.

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    Contaminants at this Facility

    The primary contaminants of concern (COC) in soil and groundwater are polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), pentachlorophenol (PCP), and metals, specifically arsenic and chromium, which are common to wood treatment processes.

    No impacts to air, surface water, and sediments have been identified during the environmental investigations.

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    Institutional and Engineering Controls at this Facility

    Institutional controls are anticipated for this site.

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    Land Reuse Information at this Facility

    The facility is under continued use.

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    Site Responsibility at this Facility

    RCRA Corrective Action activities at this facility are being conducted under the direction of the Virginia DEQ with assistance from the EPA Region 3.

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