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All Publications on Technologies for Cleaning Up Contaminated Sites

This page contains all publications related to Technologies for Cleaning Up Contaminated Sites. To view publications, click on the letter range below corresponding to the first letter of the document's title.

  • A-C

    Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 1

    This report is a collection of abstracts summarizing 37 case studies of site remediation projects prepared by Federal agencies. The case studies were undertaken to document the results and lessons learned from early technology applications. They will help establish benchmark data on cost and performance which should lead to greater confidence in the selection and use of cleanup technologies. The case studies were collected under the auspices of the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable as part of a larger effort to improve future project documentation and information transfer.


    Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 2

    This report is a collection of abstracts summarizing 17 case studies of site remediation prepared by federal agencies. The case studies, collected under the auspices of the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable, were undertaken to document the results and lessons learned from technology applications. They will help establish benchmark data on cost and performance which should lead to greater confidence in the selection and use of cleanup technologies.


    Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 3

    This report is a collection of abstracts summarizing 86 case studies of site remediation prepared by federal agencies. The case studies, collected under the auspices of the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable, were undertaken to document the results and lessons learned from technology applications. They will help establish benchmark data on cost and performance which should lead to greater confidence in the selection and use of cleanup technologies.


    Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 4

    This report is a collection of abstracts summarizing 78 case studies of site remediation applications prepared by federal agencies. The case studies, collected under the auspices of the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable, were undertaken to document the results and lessons learned from technology applications. They will help establish benchmark data on cost and performance which should lead to greater confidence in the selection and use of cleanup technologies.


    Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 5

    This report is a collection of abstracts summarizing 56 case studies of site remediation applications prepared primarily by federal agencies. The case studies, collected under the auspices of the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR), were undertaken to document the results and lessons learned from technology applications.


    Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 6

    This report is a collection of abstracts summarizing 39 case studies of site remediation applications prepared primarily by federal agencies. The case studies, collected under the auspices of the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR), were undertaken to document the results and lessons learned from technology applications.


    Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 7

    This report is a collection of abstracts summarizing 29 case studies of site remediation applications prepared primarily by federal agencies. The case studies, collected under the auspices of the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR), were undertaken to document the results and lessons learned from technology applications.


    Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 8

    This report is a collection of abstracts summarizing 19 case studies of site remediation applications prepared primarily by federal agencies. The case studies, collected under the auspices of the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR), were undertaken to document the results and lessons learned from technology applications. The report includes 7 projects addressing cleanup of soil and groundwater using in situ bioremediation technologies, 4 case studies focusing on soil vapor extraction for treatment of halogenated volatile compounds, and 3 reports covering in situ soil and groundwater treatment using chemical oxidation/reduction technologies.


    Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 9

    This report, published by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR), is a collection of recently published abstracts summarizing 13 cost and performance case studies on the use of remediation technologies at contaminated sites. The case studies include several different technologies for treating soil or groundwater contamination or both, with 7 reports addressing soil cleanup and 8 reports concerning groundwater.


    Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 10

    This report is a collection of abstracts summarizing nine new FRTR cost and performance case studies documenting the results and lessons learned from site remediation technology applications. The abstracts are organized by technology, and cover a variety of in situ treatment technologies and some containment remedies. The abstracts and corresponding case study reports are available through the Roundtable Web site, which contains a total of 383 remediation technology case studies. The online version of this document also includes a table (Appendix A) identifying the specific sites, technologies, contaminants, media, and year published for the 383 case studies in the FRTR database.


    Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 11

    This report is a collection of abstracts summarizing 10 new FRTR cost and performance case studies documenting the results and lessons learned from site remediation technology applications. The abstracts are organized by technology, and include several different technologies for treating soil or groundwater contamination or acid rock drainage, with 3 reports addressing soil cleanup, 4 reports focusing on groundwater and 3 reports focusing on treating acid rock drainage. This document also includes a table (Appendix A) identifying the specific sites, technologies, contaminants, media, and year published for the 393 case studies in the FRTR database.


    Analysis of Information Contained in Completed North American Innovative Remediation Technology Demonstration Projects

    This report prepared by the Groundwater Remediation Technologies Analysis Center (GWRTAC) provides an analysis of information pertaining to ground-water remediation projects contained in the title document.


    Analysis of Selected Enhancements for Soil Vapor Extraction

    This report provides an engineering analysis of, and status report on, selected enhancements for soil vapor extraction (SVE) treatment technologies. The report is intended to assist project managers considering an SVE treatment system by providing them with an up-to-date status of enhancement technologies; an evaluation of each technology's applicability to various site conditions; a presentation of cost and performance information; a list of vendors specializing in the technologies; a discussion of relative strengths and limitations of the technologies; recommendations to keep in mind when considering the enhancements; and a compilation of references.


    Applying the Concept of Effective Data to Environmental Analyses for Contaminated Sites

    Analytical chemistry methods can be classified as 'definitive methods' or 'screening methods.' Environmental decision-makers frequently assume that definitive analytical methods generate 'definitive data,' while screening methods generate 'screening data.' This is misleading. Adopting the concept of 'effective data' could promote cost-savings while ensuring more reliable site decisions, because it recognizes that the information value of data depends on the interaction between sampling design, analytical design, and the intended use of the data.


    Arsenic Treatment Technologies for Soil, Waste, and Water

    This report contains current information on the treatment technologies for wastes and environmental media containing arsenic. It summarizes information on 13 technologies used to treat arsenic, identifies sites and facilities where arsenic treatment has been used, and provides references to more detailed arsenic treatment information. The information can be used to help identify and screen treatment technologies that can meet the lower arsenic maximum contaminant level (MCL). The technologies included in the report to address soil and solids are: solidification/stabilization, vitrification, soil washing/acid extraction, pyrometallurgical treatment, and in situ soil flushing. Technologies for water include: precipitation-coprecipitation, membrane filtration, adsorption, ion exchange, permeable reactive barriers, and biological treatment. Two technologies discussed in the report address soils, other solids, and water: electrokinetics and phytoremediation.


    Assessing Contractor Capabilities for Streamlined Site Investigations

    The purpose of this document is to familiarize and encourage brownfields decision makers to investigate and employ innovative methods for characterizing their sites, to assist brownfields decision makers in assessing contractors' capabilities and familiarity with these methods, and to suggest additional items for contractors to consider in conducting their activities.


    Best Management Practices: Use of Systematic Project Planning Under a Triad Approach for Site Assessment and Cleanup

    This technical publication is intended for environmental practitioners engaged in the investigation, design, remediation, and closure or reuse of contaminated sites. Systematic Project Planning is a rigorous project planning process that lays a scientifically defensible foundation for proposed project activities. The bulletin discusses important considerations and contingencies that need to be addressed, and key activities to be performed during SPP at hazardous-waste sites. It guides the reader to think about SPP from early assessment, to evolving to a mature conceptual site model, to looking ahead at site re-use; and emphasizes up-front effort. Included are references where the reader can find tools and more detailed technical guidance.


    Best Practices for Environmental Site Management: Recommended Contents of a Groundwater Monitoring Report (PDF) (10pp)

    The purpose of this issue paper is to recommend information to include in groundwater monitoring reports that will lead to improved report consistency and a useful, readable format. Incorporation of the recommended information will standardize groundwater monitoring report deliverables,  which may in turn inform site characterization strategies, analysis of remedial alternatives, monitoring network optimization, remedy performance  evaluation, continual refinement of the conceptual site model (CSM), and technical evaluation of groundwater data in five-year reviews.


    Bibliography for Innovative Site Clean-Up Technologies, August 1999 Update

    Provides information about EPA publications, programs, and resources dealing with innovative site clean-up technologies. August 1999 Update.


    Bioremediation Field Initiative Site Profiles

    Current information on the status of bioremediation nationally as well as information on sites where field performance evaluations have been and are being conducted.


    Bioremediation Resource Guide

    Identifies information resources intended to aid users in remedial decisions. Includes abstracts of field reports and guidance documents.


    Brownfields Grant Recipients' Road Map to Understanding Quality Assurance Project Plans

    The U.S. EPA prepared this publication to help recipients of an EPA Brownfields Assessment Grant design and complete site assessment projects more efficiently and effectively by increasing their awareness and understanding of the importance of quality assurance (QA) in Brownfields site projects. The Road Map describes a general process for developing and using a Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP), while highlighting the benefits of a well-prepared QAPP and helping those responsible for the process to better understand and communicate with all parties involved.


    Brownfields Road Map to Understanding Options for Site Investigation and Cleanup, Fifth Edition

    View Companion Website Exit

    The Brownfields Road Map publication and companion website provide a general outline of how to assess and clean up a brownfields site and introduce stakeholders to a range of technology options and available resources. General concepts and basic considerations that affect the cleanup of brownfields sites are described with a new Back to Basics approach that covers setting reuse goals and planning, understanding regulations and liability concerns, engaging the community and identifying funding. Targeted for non-technical stakeholders and technical professionals, the Brownfields Road Map walks users through the big picture of managing a brownfields site from assessment to reuse and introduces technology options and considerations for each phase. The new Brownfields Road Map website connects users to the publication online and provides direct access to technical resources. It features: (1) an interactive guide to contaminants and technologies, (2) spotlights on current issues and best practices, including links to resources and tools, (3) a list of acronyms and detailed glossary of terms, and (4) quick access to state, tribal and EPA regional contacts and technical support.


    Brownfields Technology Primer: Requesting and Evaluating Proposals That Encourage Innovative Technologies for Investigation and Cleanup

    This 57 page primer expands on the guide for assessing contractor capabilities that was previously prepared by the BF Technology Support Center. The primer emphasizes techniques for soliciting proposals that encourage contractors to use innovative technologies. It also includes tips and questions to consider when interviewing contractors to assess their capabilities in the use of innovative technologies.


    Brownfields Technology Primer: Selecting and Using Phytoremediation for Site Cleanup

    This primer explains the phytoremediation process, discusses the potential advantages and considerations in selecting phytoremediation to clean up brownfields sites, and provides information on additional resources about phytoremediation.


    Brownfields Technology Primer: Vapor Intrusion Considerations for Redevelopment

    This primer is designed for land revitalization stakeholders concerned about vapor intrusion, including property owners, municipalities, and real estate developers. It provides an overview of the vapor intrusion issue and how it can affect redevelopment. It also summarizes techniques for quickly and cost effectively assessing the potential for vapor intrusion, as well as techniques for mitigating it. The topics covered will familiarize stakeholders with options for addressing vapor intrusion to help them communicate with their project contractors and consultants.

    Case Study of the Triad Approach: Expedited Characterization of Petroleum Constituents and PCBs Using Test Kits and a Mobile Chromatography Laboratory at the Former Cos Cob Power Plant Site

    This case study was prepared by the Brownfields Technology Support Center (BTSC), within the U.S. EPA. The case study was developed as part of EPA's ongoing initiative to promote the use of an integrated Triad approach to limit decision uncertainty at hazardous waste sites through the use of sound science. The Triad approach, which consists of systematic planning, dynamic work strategies, and real-time measurement technologies that include field-based analyses, is being promoted by EPA and its partners as a viable method for streamlining site investigations.


    Citizen's Guides to Cleanup Technologies

    Citizen's Guide Series to Cleanup Technologies (Summary) (PDF) (1pg, 710KB)

    The Citizen's Guide series is a set of 22 fact sheets that summarizes cleanup methods used at Superfund and other sites. The series was originally released ten years ago and was updated in 2012 to include information about new technologies and techniques. Each fact sheet is two pages long and answers six questions about the cleanup method: 1) What is it? 2) How does it work? 3) How long will it take? 4) Is it safe? 5) How might it affect me? and 6) Why use it? Spanish translations of these guides will be added below as they are available. Until then, the Spanish versions of the 2001 guides are still available, and a few of the new Spanish versions reference translations under development.


    A Citizen's Guide to Drycleaner Cleanup

    The State Coalition for Remediation of Drycleaners (SCRD) has prepared an easy-to-read guide explaining the drycleaner cleanup process and describing the technologies that are most commonly used to clean up contaminated drycleaner sites. This guide was designed specifically for citizens with little or no technical or scientific background.


    Clarifying DQO Terminology Usage to Support Modernization of Site Cleanup Practice

    Systematic planning is critical to the successful implementation of hazardous site characterization and cleanup projects. EPA's 'DQO process' has been around for many years, and 'DQO' terminology is used extensively. Unfortunately, over the years the terminology has been used in ambiguous or contradictory ways, and this has resulted in confusion about what terms mean and how they are to be understood. This paper seeks to clarify the relationship between DQO-related terms as descriptively and concretely as possible.


    Considerations for Applying the Triad Approach: Hartford Area Hydrocarbon Plume Site, Hartford, Illinois

    Intermittent fires related to vapor intrusion and odor complaints at the Hartford site have affected residences throughout the Village of Hartford. Subsequent investigations by a group of potentially responsible parties, known as the Hartford Working Group (HWG), have detected extensive hydrocarbon contamination beneath the site. The suggestions provided in this report are intended to provide input to the HWG so characterization and remedial design can be optimized. This report was based on review of on-going project documents and subsequent discussions with the Region 5 on-scene coordinators (OSC) and State of Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) representatives. The suggestions provided are intended as a starting point for refining the existing conceptual site model (CSM) for the Hartford site so that an effective remedy can be designed and implemented as quickly as possible.


    Cost Analyses for Selected Groundwater Cleanup Projects: Pump and Treat Systems and Permeable Reactive Barriers

    This report presents the results of an analysis, performed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), of costs for groundwater cleanup incurred at 48 sites. The report is based on data in case studies prepared by EPA and other members of the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR) and by the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (RTDF).


    A Cost Comparison Framework for Use in Optimizing Ground Water Pump and Treat Systems

    This fact sheet has been prepared to provide a framework for conducting cost comparisons to evaluate whether or not to pursue potential opportunities from an optimization evaluation for improving, replacing, or supplementing the P&T system. This document presents the following elements that pertain to cost comparisons associated with long-term ground water remedies: applicability of cost comparisons as part of the optimization process, a framework for conducting cost comparisons, and illustrative examples of applying cost comparisons for various scenarios.


    Cost and Performance Report for LNAPL Characterization and Remediation: Partition Interwell Tracer Testing (PITT) and Rapid Optical Screening Tool (ROSTTM) Characterization and Evaluation of the Feasibility of Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer Remediation (SEAR) at the Chevron Cincinnati Facility, Hooven, OH

    This case study summarizes the characterization studies and technology evaluation of surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) conducted for LNAPL at the Chevron Cincinnati Facility in Hooven, OH. This report summarizes the evaluation of the use of SEAR as a potential innovative and aggressive technology to treat LNAPL at this site.


    Cost and Performance Report for LNAPL Recovery: Multi-Phase Extraction and Dual-Pump Recovery of LNAPL at the BP Former Amoco Refinery, Sugar Creek, MO

    This case study was prepared to summarize the recovery of light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) at two locations at the BP Products of North America, Inc. Former Amoco Refinery (former refinery) in Sugar Creek, Missouri. The purpose of this case study was to evaluate the cost and performance of two remediation systems - one innovative (high-vacuum multi-phase extraction) and one comprised of a more traditional approach (dual-pump LNAPL and groundwater recovery).


    Cost Effective Design of Pump and Treat Systems

    This fact sheet summarizes key aspects to consider for designing cost-effective pump and treat (P&T) systems. Topics include remedy goals and performance monitoring, system design parameters, extraction system considerations, appropriate treatment technologies, discharge options, and system controls.

  • D-F

    A Decision-Making Framework for Cleanup of Sites Impacted with Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (LNAPL)

    This document has been prepared by the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (RTDF) NAPL Cleanup Alliance to provide a guide to practicable and reasonable approaches for management of LNAPL petroleum hydrocarbons in the subsurface. This unique document describes an innovative consensus-based process to develop a long-term vision for a particular site (e.g., an industrial site for the next 100 years with groundwater standards attained in 125 years), while providing a roadmap that calls for specific goals and endpoints to measure progress during each phase of the LNAPL management project. The major benefit of this innovative approach is the establishment of a practicable vision that is consistent with regulatory requirements and can be attained within a realistic timeframe and a reasonable budget, using a phased, stepwise process. The consensus-based process is designed to support the stakeholder group in developing a common, site-specific understanding of what 'realistic timeframes' and 'reasonable budgets' will mean for any particular site.


    Demonstrations of Method Applicability under a Triad Approach for Site Assessment and Cleanup - Technology Bulletin

    Demonstrations of Method Applicability (DMA) are a key component of using real-time measurement technologies and are presented in this bulletin through: answers to frequently asked questions on key aspects of DMAs, examples of DMAs performed at hazardous waste sites, and sources of additional information for communities and project teams that desire to implement DMAs and the Triad approach.


    Demonstration of Two Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Optimization Approaches

    This report summarize the results of a demonstration of optimization methods to improve the design of long-term groundwater monitoring programs. The report discusses the results of application of two different long-term groundwater monitoring optimization (LTMO) methods including:

    • The Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System (MAROS) software tool; and
    • The Three-Tiered Monitoring Network Optimization (MNO) approach.

    The two methods were applied at three different sites (the Fort Lewis Logistics Center, the Long Prairie Groundwater Contamination Superfund site, and Operable Unit D at McClellan Air Force Base). The primary goals of this demonstration project were to highlight current strategies for applying optimization techniques to existing long-term monitoring programs, and to assist site managers in understanding the potential benefits associated with monitoring program optimization.


    Dexsil L2000 PCB/Chloride Analyzer for Drum Surfaces

    This case study is one of a series designed to provide cost and performance information for innovative tools that support less costly and more representative site characterization. These case studies will include reports on new technologies as well as novel applications of familiar tools or processes.


    Directory of Technical Assistance for Land Revitalization

    This directory includes information about the different types of support available to help with site assessment and cleanup, including technical support and funding sources


    Directory of Technology Support Services to Brownfields Localities

    This directory provides information about EPA offices, nongovernment organizations funded by EPA, and other federal agencies, that may be able to provide expertise to assist in the selection of technologies to characterize and clean up brownfields properties.


    DNAPL Remediation: Selected Projects Approaching Regulatory Closure

    This paper is a status update on the use of DNAPL source reduction remedial technologies, and provides information about recent projects where regulatory closure has been reached or projects that are approaching regulatory closure, following source reduction. Information is presented about the challenges associated with DNAPL remediation, the types of in situ technologies used, and data and findings concerning the relative effectiveness of field applications of these technologies. Appendix A contains project profiles for eight field applications that illustrate some of the findings presented in this paper.


    DNAPL Remediation: Selected Projects Approaching Regulatory Closure

    This paper is a status update on the use of DNAPL source reduction remedial technologies, and provides information about recent projects where regulatory closure has been reached or projects that are approaching regulatory closure, following source reduction. Information is presented about the challenges associated with DNAPL remediation, the types of in situ technologies used, and data and findings concerning the relative effectiveness of field applications of these technologies. Appendix A contains project profiles for eight field applications that illustrate some of the findings presented in this paper.


    DNAPL Remediation: Selected Projects Where Regulatory Closure Goals Have Been Achieved

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight sites where dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source reduction has been demonstrated as an aid in meeting regulatory cleanup goals. The presence of DNAPL in the subsurface can serve as a long-term source of dissolved contaminant plumes in groundwater, making it more difficult to reach regulatory closure. However, once the DNAPL source is addressed, residual groundwater plumes may be more amenable to treatment, including less aggressive techniques such as monitored natural attenuation (MNA) or bioremediation. This paper updates the document, DNAPL Remediation: Selected Projects Approaching Regulatory Closure, prepared in 2004 by providing more recent information on technologies and on five additional selected sites at which DNAPL source reduction technologies were applied.


    Ecological Revitalization and Attractive Nuisance Issues

    This fact sheet is the third and final in a series of fact sheets related to ecological revitalization on Superfund sites. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) encourages the beneficial reuse of Superfund, Brownfields, and other contaminated sites while protecting human health and the environment. Superfund sites are being cleaned up and restored while integrating natural features such as wetlands, meadows, streams, and ponds to provide habitat for terrestrial and aquatic plants and animals, and for low-impact or passive recreation, such as hiking and bird watching. The potential exposure of wildlife can be a concern when waste or contaminants remain on a site following cleanup (i.e., attractive nuisance), but it need not prevent the ecological revitalization of that site.This fact sheet discusses how to identify, assess, and manage potential attractive nuisance issues during ecological revitalization of Superfund sites and presents case studies that illustrate a variety of attractive nuisance issues and how they were managed.


    Ecological Revitalization: Turning Contaminated Properties Into Community Assets

    TThis document provides technical information to assist property managers and other stakeholders better understand, coordinate, and conduct ecological revitalization at contaminated properties during cleanup. Specifically, this document presents general planning and process considerations for ecological revitalization and provides technical considerations for implementing ecological revitalization of wetlands, streams, and terrestrial ecosystems during cleanup. This document also highlights EPA's initiatives and resources that are available, and presents numerous site-specific examples and case studies where ecological revitalization has occurred.


    Effective Contracting Approaches for Operating Pump and Treat Systems

    This fact sheet summarizes key aspects to consider for contracting to operate pump and treat (P&T) systems. Topics include essential contract components, options for contract type, considerations specific to contracts for operating P&T systems, and incorporation of optimization.


    Elements for Effective Management of Operating Pump and Treat Systems

    This fact sheet summarizes key aspects of effective management for operating pump and treat (P&T) systems based on lessons learned from conducting optimization evaluations at 20 Superfund-financed P&T systems. The lessons learned, however, are relevant to almost any P&T system. Therefore, the document may serve as a resource for managers, contractors, or regulators of any P&T system, whether or not that system is within the Superfund Program. This fact sheet is meant to provide a framework for effective site management, but is not intended to be a detailed instructional manual.


    Engineered Approaches to In Situ Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents: Fundamentals and Field Applications

    This report provides an overview of in situ bioremediation to remediate chlorinated solvents in contaminated soil and groundwater. It describes degradation mechanisms for chlorinated solvents, enhancements of these mechanisms by the addition of various materials and chemicals, design approaches, and factors to consider when selecting and using the technology. A summary of treatment vendors and nine case studies of field applications are also included.


    Engineering Forum Issue Paper: Online Hazardous Waste Cleanup Technical Resources

    This issue paper is intended to give the reader examples of some online technical resources that can assist with hazardous waste cleanups in the Superfund, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and Brownfields programs. Given the dynamics of online resources, this paper provides only a snapshot of the resources available at the time of publication.


    Environmental Cleanup Best Management Practices: Effective Use of the Project Life Cycle Conceptual Site Model

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supports the use of best management practices (BMPs) as a mechanism for maximizing technical effectiveness and resource efficiency in the execution of site assessment and cleanup projects. This fact sheet is the first in a series of documents that address conceptual site models (CSMs). This fact sheet summarizes how environmental practitioners can use CSMs to achieve, communicate, and maintain stakeholder consensus on site understanding, while satisfying the technical and quality objectives required for each stage of a cleanup project's life cycle. The focus is on defining stages and products of CSMs along with potential applications of CSMs at various stages of a project life cycle. Content herein is presented in a Superfund Program context; however, to the extent practical, text has been written to maximize applicability in other programs and regulatory frameworks. Other agencies and programs may find these concepts useful and environmental cleanup practitioners are encouraged to explore the utility and integration of a project life cycle CSM within their own program requirements and deliverable schedules.


    Environmental Footprint Analysis of Steam Enhanced Extraction Remedy: Former Williams Air Force Base, Site ST012 Mesa, AZ

    This green remediation (GR) study quantifies environmental footprint for an In-Situ Thermal Treatment (ISTT) remedy using Steam Enhanced Extraction (SEE) for Site ST012 located on the Former Williams Air Force Base (AFB) in Mesa, Arizona. The study estimates the footprint for a variety of parameters and attempts to consider the key contributors to each footprint. One of the objectives of this detailed analysis is to provide some of the information necessary to determine the level of detail that is merited for environmental footprint analysis of site remediation at Site ST012.


    Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program: Site Characterization and Monitoring Technologies Center

    The ETV Site Characterization and Monitoring Technology Pilot is composed of EPA, DoD, DOE, other Federal agencies, state regulators, technology evaluation and verification entities, and potential end users of these technologies to facilitate independent and expert verification of site characterization technology performance. The Pilot was created to increase the use of new site characterization, monitoring, and measuring technologies at clean-up sites.


    Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barrier Performance

    This report on the performance of permeable reactive barriers (PRB) for groundwater remediation was prepared under the auspices of the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable, a collaborative effort among federal agencies involved in hazardous waste site cleanup. Three United States (U.S.) government agencies, the Department of Defense (DoD), Department of Energy (DOE), and United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as the Interstate Technologies and Regulatory Council (ITRC) contributed to the report, which is a concise summary of the conclusions and recommendations of the three agencies' individual studies at different sites.


    Evaluation of Phytoremediation for Management of Chlorinated Solvents in Soil and Groundwater

    This document is intended to aid regulators, site owners, consultants, neighbors, and other stakeholders in understanding the proper application of planted systems to remediate groundwater contaminated with halogenated solvents. It assumes a familiarity with environmental and regulatory processes, in general, but little knowledge of plant-based, or 'phytoremediation,' technologies. The document is not intended as regulatory guidance, but as an aid to understanding of the mechanisms of how plants detoxify certain compounds under certain conditions.


    Evaluation of Subsurface Engineered Barriers at Waste Sites Volumes 1 and 2

    The purpose of this report is to provide the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) waste programs with a national retrospective analysis of barrier field performance, as well as information that may be useful in developing guidance on the use and evaluation of barrier systems.


    Fact Sheet on Evapotranspiration Cover Systems for Waste Containment

    View Alternative Landfill Cover Project Profiles Exit

    This Fact Sheet updates the 2003 Fact Sheet on Evapotranspiration Covers and provides information on the regulatory setting for ET covers, general considerations in their design, performance, and monitoring, and status at the time of writing (2011). Also several examples with supporting performance data are provided, as well as a list of sites that have proposed, approved, and installed ET covers.


    Federal Remediation Technology Roundtable: Five Years of Cooperation

    An overview of the activities of the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable--a working group seeking to build a more collaborative atmosphere among the federal agencies involved in hazardous waste site remediation.


    Field Analytical and Site Characterization Technologies - Summary of Applications

    This report provides information about experiences in the use of field analytical and site characterization technologies at contaminated sites drawn from 204 technology applications. For each technology, information is presented on the reported uses of the technology; including the types of pollutants and media for which the technology was used; reported advantages and limitations of the technology; and cost data for the technology, when available. Information was obtained from federal and state site managers and from the Vendor Field Analytical and Characterization Technologies System (Vendor FACTS) database.


    Field Applications of In Situ Remediation Technologies: Chemical Oxidation

    Describes recent pilot demonstrations and full-scale applications that either treat soil and ground water in place or increase the solubility and mobility of contaminants to improve their removal by other remediation technologies.


    Field Applications of In Situ Remediation Technologies: Ground-Water Circulation Wells

    This report is one in a series that document recent pilot demonstrations and full-scale applications that either treat soil and ground water in situ or increase the solubility and mobility of contaminants to improve their removal by other remediation technologies. It is hoped that this information will allow more regular consideration of new, less costly, and more effective technologies to address the problems associated with hazardous waste sites and petroleum contamination.


    Final Report: Applied Materials Building 1: Long-Term Monitoring Strategy

    A five-year review documenting the progress of Applied Materials Building 1 (AM1) toward remedial goals was completed in 2010. The site has largely achieved remedial goals for groundwater; however, specific National Priorities List (NPL) close-out prospects for sites with rare or intermittent exceedances of groundwater cleanup goals over a limited spatial extent are not clear. Additionally, the presence of groundwater plumes on adjacent properties may complicate the close-out decision. This memorandum reviews historical site data and how they might support the development of a long-term, close-out strategy for the AM1 site. Statistical analyses were performed using modules within the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System software (MAROS) and ProUCL software.


    Final Report: Independent Design Review, Celanese Fiber Operations Superfund Site, Shelby, North Carolina, EPA Region 4

    The Celanese site is located in Shelby, North Carolina. Operation of the P&T system was discontinued on a trial basis for two years to evaluate monitored natural attenuation as a potential ground water remedy. The system has not been restarted. EPA Region 4 is requesting a third-party review to help determine if the system should be restarted, if a modified system should be restarted, or if another type of ground water remedial approach is warranted. This report provides a brief background on the site, a summary of observations made from the document review, and recommendations regarding future modifications to the existing remediation system (including associated investigation activities). The cost impacts of the recommendations are also discussed.


    Final Report: Pilot Region-Based Optimization Program for Fund-Lead Sites, EPA Region III

    This report describes a pilot study for a Region-based optimization program, implemented by a Regional Optimization Evaluation Team (ROET) that was conducted in U.S. EPA Region III at Fund-lead sites with pump-and-treat (P&T) systems. The ROET is comprised of Regional management, Regional technical staff, technical experts unassociated with the sites and other EPA Staff, and the pilot program represents a modification of the process currently used in the nationwide program. The report provides a discussion of how the pilot program differs from current practice and lessons learned in the pilot study.


    Final Report: Technical Assistance for the Kearsarge Metallurgical Corporation Superfund Site, Conway, New Hampshire, EPA Region 1

    This report reviews and provides recommendations for a long-term groundwater monitoring network for the Kearsarge Metallurgical Corporation Superfund site (KMC site). The KMC site is a former foundry and metal fabrication facility in Conway, New Hampshire, listed on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1984. The site is currently in a long-term operation and maintenance (O&M) phase. The primary goal of developing an optimized groundwater monitoring strategy at the KMC site is to create a dataset that fully supports site management decisions relating to the long-term remedial strategy and reuse options for the property. In this report, the current KMC site groundwater monitoring network has been evaluated using a formal qualitative approach as well as statistical tools found in the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System software (MAROS). The evaluation of the monitoring system included data collected both prior to and during active groundwater extraction (1983 - 2005) and after cessation of the extraction remedy (2006 - 2009). Network recommendations are made for groundwater sampling frequency and location based on lines of evidence developed from qualitative factors as well as statistical results.


    Final Report: Technical Assistance for the Somersworth Sanitary Landfill Superfund Site, Somersworth, New Hampshire, EPA Region 1

    The Somersworth Sanitary Landfill Site (Somersworth site) is a former landfill in southern New Hampshire that is on the National Priorities List (NPL). The landfill was closed in 1981 and has had a groundwater monitoring network since the 1980s. Groundwater remedies were installed by 2001, and the site is currently in the long-term monitoring phase of operation and maintenance (O&M). U.S. EPA Region 1 requested a review of the Somersworth site groundwater monitoring plan. Site monitoring data was reviewed and statistical and heuristic evaluations were performed using the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System software (MAROS) in 2007. Inputs, results and recommendations for the groundwater monitoring network, including the results based on the MAROS analysis, were reviewed.


    Frequently Asked Questions About Ecological Revitalization of Superfund Sites

    This fact sheet, the first in a series on ecological revitalization, addresses many frequently asked questions about ecological revitalization and revegetation of Superfund sites. The information in this fact sheet is intended for EPA site managers, state agency site managers, consultants, and others interested in restoring disturbed sites. Various information sources used to prepare this fact sheet are listed at the end.


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    Geophysical Techniques to Locate DNAPLs: Profiles of Federally Funded Projects

    This report is intended to provide a status report for researchers and practitioners on federal projects that are using noninvasive geophysical techniques to locate DNAPLs in the subsurface.


    Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Bioremediation

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Principles for Greener Cleanups outlines the Agency's policy for evaluating and minimizing the environmental 'footprint' of activities undertaken when cleaning up a contaminated site. Use of the best management practices (BMPs) recommended in EPA's series of green remediation fact sheets can help project managers and other stakeholders apply the principles on a routine basis, while maintaining the cleanup objectives, ensuring protectiveness of a remedy, and improving its environmental outcome. Bioremediation actively enhances the effects of naturally occurring biological processes that degrade contaminants in soil, sediment, and groundwater. In situ processes involve placement of amendments directly into contaminated media while ex situ processes transfer the media for treatment at or near ground surface.


    Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Clean Fuel & Emission Technologies for Site Cleanup

    Cleanup of hazardous waste sites can involve significant consumption of gasoline, diesel, or other fuels by mobile and stationary sources. Minimizing emission of air pollutants such as greenhouse gases (GHGs) and particulate matter (PM) resulting from cleanup activities, including those needing fossil or alternative fuel, is a core element of green remediation strategies. Efforts to reduce these emissions during site investigation, remedial or corrective actions, and long-term operation and maintenance (O&M) must meet regulatory requirements under the Clean Air Act (CAA) and state air quality standards as well as federal and state cleanup programs. Deployment of green remediation BMPs can help reduce negative impacts of cleanup activities on public health and the environment.


    Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Implementing In Situ Thermal Technologies

    Over recent years, the use of in situ thermal technologies such as electrical resistance heating, thermal conductive heating, and steam enhanced extraction to remediate contaminated sites has notably increased. The U.S. EPA's latest (13th) green remediation "BMP fact sheet" describes processes, equipment, and analytical tools that can be used to reduce the environmental footprint of applying these technologies, which typically involves significant energy consumption. The best management practices (BMPs) address other core elements of a greener cleanup: reducing air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions, reducing water use and negative impacts on water resources, improving materials management and waste reduction efforts, and protecting ecosystem services. The BMPS may be used during design, construction, operation and maintenance, and/or monitoring of an in situ thermal project.


    Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Integrating Renewable Energy into Site Cleanup

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Principles for Greener Cleanups outline the Agency's policy for evaluating and minimizing the environmental 'footprint' of activities undertaken when cleaning up a contaminated site. Use of the best management practices (BMPs) identified in EPA's series of green remediation fact sheets can help project managers and other stakeholders apply the principles on a routine basis, while maintaining the cleanup objectives, ensuring protectiveness of a remedy, and improving its environmental outcome. Use of renewable energy resources provides a significant opportunity to reduce the environmental footprint of activities conducted during investigation, remediation, and monitoring of hazardous waste sites. Substitution of energy from fossil fuel resources with energy from renewable resources is a primary approach for addressing energy as one of the five core elements of green remediation strategies. In turn, lower consumption of fossil fuel will reduce emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) as well as particulate matter and other air pollutants.


    Green Remediation: Best Management Practices for Excavation and Surface Restoration

    This fact sheet is one of a series describing best management practices (BMPs) for green remediation, which holistically addresses a cleanup project's (1) energy requirements, (2) air emissions, (3) impacts on water, (4) impacts on land and ecosystems, (5) material consumption and waste generation, and (6) long-term stewardship actions. BMPs can be used for sustainable removal or cleanup activities at contaminated sites under Superfund, corrective action, underground storage tank, and brownfield cleanup programs. Many opportunities exist to reduce the negative impacts of excavation, which commonly include soil erosion, high rates of fuel consumption, transport of air-borne contaminants, uncontrolled stormwater runoff, offsite disposal of excavated material, and ecosystem disturbance. Decisions regarding excavation processes and targets affect follow-up land and surface water restoration strategies as well as ultimate land use.


    Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Landfill Cover Systems & Energy Production

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Principles for Greener Cleanups outline the Agency's policy for evaluating and minimizing the environmental 'footprint' of activities undertaken when cleaning up a contaminated site. Use of the best management practices (BMPs) recommended in EPA's series of green remediation fact sheets can help project managers and other stakeholders apply the principles on a routine basis while maintaining the cleanup objectives, ensuring protectiveness of a remedy, and improving its environmental outcome. Remediation at thousands of sites across the United States involves hazardous waste from former industrial landfills or waste piles, aged municipal landfills, or illegal dumps. A cover system is commonly installed at these areas as part of proper closure to serve as a surface barrier that contains the source material, reduces contaminant exposure or migration, and manages associated risk. The environmental footprint of activities needed to install and maintain a cover system can be reduced by adhering to EPA's Principles for Greener Cleanups.


    Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Mining Sites

    This fact sheet describes best management practices (BMPs) that can be used to reduce the environmental footprint of cleanup activities associated with common project components, cleanup phases, and implementation of remediation technologies. The BMPs for mining sites focus on strategies to minimize the environmental footprint of characterizing mining influenced water, using passive treatment systems, and installing soil covers and on approaches for integrating onsite renewable energy, reclaiming residual and natural resources, and integrating cleanup with site restoration and reuse plans.


    Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Overview of EPA's Methodology to Address the Environmental Footprint of Site Cleanup

    Contaminated site cleanups involving complex activities may benefit from a detailed environmental footprint analysis to inform decision-making about application of suitable best management practices for greener cleanups. The U.S. EPA's two-page fact sheet explains how EPA's methodology provides a roadmap for conducting such an analysis and summarizes the Agency's preferred metrics and processes when an analysis is conducted.


    Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Pump and Treat Technologies

    The U.S. EPA Principles for Greener Cleanups outline the Agency's policy for evaluating and minimizing the environmental 'footprint' of activities undertaken when cleaning up a contaminated site. Use of the best management practices (BMPs) recommended in EPA's series of green remediation fact sheets can help project managers and other stakeholders apply the Principles on a routine basis, while maintaining the cleanup objectives, ensuring protectiveness of a remedy, and improving its environmental outcome. Pump and treat (P&T) technology typically is selected in a cleanup remedy to hydraulically contain contamination and/or restore an aquifer to beneficial use. Opportunities to reduce the energy and environmental footprint of a P&T remedy, which are available during site characterization and the remedy selection, design, construction, and operation phases, rely on effective planning and continual re-evaluation of P&T operations. Options for reducing the footprint vary based on the site conditions and cleanup objectives as well as the configuration and components of a planned or existing P&T system.


    Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Site Investigation

    The U.S. EPA Principles for Greener Cleanups outline the Agency's policy for evaluating and minimizing the environmental 'footprint' of activities undertaken when cleaning up a contaminated site. Use of the best management practices (BMPs) recommended in EPA's series of green remediation fact sheets can help project managers and other stakeholders apply the Principles on a routine basis, while maintaining the cleanup objectives, ensuring protectiveness of a remedy, and improving its environmental outcome. Site investigations typically involve sampling of soil and groundwater using various drilling and well installation technologies and analysis of samples at offsite laboratories. Investigations also may include sampling of sediment, surface water, soil gas, or indoor air; searching for underground storage tanks (USTs) or other buried objects; or evaluating demolition material containing asbestos, lead-based paint, or other toxic products.


    Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Sites with Leaking Underground Storage Tank Systems

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Principles for Greener Cleanups outline the Agency?s policy for evaluating and minimizing the environmental 'footprint' of activities undertaken when cleaning up a contaminated site. Use of the best management practices (BMPs) identified in EPA's series of green remediation fact sheets can help project managers and other stakeholders apply the principles on a routine basis, while maintaining the cleanup objectives, ensuring protectiveness of a remedy, and improving its environmental outcome. Almost 495,000 releases of petroleum from federally regulated underground storage tanks (USTs) have been reported to EPA as of September 2010. Of these, over 93,000 UST site cleanups remain. The Association of State and Territorial Solid Waste Management Officials (ASTSWMO) estimates that cleaning up UST system releases costs the states approximately $700 million each year, in addition to federal expenditures under the Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Trust fund and costs paid by responsible parties. Use of green remediation BMPs to remediate these sites can help minimize the environmental footprint of cleanup activities and improve corrective action outcomes. The practices for UST cleanups are intended to complement rather than replace federal requirements for corrective actions (40 CFR Part 280, subpart F). The practices also may enhance state-administered UST programs, which have state-specific corrective action requirements.


    Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Soil Vapor Extraction & Air Sparging

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Principles for Greener Cleanups outlines the Agency's policy for evaluating and minimizing the environmental 'footprint' of activities undertaken when cleaning up a contaminated site. Use of the best management practices (BMPs) recommended in EPA's series of green remediation fact sheets can help project managers and other stakeholders apply the principles on a routine basis, while maintaining the cleanup objectives, ensuring protectiveness of a remedy, and improving its environmental outcome. Historically, approximately one-quarter of Superfund source control projects have involved soil vapor extraction (SVE) to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sorbed to soil in the unsaturated (vadose) zone. Air is extracted from, and sometimes injected into, the vadose zone to strip VOCs from the soil and transport the vapors to ex situ treatment systems for VOC destruction or recovery. Air sparging (AS) involves injection of air into contaminated groundwater to drive volatile and semivolatile contaminants into the overlying vadose zone through volatilization. SVE is commonly implemented in conjunction with air sparging to remove the generated vapor-phase contamination from the vadose zone.


    Green Remediation: Incorporating Sustainable Environmental Practices into Remediation of Contaminated Sites

    Green remediation is the practice of considering all environmental effects of remedy implementation and incorporating options to maximize net environmental benefit of cleanup actions. This primer outlines the principles of green remediation and describes opportunities to reduce the footprint of cleanup activities throughout the life of a project. Best management practices (BMPs) outlined in this document help decision-makers, communities, and other stakeholders (such as project managers, field staff, and engineering contractors) identify new strategies in terms of sustainability. These strategies complement rather than replace the process used to select primary remedies that best meet site-specific cleanup goals. The primer identifies the range of alternatives available to improve sustainability of cleanup activities and to help decision-makers balance the alternatives within existing regulatory frameworks. To date, EPA's sustainability initiatives have addressed a broader scope or focused on individual elements of green remediation such as clean energy.


    Groundwater Cleanup: Overview of Operating Experience at 28 Sites

    This report summarizes information about the groundwater remediation systems at 28 sites across the United States at which completed or ongoing groundwater cleanup programs are in place, including: design, operation, and performance of the systems; capital, operating, and unit costs of the systems; and factors that potentially affect the cost and performance of the systems. Data from the case studies are compared and contrasted to assist those involved in evaluating and selecting remedies for groundwater contamination at hazardous waste sites. Of the 28 case study sites, 24 are Superfund remedial actions, one is a Superfund removal action, one is a state cleanup, and two are Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) corrective actions. The sites are located throughout the U.S. and include a range of site types and hydrogeological conditions.


    Groundwater Monitoring Network Optimization, Delatte Metals Superfund Site, Ponchatoula, Louisiana, Region 6

    This report reviews and provides recommendations for improving a groundwater monitoring network for the Delatte Metals Superfund site. The Delatte Metals site consists of former battery recycling facilities located just outside of Ponchatoula, Louisiana. The primary goal of optimizing the groundwater monitoring strategy at the Delatte Metals site is to create a dataset that fully supports site management decisions while minimizing the time and expense associated with collecting and interpreting data. The recommendations contained in this report are intended to further develop understanding of the site conceptual model and management objectives and to support the development of a comprehensive management strategy for the future, within the context of CERCLA and the NCP. This report outlines recommendations based on a formal evaluation, but final determination of any sampling locations and frequencies are to be decided by the overseeing regulatory agencies.


    Groundwater Monitoring Network Optimization, Frontier Hard Chrome Superfund Site, Vancouver, Washington

    This report reviews and provides recommendations for instituting a long-term groundwater monitoring network for Frontier Hard Chrome (FHC) Superfund Site in Vancouver, Washington. The FHC Site is a former chrome plating facility in the floodplain of the Colombia River. The current FHC groundwater monitoring network has been evaluated using a formal qualitative approach as well as statistical tools found in the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System software (MAROS). Recommendations are made for groundwater sampling frequency and location based on current hydrogeologic conditions and long-term monitoring goals for the system. The primary goal of developing an optimized groundwater monitoring strategy at the FHC Site is to create a dataset that fully supports site management decisions while minimizing time and expense associated with collecting and interpreting data.


    Groundwater Remedies Selected at Superfund Sites

    Over a 17-year period from 1982 through 1999, more than 2,200 Records of Decision (RODs) have been signed for 1,451 Superfund sites, including 989 RODs addressing the remediation of contaminated groundwater at 787 Superfund sites. Groundwater remediation continues to be a priority for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and remedies that have been specified in RODs for groundwater remediation include treatment (including groundwater pump and treat [P&T] and in situ treatment) and monitored natural attenuation (MNA).

    This report documents the selection of groundwater treatment and MNA remedies at Superfund remedial action sites. It presents data on groundwater treatment and MNA remedy decisions and analyzes trends in these decisions over time. The focus of this report is on groundwater treatment and MNA remedies that result in a reduction of contaminant concentrations or mobility. Groundwater containment and groundwater-other remedies are not addressed.


    Ground-Water Sampling Guidelines for Superfund and RCRA Project Managers

    This document provides sampling guidelines primarily for ground-water monitoring wells that have a screen or open interval with a length of ten feet or less and which can accept a sampling device. Procedures that minimize disturbance to the aquifer will yield the most representative ground-water samples. This document provides a summary of current and/or recommended ground-water sampling procedures. These guidelines are intended to assist in developing sampling plans using the project-specific goals and objectives. However, unusual and/or site-specific circumstances may require approaches other than those specified in this document. In these instances, the appropriate Regional hydrologists/geologists should be contacted to establish alternative protocols.


    Groundwater Treatment Technology Resource Guide

    Identifies information resources intended to aid users in remedial decisions. Includes abstracts of field reports and guidance documents.


    Guide to Documenting and Managing Cost and Performance Information for Remediation Projects - Revised Version

    This Guide to Documenting and Managing Cost and Performance Information for Remediation Projects provides the recommended procedures for documenting the results of completed and on-going full-scale and demonstration-scale remediation projects. The original version was published by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (Roundtable) in March 1995 to more effectively coordinate the activities of its member agencies and to assist in documenting their experience with remediation technologies. Member agencies of the Roundtable that were major contributors to this guide are the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).


    Hazardous Waste Clean-Up Information (CLU-IN) On-line Characterization and Remediation Databases Fact Sheet

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the 10 on-line characterization and remediation databases available on the Hazardous Waste Clean-Up Information (CLU-IN) website sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. These databases provide information about pilot- and full-scale applications of innovative site characterization and treatment technologies for EPA remedial project managers, other federal and state personnel, consulting engineers, technology developers and vendors, remediation contractors, researchers, community groups, and individual citizens. They facilitate and encourage the hazardous waste remediation community to share knowledge about, and experiences with, innovative technologies.


    Hydraulic Optimization Demonstration for Groundwater Pump-and-Treat Systems

    The screening analysis presented in this report can be used to quickly determine if significant cost savings may be achieved by altering key aspects of an existing or planned pump-and-treat system. The spreadsheet-based screening analysis allows quick and inexpensive cost comparison of competing alternatives at a site, in terms of Net Present Value (NPV). Site-specific values input to the spreadsheet can be based on very detailed engineering calculations and modeling results, or may be based on 'ballpark estimates'. The suggested approach includes a 'checklist' of important site-specific factors to evaluate, and requires the formulation of potential system modifications. System modifications may be postulated with respect to the same goals as the present system, or with respect to modified goals.


    Improving Pumping Strategies for Pump and Treat Systems With Numerical Simulation-Optimization Techniques: Demonstration Projects and Related Websites

    This fact sheet describes simulation-optimization techniques, completed demonstration projects, and lists web sites with additional information.


    Improving Sampling, Analysis, and Data Management for Site Investigation and Cleanup

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supports the adoption of streamlined approaches to sampling, analysis, and data management activities conducted during site assessment, characterization, and cleanup. This position reflects the growing trend towards using smarter, faster, and better technologies and work strategies. EPA is coordinating with other Federal and State agencies to educate regulators, practitioners, site owners, and others involved in site cleanup decisions about the benefits of a streamlined approach. Ultimately, EPA expects to institutionalize these newer approaches and anticipates that the principles will guide the way data are collected and analyzed for future site cleanup decisions.


    Independent Design Review: Grants Chlorinated Solvents Plume, Superfund Site, Grants, Cibola County, New Mexico, EPA Region 6

    The Grants Chlorinated Solvents Plume Superfund Site in Grants, Cibola County, New Mexico was selected by EPA based on a nomination from EPA Region 6. The remedy is in the early design stage and has an estimated cost of $29.5 million. Several pre-design activities, including additional subsurface investigation and pilot tests, are ongoing and will be evaluated prior to the preliminary design (expected Fall/Winter 2008) and the final design. Results from activities conducted after the IDR site visit are not included in this report and are reserved for future discussion between the IDR team and the site team.


    Initiatives to Develop Web Sites Including Information about Brownfields Properties

    View Report and Web Site  Exit

    This web site was created to assist in planning, designing, and operating web sites that include information about individual brownfields properties. The report is of value to parties designing or managing such sites. Their target audiences could include owners of brownfields properties, purchasers, and non-profit organizations, as well as cleanup technology vendors, and other service providers. The 'Initiatives' web site is based on a study conducted by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 2000.


    Innovative Remediation Technologies: Field-Scale Demonstration Projects in North America, 2nd Edition
    The 600+ projects summarized in this document are both ongoing and completed field demonstrations sponsored by government agencies working in partnership with private technology developers to bring new technologies into the marketplace. Given the wide number of government sponsors and other partners that support these demonstrations, records and data are unfortunately spread over a large number of technical reports and other sources, making it difficult for environmental cleanup project managers and other professionals to locate this information. This report consolidates key reference information in a matrix that allows project mangers to quickly identify new technologies that may answer their cleanup needs and contacts for obtaining technology demonstration results and other information.


    Innovations in Site Characterization Case Study: Hanscom Air Force Base, Operable Unit 1

    This document is a condensation of the information provided in the much more detailed Hanscom AFB Report entitled A Dynamic Site Investigation: Adaptive Sampling and Analysis Program for Operable Unit 1 at Hanscom Air Force Base, Bedford, Massachusetts.


    Innovations in Site Characterization Case Study: The Role of a Conceptual Site Model for Expedited Site Characterization Using the Triad Approach at the Poudre River Site, Fort Collins, Colorado

    This case study examines how systematic planning, an evolving conceptual site model (CSM), dynamic work strategies, and real time measurement technologies can be used to unravel complex contaminant distribution patterns and design a remedy at the Cache La Poudre (Poudre) River site. The investigation and design of the remedy involved a former burn landfill, hydrocarbon fuel contamination, and mobile manufactured gas plant (MGP) coal tar waste. The remedy was driven by recreational reuse and proximity to the Poudre River. The remedy involved pathway elimination and stream restoration in a location central to the City of Fort Collins, Colorado.


    Innovations in Site Characterization Case Study: Site Cleanup of the Wenatchee Tree Fruit Test Plot Site Using a Dynamic Work Plan
    The Wenatchee Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center site contained soils contaminated with organochlorine pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides, and other pesticides due to agriculture-related research activities conducted from 1966 until the mid-1980s. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers used a dynamic work plan guided by field analyses to seamlessly integrate the site characterization and cleanup portions of the project. Characterization, excavation, and segregation of contaminated soil was based on the results of immunoassay (IA) test kits for DDT and cyclodiene pesticides. An initial pilot test and then continuing evaluation of data comparability between the IA methods and fixed laboratory pesticide results allowed the USACE team to develop site-specific IA kit action levels that guided on-site decision-making. Characterization, cleanup, and closure was accomplished within a single 4-month field mobilization, and the entire project cost ($589K) was about half the cost ($1.2 million) estimated according to a more traditional site characterization and remediation scenario relying on multiple rounds of field mobilization, sampling, sample shipment, laboratory analysis, and data assessment


    Innovations In Site Characterization: Geophysical Investigation at Hazardous Waste Sites

    This compendium describes a number of geophysical technologies and methods that were used at 11 sites with significantly different geological settings and types of subsurface contamination, ranging from relatively homogeneous stratigraphy to the highly heterogeneous mix of sand and clay layers. The types of contamination fell primarily into three broad groups: chlorinated solvents, petroleum-related compounds, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons.


    Innovations in Site Characterization: Interim Guide to Preparing Case Studies

    Cost-effective cleanup (remediation) of hazardous waste sites cannot occur unless the type, quantities, and locations of chemical contaminants present at the site are adequately determined by a process called characterization. This guide is intended to assist in the preparation of Site Characterization Case Study Reports.


    Innovations in Site Characterization: Streamlining Cleanup at Vapor Intrusion and Product Removal Sites Using the Triad Approach: Hartford Plume Site, Hartford, Illinois

    Vapor intrusion from widespread hydrocarbon plumes at the Hartford Plume Site in the Village of Hartford, Illinois, resulted in numerous residential housing fires and forced residents to move from their homes. To address public concerns at the Site, EPA Region 5 worked with oil company stakeholders from the area and used the best management practices (BMPs) of EPA's Triad Approach to expedite the investigation, mitigation, and cleanup processes. The Hartford Plume Site case study provides a detailed example of the strategies and technologies used at the site that are available to environmental practitioners to use at large and small hydrocarbon sites. Sufficient detail is provided for practitioners to learn the basic elements of designing and implementing site characterization, mitigation, and remedial efforts at complex hydrocarbon sites.


    Innovations in Site Characterization Technology Evaluation: Real-time VOC Analysis Using a Field Portable GC/MS

    This technology evaluation report describes deployment of the HAPSITE GC/MS by an analytical service provider to produce low-cost, real-time VOC data in the field using EPA Method 8260. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) used the data to make real-time decisions concerning borings placement and long-term monitoring wells installation within a single field mobilization of 3 weeks. The USACE estimated they saved $27,000 (26% of total projected costs) and 4 days of field time over project costs that would have been incurred if fixed laboratory analyses had been used. The report includes a summary of the QA/QC protocol used and project-specific analytical performance.


    In Situ Remediation Technology Status Reports

    Describes field demonstrations or full-scale applications of in situ abiotic technologies for nonaqueous phase liquids and ground water treatment. Reports are available for Cosolvents, Electrokinetics, Hydrofacturing/Pneumatic Fracturing, Surfactant Enhancements, Thermal Enhancements and Treatment Walls.


    In Situ Thermal Treatment of Chlorinated Solvents: Fundamentals and Field Applications

    This report contains information about the use of in situ thermal treatment technologies to treat chlorinated solvents in source zones containing free-phase contamination or high concentrations of contaminants that are either sorbed to soil or dissolved in groundwater in the saturated or unsaturated zone. The information in this report may be helpful to site managers, site owners, treatment technology vendors, regulators, consulting firms, and the public who may be involved in the cleanup of sites contaminated with chlorinated solvents.

    Also available is the In Situ Thermal Treatment Site Profile Database Exit  which contains searchable site profiles for sites where the technology has been used.


    In Situ Treatment Technologies for Contaminated Soil: Engineering Forum Issue Paper

    This issue paper provides summary information on a wide variety of in situ technologies for the treatment of contaminated soil in both the vadose zone and saturated and unsaturated zones. It presents information on common practices such as soil vapor extraction and bioventing and, less frequently used technologies such as in situ thermal treatment. The paper includes a basic description of the technology, its implementation, applicability based on contaminants and site characteristics, general limitations, costs, and status of the technology's application.


    Introduction to Energy Conservation and Production at Waste Cleanup Sites

    This issue paper, prepared by EPA's Engineering Forum under the Technical Support Project, provides an overview on the considerations for energy conservation and production during the design and operation and maintenance (O&M) phases of waste cleanup projects. The paper presents four case studies highlighting energy conservation or production, including a site using landfill generated methane gas directed to operate microturbines. The issue paper also introduces an "energy checklist" as a suggested tool to help project managers consider energy conservation or production at their sites.


    Introduction to In Situ Bioremediation of Groundwater

    Introduction to In Situ Bioremediation of Groundwater was prepared by the U.S. EPA as an introduction to in situ bioremediation of groundwater. This information is intended for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and state agency site managers and may serve as a reference to designers and practitioners.


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    Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Optimization, Clare Water Supply Superfund Site, Permeable Reactive Barrier and Soil Remedy Areas, Clare, Michigan

    This report contains a review of the long-term groundwater monitoring network for the Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) and Soil Remedy Areas at the Clare Water Supply Superfund Site in Clare, Michigan. The current monitoring network in each area was evaluated using a formal qualitative approach and statistical tools found in the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System software (MAROS). The report also contains recommendations for the groundwater monitoring networks based the results of these qualitative and quantitative evaluations.


    Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Optimization, Clare Water Supply Superfund Site, StageRight Area, Clare, Michigan

    This report contains a review of the long-term groundwater monitoring network for the StageRight (former Welltronics) Facility area near the Clare Public Water Supply, Clare Michigan. The current monitoring network was evaluated in September 2006 prior to activation of a new municipal well using a formal qualitative approach and statistical tools found in the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System software (MAROS). The goal of the groundwater monitoring program is to track changes in concentrations of priority chlorinated constituents that may affect the drinking water remediation system used to treat the public water supply. The report includes recommendations for groundwater sample frequency and location based on current hydrogeologic, pumping, and contaminant conditions.


    Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Optimization, Newark, Muscoy, and Source Operable Units, Newmark Superfund Sites, San Bernardino, California

    This report contains a review of the groundwater monitoring network for Newmark Superfund Site in San Bernardino, California (Newmark Site). The Site consists of the Source, Newmark and Muscoy operable units (OUs). The current groundwater monitoring network has been evaluated using a formal qualitative approach as well as statistical tools found in the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System software (MAROS). Recommendations are made for groundwater sampling frequency and location based on current hydrogeologic conditions and long-term monitoring goals for the system. The report evaluates the monitoring system using analytical and hydrogeologic data from sampling events conducted between May 1987 and January 2007.


    Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Optimization, Taylor Road Landfill Superfund Site, Seffner, Hillsborough County, Florida

    This report reviews and provides recommendations for improving the groundwater monitoring network for Taylor Road Landfill Superfund Site in Seffner, Hillsborough County, Florida (Taylor Road Site). The current groundwater monitoring network has been evaluated using a formal qualitative approach as well as using statistical tools found in the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System software (MAROS). Recommendations are made for groundwater sampling frequency and location based on current hydrogeologic conditions and long-term monitoring (LTM) goals for the system. The recommendations presented below are based on a technical review; balancing both the statistical results with goals of the monitoring system and site management decisions. The recommendations may not reflect the current regulatory requirements. The following report evaluates the monitoring system using analytical and hydrogeologic data from sampling events conducted between January 1995 and April 2007.


    Long-Term Monitoring Network Optimization Evaluation for Operable Unit 2, Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site, Idaho

    This report presents a description and evaluation of the groundwater and surface water monitoring program associated with the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site (Bunker Hill) Operable Unit (OU) 2. A monitoring network consisting of 77 groundwater monitoring wells and 18 surface water stations was evaluated to assess its overall effectiveness at achieving the OU2-specific monitoring objectives, and to (1) identify potential opportunities to streamline monitoring activities while still maintaining an effective monitoring program, and (2) identify data gaps that may require the addition of additional monitoring points.


    Long-Term Monitoring Network Optimization Evaluation for Wash King Laundry Superfund Site, Lake County, Michigan

    This report presents a description and evaluation of the groundwater monitoring program associated with the Wash King Superfund Site located in Pleasant Plains Township, Lake County, Michigan. A monitoring network consisting of 44 groundwater monitoring wells and five groundwater extraction wells was evaluated to identify potential opportunities to streamline monitoring activities while still maintaining an effective monitoring program.


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    Management and Interpretation of Data Under a Triad Approach - Technology Bulletin

    The Brownfields and Land Revitalization Technology Support Center (BTSC) created this bulletin to focus on implementing a data management program for a Triad project. It includes a brief introduction to the Triad approach, answers to frequently asked questions about data management on Triad projects, three examples of data management with state agencies as the primary regulatory body, and sources of additional information for project teams and stakeholders who develop or provide input on a data management.


    Methodology for Understanding and Reducing a Project's Environmental Footprint

    EPA developed a methodology to analyze and quantify the environmental footprint of activities often involved in contaminated site cleanup. A project team can use the information gained by application of the methodology to identify best management practices (BMPs) that target large contributions to the footprint at a particular site and help achieve a greener cleanup. The Agency's corresponding report presents a total of 21 metrics corresponding to core elements of a greener cleanup and a seven-step process to quantify the footprint. The report addresses:the purpose of the methodology, the value of footprint analysis, and the associated level of effort and cost; considerations for evaluating and using the analytical results; and illustrative approaches to reduce the footprint through various BMPs.


    Monitoring Arsenic in the Environment: A Review of Science and Technologies for Field Measurements and Sensors

    This report from EPA's Technology Innovation Program reviews field assays and other technologies with the potential to measure and monitor arsenic in the environment. The strengths and weaknesses of the various assays are discussed with respect to their sensitivity, ability to detect the chemical states of arsenic, performance in various media, potential interferences, and ease of operation. The report relies mainly on government documents and the published literature.


    Multi-Phase Extraction: State-of-the-Practice

    This report describes the state-of-the-practice for multi-phase extraction (MPE) of contaminated soil and groundwater, focusing primarily on the application and use of MPE at sites with halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs). MPE is an innovative technology that has the potential to be more cost-effective and to remediate sites more quickly than with use of conventional technologies.


    Nanotechnology for Site Remediation: Fact Sheet

    Visit CLU-IN Nanotechnology Issue Area  Exit

    This fact sheet presents a snapshot of nanotechnology and its current uses in remediation. It presents information to help site project managers understand the potential applications of this group of technologies at their sites. The fact sheet also identifies contacts, such as vendors or project managers with field experience, to facilitate networking.


    O&M Report Template for Ground Water Remedies (with Emphasis on Pump and Treat Systems)

    This fact sheet provides a report template that can be used to present information on the operations and maintenance (O&M) of a ground water remedy, particularly those including pump-and-treat (P&T). The template includes various report sections, suggested items to be included in those sections, and example tables and figures.


    Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Soil Vapor Extraction Systems: State of the Practice

    This document provides state-of-the-practice information on off-gas treatment technologies for soil vapor extraction systems currently being used to clean up hazardous waste sites. It provides information on common practices such as carbon adsorption and thermal oxidation, less frequently used technologies such as biofiltration, and emerging alternatives including photocatalytic and non-thermal plasma treatment. The report presents the state of the practice for these technologies based on applicability, limitations, performance, engineering considerations, residuals management, cost and economics, and developmental status.


    On-Site Incineration: Overview of Superfund Operating Experience

    Fifteen case studies Exit  were prepared to obtain additional data on operating experience for completed incineration projects. This report summarizes the 15 case studies, provides technology descriptions, and makes general observations based on individual applications.


    Optimization Strategies for Long-Term Ground Water Remedies (with Particular Emphasis on Pump and Treat Systems)

    This fact sheet has been prepared to assist environmental case managers from Federal and State agencies, environmental program managers from private organizations, and environmental contractors with optimization of operating long-term ground water remedies, particularly those that involve pump and treat. It discusses the benefits of optimization, components of a typical optimization evaluation, and components of an optimization program that utilizes such evaluations. Specific optimization evaluation processes that have been implemented by various Federal agencies are highlighted.


    Options for Discharging Treated Water from Pump and Treat Systems

    This fact sheet presents information on available options for the discharge of water that results from a P&T remedy. It begins with a discussion regarding the potential value of treated water, followed by detailed descriptions of the following discharge options: discharge to surface water, return of treated water to the subsurface, discharge to a publicly owned treatment works (POTW) or other existing treatment plant, and reuse of treated water.


  • P-R

    Perchlorate Treatment Technology Update

    This issue paper has been prepared by EPA's Federal Facilities Forum to provide information about technologies available for treatment of perchlorate contamination in environmental media, including technologies that have been used to date and others that show potential for treating such contamination. Furthermore, this paper provides site-specific information on 51 projects where treatment technologies have been or are being applied for full-scale treatment or field demonstrations. A brief overview of key perchlorate issues, including health effects and risks, regulatory standards and cleanup levels, degradation processes, and treatment technologies, is provided to give the reader context. However, these issues are not addressed in depth in this paper.


    Physical/Chemical Treatment Technology Resource Guide

    Identifies information resources intended to aid users in remedial decisions. Includes abstracts of field reports and guidance documents.


    Phytoremediation Resource Guide

    This Guide provides abstracts of over 100 phytoremediation overviews, field studies and demonstrations, research articles, and Internet resources. It also provides a brief summary of phytoremediation. Finally, a matrix is provided to allow easy screening of the abstracted references.


    Pilot Project to Optimize Ground Water Remediation Systems at RCRA Corrective Action Facilities: Summary Report and Lessons Learned

    Based on previous success with conducting independent optimization evaluations at Fund-lead pump and treat sites (i.e., those sites with pump and treat systems funded and managed by Superfund and the States), the U.S. EPA commissioned a study to pilot similar evaluations at facilities subject to corrective action under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). During 2003 and 2004, independent evaluations were performed at five RCRA facilities by an independent EPA contractor. The Remediation System Evaluation (RSE) process developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers was used. For each of the five sites, the RSE process included a review of site documents, a site tour to interview site stakeholders, and preparation of an RSE report. The RSE reports provided site background, summarized the findings from the site visit, and provided recommendations.

    Individual RSE Reports:


    Pilot Project to Optimize Pump and Treat Systems at State-Funded Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites: Summary Report and Lessons Learned

    Based on previous success with conducting independent optimization evaluations at Fund-lead pump and treat sites (i.e., those sites with pump and treat systems funded and managed by Superfund and the States), the U.S. EPA commissioned a study to pilot similar evaluations at State-funded leaking underground storage tank (LUST) sites. During 2003 and 2004, independent evaluations were performed at three State-funded UST sites by an independent EPA contractor. The Remediation System Evaluation (RSE) process developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers was used. For each of the three sites, the RSE process included a review of site documents, a site tour to interview State project managers, and preparation of an RSE report. The RSE reports provided site background, summarized the findings from the site visit, and provided recommendations.

    Individual RSE Reports:


    Pilot Project to Optimize Superfund-financed Pump and Treat Systems: Summary Report and Lessons Learned

    This report summarizes Phase II (site optimization) of the Nationwide Fund-lead Pump and Treat Optimization Project. This phase included conducting Remediation System Evaluations (RSEs) at each of the 20 sites selected in Phase I with the purpose of providing recommendations to improve remedy effectiveness, reduce remedy costs, improve technical operations, and gain site closeout. RSEs at four of the 20 P&T systems (two in Region 4 and two in Region 5) were previously conducted as part of a demonstration project completed in 2000.

    Individual RSE Reports:


    Pilot Region-Based Optimization Program for Fund-Lead Sites in EPA Region 3

    These 12 reports document the current (as of December 2005) and baseline site conditions and the results of streamlined optimization evaluations carried out at 12 sites in EPA Region 3.

    Individual Reports:


    Potential Applicability of Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment Technologies to RCRA Waste Streams and Contaminated Media

    This report provides an evaluation of the potential applicability of Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA) technologies to RCRA waste streams and contaminated media found at RCRA and Superfund sites. The information in this report is intended to provide site managers and other technology users with a better understanding of the potential uses of ACWA technologies and to help technology providers better understand the potential market for those and similar technologies. Under the ACWA program, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) has established a process for identifying and demonstrating alternatives to incineration for the demilitarization of chemical weapons.


    Proceedings of the Ground-Water/Surface-Water Interactions Workshop

    To address the technical concerns related to ecological impacts in the ground-water/surface-water transition zone, EPA sponsored a workshop in January 1999 to provide an opportunity for individuals from various scientific and technical backgrounds to discuss the importance of the ground-water/surface-water transition zone and help regulators better understand environmental issues relating to the connections between ground water and surface water. The workshop and these proceedings provide a first step to understanding the fundamentals of evaluating the effects of contaminated ground water discharging through the transition zone.


    Proven Alternatives for Aboveground Treatment of Arsenic in Groundwater

    This issue paper, developed for EPA's Engineering Forum, identifies and summarizes experiences with proven aboveground treatment alternatives for arsenic in groundwater, and provides information on their relative effectiveness and cost. The four technologies included in the report are precipitation/coprecipitation, adsorption, ion exchange, and membrane filtration. The report describes the theory and operation of each technique, available project-specific performance and cost data, and limitations. The report also discusses special considerations for retrofitting systems to meet the lower arsenic drinking water standard (maximum contaminant level or MCL) of 10 µg/l.


    Recent Developments for In Situ Treatment of Metal Contaminated Soils

    This report assists the remedy selection process by providing information on four in situ technologies for treating soil contaminated with metals. The four approaches are electrokinetic remediation, phytoremediation, soil flushing, and solidification/stabilization.


    Reference Guide to Non-combustion Technologies for Remediation of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Soil, Second Edition - 2010

    This report is the second edition of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA's) 2005 report and provides a high level summary of information on the applicability of existing and emerging noncombustion technologies for the remediation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in soil. Since the publication of this report in 2005, nine (9) additional chemicals have been listed in the Stockholm Convention; this brings the total number of chemicals currently listed as POPs under the Stockholm Convention to twenty-one (21). In addition, three (3) POPs are currently under consideration.


    Reference Guide to Treatment Technologies for Mining-Influenced Water

    This report highlights select mining-influenced water (MIW) treatment technologies used or piloted as part of remediation efforts at mine sites. It is intended to provide information on treatment technologies for MIW to federal, state and local regulators, site owners and operators, consultants, and other stakeholders. Included in the report are short descriptions of treatment technologies and information on the contaminants treated, pre-treatment requirements, long-term maintenance needs, performance, and costs. Sample sites illustrate considerations associated with selecting a technology. Website links and sources for more information on each topic are also included.


    The Relationship between SW-846, PBMS, and Innovative Analytical Technologies

    This paper explains EPA's position regarding testing methods used within waste programs, documentation of EPA's position, the reasoning behind EPA's position, and the relationship between analytical method regulatory flexibility and the use of on-site measurements (also termed 'field analytical methods') to improve the cost-effectiveness of contaminated site cleanups.


    Remediation Case Studies

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    Documents project design, operation, performance, cost, and lessons learned. The reports should be useful to those evaluating the feasibility or design of these technologies at similar sites.


    Remediation Optimization: Definition, Scope and Approach

    This document provides a general definition, scope and approach for conducting optimization reviews within the Superfund Program and includes the fundamental principles and themes common to optimization. It should be noted that although this document has been developed for optimization support in the Superfund Program, we acknowledge that the content of the document can apply to optimization in other remedial programs or regulatory frameworks.


    The Remediation Technologies Development Forum: Major Accomplishments (1992-2006)

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    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (RTDF) in 1992 to enhance the development and application of innovative hazardous waste characterization and treatment technologies. Eight self-managed RTDF Action Teams have formed over the years. Each has brought together representatives from government, industry, and academia who wish to further develop and promote a specific technology or address a specific environmental problem area. The purpose of this factsheet is to highlight the RTDF Action Teams' major accomplishments. Additional details about each team's activities and access to their technical reports and other products are available through the RTDF web site.


    Remediation Technology Cost Compendium - Year 2000

    This cost compendium captures current information about the costs of the following six remediation technologies: (1) bioremediation; (2) thermal desorption; (3) soil vapor extraction (SVE); (4) on-site incineration; (5) groundwater pump-and-treat systems; and (6) permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). Cost data were obtained from federal agency sources, including case studies and reports prepared by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR), the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos National Laboratory; the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste Center for Expertise; and the U.S. Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence (AFCEE).


    A Resource for MGP Site Characterization and Remediation: Expedited Site Characterization and Source Remediation at Former Manufactured Gas Plant Sites

    This document was prepared by the USEPA to provide current information on useful approaches and tools being applied at former MGP sites to the regulators and utilities characterizing and remediating these sites. The document outlines site management strategies and field tools for expediting site characterization at MGP sites; presents a summary of existing technologies for remediating MGP wastes in soils; provides sufficient information on the benefits, limitations, and costs of each technology, tool, or strategy for comparison and evaluation; and provides, by way of case studies, examples of the ways these tools and strategies can be implemented at MGP sites.


    Resources for Strategic Site Investigation and Monitoring

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in concert with other federal agencies and state organizations, is accelerating the development of policies and information to support Strategic Investigation and Monitoring activities at hazardous waste sites. These efforts are meant to assist site decision makers as they transition to newer, streamlined approaches. The educational, training, and guidance resources described in this fact sheet either already exist or are under development to support project managers seeking to apply these approaches.


    Revegetating Landfills and Waste Containment Areas Fact Sheet

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a series of fact sheets on ecological restoration and revegetation of contaminated sites. This fact sheet provides information on revegetation of landfill surfaces for EPA site managers, consultants, and others interested in the revegetation of landfill surfaces.


    A Review of Emerging Sensor Technologies for Facilitating Long-Term Ground Water Monitoring of Volatile Organic Compounds

    This report summarizes the status of emerging sensor technologies for facilitating long-term ground water monitoring for a class of contaminants called volatile organic compounds (VOCs). It also describes a number of factors, including regulatory acceptance and cost-effectiveness, that influence the applicability of these technologies. The focus is on long-term ground water monitoring that is generally associated with a selected remedy, such as monitored natural attenuation or pump and treat.


    Roadmap to Long-Term Monitoring Optimization

    The primary goals of this Roadmap are to assist site managers in: understanding the steps involved in conducting a long-term monitoring optimization (LTMO), determining whether a monitoring program could benefit from a LTMO assessment, identifying potential strategies for applying optimization techniques and evaluating which are appropriate for a program, and accessing more information and resources about LTMO tools, methods, and approaches. This roadmap focuses on optimization of established long-term monitoring programs for groundwater. Tools and techniques discussed concentrate on methods for optimizing the monitoring frequency and spatial (three-dimensional) distribution of wells (i.e., physical program optimization). The LTMO techniques discussed here can be described as qualitative or quantitative or some combination of these techniques.


  • S-Z

    Sensor Technologies Used During Site Remediation Activities - Selected Experiences

    The EPA prepared this report to provide an overview of several types of sensor technologies and a summary of selected experiences with using the technologies during site remediation activities. The report highlights the applications, implementation, strengths and limitations, and lessons learned from actual projects that have used one or more sensor technologies as part of an overall site remediation strategy. Appendices one through seven provide case studies for specific sites that have used sensor technologies during site remediation activities.


    Site Characterization Technologies for DNAPL Investigations

    The U.S. EPA has compiled this summary of information on the current state of technologies available for locating and characterizing dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contaminated sites. This document is intended to help managers at sites with potential or confirmed DNAPL contamination identify suitable characterization technologies, screen the technologies for potential application, learn about applications at similar sites, and locate additional information on these technologies.


    Site Remediation Technology InfoBase: A Guide to Federal Programs, Information Resources, and Publications on Contaminated Site Cleanup Technologies, Second Edition

    Identifies programs, resources, and publications on contaminated site cleanup technologies within the federal government.


    Soil Amendments for Remediation, Revitalization, and Reuse Tools: Fact Sheet

    This fact sheet describes two tools developed by U.S. EPA in cooperation with 18 federal and local government, academic, and private sector experts. These tools-a white paper titled 'The Use of Soil Amendments for Remediation, Revitalization, and Reuse' and an Internet website and search engine titled 'Soil Remediation, Revitalization, and Reuse: Technical Performance Measures'-are designed to encourage and assist site cleanup managers to use soil amendments for remediation, revitalization, and reuse of their sites resulted from this collaboration.


    Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE) Enhancement Technology Resource Guide

    Identifies information resources intended to aid users in remedial decisions. Includes abstracts of field reports and guidance documents.


    Soil Vapor Extraction Treatment Technology Resource Guide

    Identifies information resources intended to aid users in remedial decisions. Includes abstracts of field reports and guidance documents.


    Solidification/Stabilization Resource Guide

    This Solidification/Stabilization Resource Guide is intended to inform site cleanup managers of recently-published materials such as field reports and guidance documents that address issues relevant to solidification/stabilization technologies. In addition to a short abstract for each of the resources listed, the guide includes a look-up table that allows the user to quickly scan the contents. Information on how to obtain a specific document also is included.


    Solidification/Stabilization Use at Superfund Sites

    To provide interested stakeholders such as project managers, technology service providers, consulting engineers, site owners, and the general public with the most recent information about solidification/stabilization applications at Superfund sites, as well as information about trends in use, specific types of applications, and cost, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) performed a review and analysis of solidification/stabilization applications and prepared this summary.


    State Coalition for Remediation of Drycleaners (SCRD) 10-Year Accomplishments Report

    This report documents SCRD's work since 1998 in fostering collaboration among the states to improve and ensure the effectiveness of the cleanup of environmental contamination from drycleaner sites with support from EPA's Technology Innovation and Field Services Division and the National Ground Water Association. SCRD is composed of 13 states (Alabama, Connecticut, Florida, Illinois, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, North Carolina, Oregon, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Wisconsin) that have enacted formal drycleaner remediation programs and other states that are active in the remediation of drycleaner sites under other authorities, including state voluntary cleanup and brownfields programs.


    The State-of-the Practice of Characterization and Remediation of Contaminated Ground Water at Fractured Rock Sites

    This report provides an analysis of the information provided during a workshop at Providence, RI, on November 8-9, 2000 and the Fractured Rock 2001 International Conference at Toronto on March 26-28, 2001. It is intended to provide: 1) a base line of the state-of-the-practice to help measure trends and directions, 2) a comprehensive view of remediation efforts to local, state and regional practitioners, and 3) suggestions of high priority needs of characterization and remediation to research and development laboratories.


    Streamlining Site Cleanup in New York City

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Brownfields and Land Revitalization Technology Support Center (BTSC) and the New York City (NYC) Mayor's Office of Environmental Remediation (OER) have jointly prepared this document as a technical transfer resource for organizations and individuals involved in the redevelopment of contaminated properties in NYC. This joint effort, supported by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYS DEC), advances the environmental cleanup goals of PlaNYC 2030, the city's comprehensive sustainability plan. The purpose of this document is to present how Triad Approach best management practices (BMP) for site investigation and remediation advance EPA's and NYC Mayor's Office initiatives in the areas of community revitalization and Brownfields redevelopment.


    Subsurface Remediation: Improving Long-Term Monitoring and Remedial Systems Performance Conference Proceedings

    This document summarizes the presentations and workshops of a conference on improving long-term monitoring (LTM) and remedial systems performance that was held in St. Louis, Missouri between June 8th to 11th, 1999. The conference was sponsored and developed by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable. The conference was designed to provide up-to-date information on LTM and systems optimization through presentations and topical workshops.


    Superfund Remedy Report, Fourteenth Edition

    The Superfund Remedy Report (SRR), Fourteenth Edition, was published by the U.S. EPA in November 2013. The SRR 14th Edition summarizes remedy decisions back to 1982 with a focus on the analysis of Superfund remedial actions selected from fiscal years (FY) 2009 to 2011. The report includes remedies selected in 459 decision documents (Records of Decision [RODs], ROD amendments, and Explanations of Significant Differences with changes to remedy components) signed in this three-year period. The SRR compiles data on overall remedy selection and remedies for source materials (such as soil and sediments), groundwater, surface water and air related to vapor intrusion. This edition of the report, for the first time, presents a detailed look at sediment remedies and an analysis of vapor intrusion remedies. The report also analyzes media and contaminants for sites under investigation with planned RODs. The online version includes downloadable appendices that summarize all the remedy components selected for sources and groundwater in each individual decision document.


    Survey of Technologies for Monitoring Containment Liners and Covers

    The report provides information on innovative long-term monitoring technologies to detect contaminant releases beneath a liner containment system and identify potential problems with the integrity of final containment covers. Several of the technologies were specifically intended for vadose zone containment monitoring, while others were designed for leak detection or moisture measurements in other industries (petroleum, chemical, agricultural, geological exploration). The report summarizes available information on these technologies and provides examples of where the technology has been used. Information in the report can be used to provide some preliminary assessment on the applicability of these technologies.


    Synopses of Federal Demonstrations of Innovative Site Remediation Technologies

    Abstracts documenting the results of demonstrations of treatment technologies conducted by Federal Agencies involved in Superfund Remediation and RCRA and UST Corrective Actions.


    Technologies For Treating MtBE and Other Fuel Oxygenates

    This report provides an overview of the treatment technologies used to remediate groundwater, soil, and drinking water contaminated with MtBE and other fuel oxygenates. The treatment methods discussed include air sparging, soil vapor extraction, multi-phase extraction, in situ and ex situ bioremediation, in situ chemical oxidation, pump-and-treat, and drinking water treatment. Information in the report can be used to help evaluate those technologies based on their effectiveness at specific sites. The report summarizes available performance and cost information for these technologies, examples of where each has been used, and additional sources of information.


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    A newsletter for environmental professionals that features a combination of articles on innovative, in-situ technologies for the characterization and treatment of soil, sediment, and ground water.


    Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration: Analysis of Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration at Three Contaminated Sites Remediated and Revitalized with Soil Amendments

    This paper provides EPA's analysis of the data to determine carbon sequestration rates at three diverse sites that differ in geography/location, weather, soil properties, type of contamination, and age. The first site, located at high elevation in Leadville, Colorado, suffered from contamination due to mining. The site was amended with biosolid cakes, biosolids pellets, biosolid compost, and limestone starting in 1998. The second site, located in Stafford County, Virginia, had highly reduced, high-sulfur soils resulting from construction activities for an airport at the site. When exposed to air, these soils rapidly acidified, causing acid runoff that contaminated local streams. The site was amended with biosolids in 2002. The third site, Sharon Steel, is located at the border of Pennsylvania and Ohio and was contaminated through the application of by-products associated with manufacturing steel. At Sharon Steel, soil amendments were applied as part of a field demonstration project in 2008.


    Testing and Demonstration Site For Innovative Ground-Water Remediation Technologies

    This report describes fifteen publicly-sponsored facilities available for testing and demonstration of ground-water technologies.


    Treatment Experiences at RCRA Corrective Actions

    This fact sheet summarizes information about the use of treatment technologies at 30 RCRA corrective action sites. EPA identified these sites based on readily available sources of information. These sources were reviewed to identify RCRA sites that had ongoing or completed cleanups for contaminated soil or groundwater, and that identified key information about the cleanups, such as type of technology used and point of contact. These sites illustrate the types of cleanups conducted at RCRA corrective actions; they are not intended to be representative of the whole universe of RCRA cleanups.


    Treatment Technologies for 1,4-Dioxane: Fundamentals and Field Applications

    1,4-Dioxane is a solvent stabilizer frequently found at contaminated sites where methyl chloroform (1,1,1-trichloroethane) was used for degreasing. This report profiles the occurrence and properties of 1,4-dioxane and provides a summary of the available remedial technologies. The information presented should prove useful to project managers and other regulatory officials who oversee cleanup of contaminated groundwater, particularly where chlorinated solvents are the principal contaminant. Consultants, including hydrogeologists, remediation engineers, and modelers, should also find this report useful, as should water utility operators and regulators.


    Treatment Technologies for Historical Ponds Containing Elemental Phosphorus - Summary and Evaluation

    This report provides a summary and evaluation on six remediation technologies potentially applicable to treat 16 ponds containing waste contaminated with elemental phosphorus, heavy metals, and radiocnuclides at the Eastern Michaud Flats (EMF) Superfund site, near Pocatello, Idaho. Elemental phosphorus is a highly toxic and reactive contaminant and limited information is available about technology treatment solutions. The report is made available to share information on the current status of possible treatment technologies for application at the EMF site and other sites facing similar problems.


    Treatment Technologies for Mercury in Soil, Waste, and Water

    This report contains information on the availability, performance, and cost of eight technologies for the treatment of mercury in soil, waste, and water. It describes the theory, design, and operation of the technologies; provides information on commercial availability and use; and includes site-specific data on performance and cost, where available. This information can help managers at sites with mercury-contaminated media and generators of mercury-contaminated waste and wastewater to:

    • Identify proven and effective mercury treatment technologies;
    • Screen technologies based on application-specific goals, characteristics, and cost; and,
    • Apply experiences from sites with similar treatment challenges.

    The technologies for soil and waste that are included in the report are solidification and stabilization, soil washing and acid extraction, thermal treatment, and vitrification. Technologies for water include precipitation/coprecipitation, adsorption, membrane filtration, and biological treatment. The report also includes information on ongoing research on mercury treatment, including applications using nanotechnology, phytoremediation, air stripping, and in situ thermal desorption.


    Treatment Technologies for Site Cleanup: Annual Status Report, Twelfth Edition

    The Twelfth Edition of this report, published by the EPA Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI) in September 2007, documents treatment technology applications at more than 1,900 soil and groundwater cleanup projects at National Priorities List (NPL) sites. The status of more than 1,200 projects included in the ASR Eleventh Edition is updated, and information about 192 new projects derived from Records of Decision (ROD) signed from 2002 through 2005 is added. The report also includes a special section about on-site containment remedies. The ASR is based on the analysis of over nearly 3,000 RODs signed since 1982 at 1,536 NPL sites. The online version includes new downloadable spreadsheets with the data for several of the key tables and figures in the report.

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    Triad Issue Paper: Using Geophysical Tools to Develop the Conceptual Site Model

    This technology bulletin explains how hazardous-waste site professionals can use geophysical tools to provide information about subsurface conditions to create a more representative conceptual site model (CSM). The CSM is a tool for gaining a synergistic understanding of the site, improve cost effectiveness, and improve decision-making within the Triad approach. Geophysical tools can be applied to create more robust CSMs with more complete data sets that result in a more representative and accurate depiction of the site characteristics at Brownfields and other hazardous waste sites.


    Understanding Procurement for Sampling and Analytical Services Under a Triad Approach

    The EPA Brownfields and Land Revitalization Technology Support Center (BTSC) has prepared this document to highlight methods and strategies that have been successfully used to procure services under a Triad framework. The document includes examples and lessons learned from actual Triad projects implemented in the federal, state, local, and private sector arenas.


    Use of Bioremediation at Superfund Sites

    This report focuses on the use of enhanced bioremediation technologies at 104 Superfund remedial action sites and other contaminated sites. It provides a snapshot of current applications of bioremediation and presents trends over time concerning selection and use of the technology, contaminants and site types treated by the technology, and cost and performance of the technology.


    Use of Dynamic Work Strategies Under a Triad Approach for Site Assessment and Cleanup - Technology Bulletin

    The EPA Brownfields and Land Revitalization Technology Support Center (BTSC) is preparing a series of technical bulletins to provide additional information about how to implement specific aspects of the Triad approach. This bulletin focuses on planning and implementation of DWSs, presenting: answers to frequently asked questions on implementing a DWS; summaries of the application of DWS at two redevelopment sites, including: Former Cos Cob Power Plant, Greenwich, CT and Assunpink Creek Greenway, Trenton, NJ; and sources of additional information for communities and project teams desiring to implement a DWS and the Triad approach.


    Use of Field-Scale Phytotechnology for Chlorinated Solvents, Metals, Explosives and Propellants, and Pesticides

    For this document, the US EPA collected information about 79 field-scale phytotechnology projects conducted throughout the US and Canada that involved treatment of soil and groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents, metals, explosives and pesticides. The purpose of this report is to inform readers of the status of these projects. This document can be used as a networking tool for federal, state and industrial employees to share lessons learned from and practical experiences with field-scale applications of phytotechnology.


    The Use of Soil Amendments for Remediation, Revitalization, and Reuse

    This Directive provides guidance to EPA staff, the public, and the regulated community on how EPA intends to exercise its discretion in implementing national policy on the use of Monitored Natural Attenuation for the remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater at sites regulated by EPA programs.


    Using the Triad Approach to Improve the Cost-effectiveness of Hazardous Waste Site Cleanups

    U.S. EPA is promoting more effective strategies for characterizing, monitoring, and cleaning up hazardous waste sites. In particular, a paradigm based on using an integrated triad of systematic planning, dynamic work plans, and real-time measurement technologies is encouraged. A central theme of the triad approach is a clear focus on overall decision quality as the overarching goal of project quality assurance, requiring careful identification and management of potential causes for errors in decision-making (i.e., sources of uncertainty).


    Using the Triad Approach to Streamline Brownfields Site Assessment and Cleanup

    EPA's Brownfields Technology Support Center (BTSC) has prepared this document to provide an educational tool for site owners, project managers, and regulators to help streamline assessment and cleanup activities at brownfields sites. Strategies that reduce costs, decrease time frames, and positively affect regulatory and community acceptance also can improve the economics of redevelopment at brownfields sites. Increased attention to brownfields sites and the manner in which they are redeveloped places greater importance on the approach to site cleanup. This primer is one in a series that will address specific cleanup issues.


    Workshop Report: Considerations for Developing Leaching Test Methods for Semi- and Non-Volatile Organic Compounds

    This report documents a USEPA workshop in September 2015 in Arlington, VA, and included subject-matter experts from academia. The workshop purpose was to exchange information concerning how to evaluate or predict the potential for leaching of semi- or non-volatile organic constituents at contaminated sites where in place treatment has been used to control migration, and from waste that is disposed or re-used. Workshop discussions focused on identifying technical issues for further consideration to support the development of tools that may be used in making determinations of protectiveness and regulatory compliance.