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Publications on Characterization and Monitoring Technologies for Cleaning Up Contaminated Sites

This page contains publications on methods and technologies used to characterize a hazardous waste site in order to create a strategy for cleaning them up. Before cleanup begins, a site needs to be examined (both above ground and below) to determine what contaminants are present, where they are, and where environmental processes may take them. Click on a grouping below to view available publications.

Publications from A-D

Applying the Concept of Effective Data to Environmental Analyses for Contaminated Sites

Analytical chemistry methods can be classified as 'definitive methods' or 'screening methods.' Environmental decision-makers frequently assume that definitive analytical methods generate 'definitive data,' while screening methods generate 'screening data.' This is misleading. Adopting the concept of 'effective data' could promote cost-savings while ensuring more reliable site decisions, because it recognizes that the information value of data depends on the interaction between sampling design, analytical design, and the intended use of the data.


Best Management Practices: Use of Systematic Project Planning Under a Triad Approach for Site Assessment and Cleanup

This technical publication is intended for environmental practitioners engaged in the investigation, design, remediation, and closure or reuse of contaminated sites. Systematic Project Planning is a rigorous project planning process that lays a scientifically defensible foundation for proposed project activities. The bulletin discusses important considerations and contingencies that need to be addressed, and key activities to be performed during SPP at hazardous-waste sites. It guides the reader to think about SPP from early assessment, to evolving to a mature conceptual site model, to looking ahead at site re-use; and emphasizes up-front effort. Included are references where the reader can find tools and more detailed technical guidance.


Best Practices for Environmental Site Management: Recommended Contents of a Groundwater Monitoring Report (PDF) (10pp)

The purpose of this issue paper is to recommend information to include in groundwater monitoring reports that will lead to improved report consistency and a useful, readable format. Incorporation of the recommended information will standardize groundwater monitoring report deliverables,  which may in turn inform site characterization strategies, analysis of remedial alternatives, monitoring network optimization, remedy performance  evaluation, continual refinement of the conceptual site model (CSM), and technical evaluation of groundwater data in five-year reviews.


Bibliography for Innovative Site Clean-Up Technologies, August 1999 Update

Provides information about EPA publications, programs, and resources dealing with innovative site clean-up technologies. August 1999 Update.


Brownfields Grant Recipients' Road Map to Understanding Quality Assurance Project Plans

The U.S. EPA prepared this publication to help recipients of an EPA Brownfields Assessment Grant design and complete site assessment projects more efficiently and effectively by increasing their awareness and understanding of the importance of quality assurance (QA) in Brownfields site projects. The Road Map describes a general process for developing and using a Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP), while highlighting the benefits of a well-prepared QAPP and helping those responsible for the process to better understand and communicate with all parties involved.


Brownfields Road Map to Understanding Options for Site Investigation and Cleanup, Fifth Edition

The new Brownfields Road Map publication and companion website provide a general outline of how to assess and clean up a brownfields site and introduce stakeholders to a range of technology options and available resources. General concepts and basic considerations that affect the cleanup of brownfields sites are described with a new Back to Basics approach that covers setting reuse goals and planning, understanding regulations and liability concerns, engaging the community and identifying funding. Targeted for non-technical stakeholders and technical professionals, the Brownfields Road Map walks users through the big picture of managing a brownfields site from assessment to reuse and introduces technology options and considerations for each phase. The new Brownfields Road Map website connects users to the publication online and provides direct access to technical resources. It features: (1) an interactive guide to contaminants and technologies, (2) spotlights on current issues and best practices, including links to resources and tools, (3) a list of acronyms and detailed glossary of terms, and (4) quick access to state, tribal and EPA regional contacts and technical support.


Brownfields Technology Primer: Requesting and Evaluating Proposals That Encourage Innovative Technologies for Investigation and Cleanup

This 57 page primer expands on the guide for assessing contractor capabilities that was previously prepared by the BF Technology Support Center. The primer emphasizes techniques for soliciting proposals that encourage contractors to use innovative technologies. It also includes tips and questions to consider when interviewing contractors to assess their capabilities in the use of innovative technologies.


Brownfields Technology Primer: Vapor Intrusion Considerations for Redevelopment

This primer is designed for land revitalization stakeholders concerned about vapor intrusion, including property owners, municipalities, and real estate developers. It provides an overview of the vapor intrusion issue and how it can affect redevelopment. It also summarizes techniques for quickly and cost effectively assessing the potential for vapor intrusion, as well as techniques for mitigating it. The topics covered will familiarize stakeholders with options for addressing vapor intrusion to help them communicate with their project contractors and consultants.


Case Study of the Triad Approach: Expedited Characterization of Petroleum Constituents and PCBs Using Test Kits and a Mobile Chromatography Laboratory at the Former Cos Cob Power Plant Site

This case study was prepared by the Brownfields Technology Support Center (BTSC), within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI). The case study was developed as part of EPA's ongoing initiative to promote the use of an integrated Triad approach to limit decision uncertainty at hazardous waste sites through the use of sound science. The Triad approach, which consists of systematic planning, dynamic work strategies, and real-time measurement technologies that include field-based analyses, is being promoted by OSRTI and its partners as a viable method for streamlining site investigations.


Clarifying DQO Terminology Usage to Support Modernization of Site Cleanup Practice

Systematic planning is critical to the successful implementation of hazardous site characterization and cleanup projects. EPA's 'DQO process' has been around for many years, and 'DQO' terminology is used extensively. Unfortunately, over the years the terminology has been used in ambiguous or contradictory ways, and this has resulted in confusion about what terms mean and how they are to be understood. This paper seeks to clarify the relationship between DQO-related terms as descriptively and concretely as possible.


Considerations for Applying the Triad Approach: Hartford Area Hydrocarbon Plume Site, Hartford, Illinois

Intermittent fires related to vapor intrusion and odor complaints at the Hartford site have affected residences throughout the Village of Hartford. Subsequent investigations by a group of potentially responsible parties, known as the Hartford Working Group (HWG), have detected extensive hydrocarbon contamination beneath the site. The suggestions provided in this report are intended to provide input to the HWG so characterization and remedial design can be optimized. This report was based on review of on-going project documents and subsequent discussions with the Region 5 on-scene coordinators (OSC) and State of Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) representatives. The suggestions provided are intended as a starting point for refining the existing conceptual site model (CSM) for the Hartford site so that an effective remedy can be designed and implemented as quickly as possible.


Cost and Performance Report for LNAPL Characterization and Remediation: Partition Interwell Tracer Testing (PITT) and Rapid Optical Screening Tool (ROSTTM) Characterization and Evaluation of the Feasibility of Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer Remediation (SEAR) at the Chevron Cincinnati Facility, Hooven, OH

This case study summarizes the characterization studies and technology evaluation of surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) conducted for LNAPL at the Chevron Cincinnati Facility in Hooven, OH. This report summarizes the evaluation of the use of SEAR as a potential innovative and aggressive technology to treat LNAPL at this site.


Dexsil L2000 PCB/Chloride Analyzer for Drum Surfaces

This case study is one of a series designed to provide cost and performance information for innovative tools that support less costly and more representative site characterization. These case studies will include reports on new technologies as well as novel applications of familiar tools or processes.


Demonstrations of Method Applicability under a Triad Approach for Site Assessment and Cleanup - Technology Bulletin

Demonstrations of Method Applicability (DMA) are a key component of using real-time measurement technologies and are presented in this bulletin through: answers to frequently asked questions on key aspects of DMAs, examples of DMAs performed at hazardous waste sites, and sources of additional information for communities and project teams that desire to implement DMAs and the Triad approach.


Demonstration of Two Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Optimization Approaches

This report summarize the results of a demonstration of optimization methods to improve the design of long-term groundwater monitoring programs. The report discusses the results of application of two different long-term groundwater monitoring optimization (LTMO) methods including:

  • The Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System (MAROS) software tool; and
  • The Three-Tiered Monitoring Network Optimization (MNO) approach.

The two methods were applied at three different sites (the Fort Lewis Logistics Center, the Long Prairie Groundwater Contamination Superfund site, and Operable Unit D at McClellan Air Force Base). The primary goals of this demonstration project were to highlight current strategies for applying optimization techniques to existing long-term monitoring programs, and to assist site managers in understanding the potential benefits associated with monitoring program optimization.


Directory of Technical Assistance for Land Revitalization

This directory includes information about the different types of support available to help with site assessment and cleanup, including technical support and funding sources.


Directory of Technology Support Services to Brownfields Localities

This directory provides information about EPA offices, nongovernment organizations funded by EPA, and other federal agencies, that may be able to provide expertise to assist in the selection of technologies to characterize and clean up brownfields properties.

Publications from E-I

Ecosystem Services at Contaminated Site Cleanups

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed this issue paper to provide cleanup site teams with information about ecosystem services. These concepts and tools are useful in communicating the positive results of cleanup in addition to achieving the goals of cleanup. Information about ecosystem services may be considered in characterization of future land use options or design of a cleanup that is consistent with anticipated ecological reuse, depending on the regulatory authority of the cleanup program. This document can also be accessed at https://semspub.epa.gov/src/document/11/100000459.

Environmental Cleanup Best Management Practices: Effective Use of the Project Life Cycle Conceptual Site Model

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supports the use of best management practices (BMPs) as a mechanism for maximizing technical effectiveness and resource efficiency in the execution of site assessment and cleanup projects. This fact sheet is the first in a series of documents that address conceptual site models (CSMs). This fact sheet summarizes how environmental practitioners can use CSMs to achieve, communicate, and maintain stakeholder consensus on site understanding, while satisfying the technical and quality objectives required for each stage of a cleanup project's life cycle. The focus is on defining stages and products of CSMs along with potential applications of CSMs at various stages of a project life cycle. Content herein is presented in a Superfund Program context; however, to the extent practical, text has been written to maximize applicability in other programs and regulatory frameworks. Other agencies and programs may find these concepts useful and environmental cleanup practitioners are encouraged to explore the utility and integration of a project life cycle CSM within their own program requirements and deliverable schedules.


Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program: Site Characterization and Monitoring Technologies Center

The ETV Site Characterization and Monitoring Technology Pilot is composed of EPA, DoD, DOE, other Federal agencies, state regulators, technology evaluation and verification entities, and potential end users of these technologies to facilitate independent and expert verification of site characterization technology performance. The Pilot was created to increase the use of new site characterization, monitoring, and measuring technologies at clean-up sites.


Field Analytical and Site Characterization Technologies - Summary of Applications

This report provides information about experiences in the use of field analytical and site characterization technologies at contaminated sites drawn from 204 technology applications. For each technology, information is presented on the reported uses of the technology; including the types of pollutants and media for which the technology was used; reported advantages and limitations of the technology; and cost data for the technology, when available. Information was obtained from federal and state site managers and from the Vendor Field Analytical and Characterization Technologies System (Vendor FACTS) database.


Final Report: Applied Materials Building 1: Long-Term Monitoring Strategy

A five-year review documenting the progress of Applied Materials Building 1 (AM1) toward remedial goals was completed in 2010. The site has largely achieved remedial goals for groundwater; however, specific National Priorities List (NPL) close-out prospects for sites with rare or intermittent exceedances of groundwater cleanup goals over a limited spatial extent are not clear. Additionally, the presence of groundwater plumes on adjacent properties may complicate the close-out decision. This memorandum reviews historical site data and how they might support the development of a long-term, close-out strategy for the AM1 site. Statistical analyses were performed using modules within the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System software (MAROS) and ProUCL software.


Final Report: Technical Assistance for the Kearsarge Metallurgical Corporation Superfund Site, Conway, New Hampshire, EPA Region 1

This report reviews and provides recommendations for a long-term groundwater monitoring network for the Kearsarge Metallurgical Corporation Superfund site (KMC site). The KMC site is a former foundry and metal fabrication facility in Conway, New Hampshire, listed on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1984. The site is currently in a long-term operation and maintenance (O&M) phase. The primary goal of developing an optimized groundwater monitoring strategy at the KMC site is to create a dataset that fully supports site management decisions relating to the long-term remedial strategy and reuse options for the property. In this report, the current KMC site groundwater monitoring network has been evaluated using a formal qualitative approach as well as statistical tools found in the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System software (MAROS). The evaluation of the monitoring system included data collected both prior to and during active groundwater extraction (1983 - 2005) and after cessation of the extraction remedy (2006 - 2009). Network recommendations are made for groundwater sampling frequency and location based on lines of evidence developed from qualitative factors as well as statistical results.


Final Report: Technical Assistance for the Somersworth Sanitary Landfill Superfund Site, Somersworth, New Hampshire, EPA Region 1

The Somersworth Sanitary Landfill Site (Somersworth site) is a former landfill in southern New Hampshire that is on the National Priorities List (NPL). The landfill was closed in 1981 and has had a groundwater monitoring network since the 1980s. Groundwater remedies were installed by 2001, and the site is currently in the long-term monitoring phase of operation and maintenance (O&M). U.S. EPA Region 1 requested a review of the Somersworth site groundwater monitoring plan. Site monitoring data was reviewed and statistical and heuristic evaluations were performed using the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System software (MAROS) in 2007. Inputs, results and recommendations for the groundwater monitoring network, including the results based on the MAROS analysis, were reviewed.


Geophysical Techniques to Locate DNAPLs: Profiles of Federally Funded Projects

This report is intended to provide a status report for researchers and practitioners on federal projects that are using noninvasive geophysical techniques to locate DNAPLs in the subsurface.


Ground-Water Sampling Guidelines for Superfund and RCRA Project Managers
This document provides sampling guidelines primarily for ground-water monitoring wells that have a screen or open interval with a length of ten feet or less and which can accept a sampling device. Procedures that minimize disturbance to the aquifer will yield the most representative ground-water samples. This document provides a summary of current and/or recommended ground-water sampling procedures. These guidelines are intended to assist in developing sampling plans using the project-specific goals and objectives. However, unusual and/or site-specific circumstances may require approaches other than those specified in this document. In these instances, the appropriate Regional hydrologists/geologists should be contacted to establish alternative protocols.


Groundwater Monitoring Network Optimization, Frontier Hard Chrome Superfund Site, Vancouver, Washington

This report reviews and provides recommendations for instituting a long-term groundwater monitoring network for Frontier Hard Chrome (FHC) Superfund Site in Vancouver, Washington. The FHC Site is a former chrome plating facility in the floodplain of the Colombia River. The current FHC groundwater monitoring network has been evaluated using a formal qualitative approach as well as statistical tools found in the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System software (MAROS). Recommendations are made for groundwater sampling frequency and location based on current hydrogeologic conditions and long-term monitoring goals for the system. The primary goal of developing an optimized groundwater monitoring strategy at the FHC Site is to create a dataset that fully supports site management decisions while minimizing time and expense associated with collecting and interpreting data.


Improving Sampling, Analysis, and Data Management for Site Investigation and Cleanup

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supports the adoption of streamlined approaches to sampling, analysis, and data management activities conducted during site assessment, characterization, and cleanup. This position reflects the growing trend towards using smarter, faster, and better technologies and work strategies. EPA is coordinating with other Federal and State agencies to educate regulators, practitioners, site owners, and others involved in site cleanup decisions about the benefits of a streamlined approach. Ultimately, EPA expects to institutionalize these newer approaches and anticipates that the principles will guide the way data are collected and analyzed for future site cleanup decisions.


Initiatives to Develop Web Sites Including Information about Brownfields Properties

This web site was created to assist in planning, designing, and operating web sites that include information about individual brownfields properties. The report is of value to parties designing or managing such sites. Their target audiences could include owners of brownfields properties, purchasers, and non-profit organizations, as well as cleanup technology vendors, and other service providers. The 'Initiatives' web site is based on a study conducted by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 2000.


Innovations in Site Characterization Case Study: Hanscom Air Force Base, Operable Unit 1

This document is a condensation of the information provided in the much more detailed Hanscom AFB Report entitled A Dynamic Site Investigation: Adaptive Sampling and Analysis Program for Operable Unit 1 at Hanscom Air Force Base, Bedford, Massachusetts.


Innovations in Site Characterization Case Study: The Role of a Conceptual Site Model for Expedited Site Characterization Using the Triad Approach at the Poudre River Site, Fort Collins, Colorado

This case study examines how systematic planning, an evolving conceptual site model (CSM), dynamic work strategies, and real time measurement technologies can be used to unravel complex contaminant distribution patterns and design a remedy at the Cache La Poudre (Poudre) River site. The investigation and design of the remedy involved a former burn landfill, hydrocarbon fuel contamination, and mobile manufactured gas plant (MGP) coal tar waste. The remedy was driven by recreational reuse and proximity to the Poudre River. The remedy involved pathway elimination and stream restoration in a location central to the City of Fort Collins, Colorado.


Innovations in Site Characterization Case Study: Site Cleanup of the Wenatchee Tree Fruit Test Plot Site Using a Dynamic Work Plan

The Wenatchee Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center site contained soils contaminated with organochlorine pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides, and other pesticides due to agriculture-related research activities conducted from 1966 until the mid-1980s. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers used a dynamic work plan guided by field analyses to seamlessly integrate the site characterization and cleanup portions of the project. Characterization, excavation, and segregation of contaminated soil was based on the results of immunoassay (IA) test kits for DDT and cyclodiene pesticides. An initial pilot test and then continuing evaluation of data comparability between the IA methods and fixed laboratory pesticide results allowed the USACE team to develop site-specific IA kit action levels that guided on-site decision-making. Characterization, cleanup, and closure was accomplished within a single 4-month field mobilization, and the entire project cost ($589K) was about half the cost ($1.2 million) estimated according to a more traditional site characterization and remediation scenario relying on multiple rounds of field mobilization, sampling, sample shipment, laboratory analysis, and data assessment


Innovations In Site Characterization: Geophysical Investigation at Hazardous Waste Sites

This compendium describes a number of geophysical technologies and methods that were used at 11 sites with significantly different geological settings and types of subsurface contamination, ranging from relatively homogeneous stratigraphy to the highly heterogeneous mix of sand and clay layers. The types of contamination fell primarily into three broad groups: chlorinated solvents, petroleum-related compounds, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons.


Innovations in Site Characterization: Interim Guide to Preparing Case Studies

Cost-effective cleanup (remediation) of hazardous waste sites cannot occur unless the type, quantities, and locations of chemical contaminants present at the site are adequately determined by a process called characterization. This guide is intended to assist in the preparation of Site Characterization Case Study Reports.


Innovations in Site Characterization: Streamlining Cleanup at Vapor Intrusion and Product Removal Sites Using the Triad Approach: Hartford Plume Site, Hartford, Illinois

Vapor intrusion from widespread hydrocarbon plumes at the Hartford Plume Site in the Village of Hartford, Illinois, resulted in numerous residential housing fires and forced residents to move from their homes. To address public concerns at the Site, EPA Region 5 worked with oil company stakeholders from the area and used the best management practices (BMPs) of EPA's Triad Approach to expedite the investigation, mitigation, and cleanup processes. The Hartford Plume Site case study provides a detailed example of the strategies and technologies used at the site that are available to environmental practitioners to use at large and small hydrocarbon sites. Sufficient detail is provided for practitioners to learn the basic elements of designing and implementing site characterization, mitigation, and remedial efforts at complex hydrocarbon sites.


Innovations in Site Characterization Technology Evaluation: Real-time VOC Analysis Using a Field Portable GC/MS

This technology evaluation report describes deployment of the HAPSITE GC/MS by an analytical service provider to produce low-cost, real-time VOC data in the field using EPA Method 8260. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) used the data to make real-time decisions concerning borings placement and long-term monitoring wells installation within a single field mobilization of 3 weeks. The USACE estimated they saved $27,000 (26% of total projected costs) and 4 days of field time over project costs that would have been incurred if fixed laboratory analyses had been used. The report includes a summary of the QA/QC protocol used and project-specific analytical performance.

Publications from J-S

Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Optimization, Clare Water Supply Superfund Site, Permeable Reactive Barrier and Soil Remedy Areas, Clare, Michigan

This report contains a review of the long-term groundwater monitoring network for the Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) and Soil Remedy Areas at the Clare Water Supply Superfund Site in Clare, Michigan. The current monitoring network in each area was evaluated using a formal qualitative approach and statistical tools found in the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System software (MAROS). The report also contains recommendations for the groundwater monitoring networks based the results of these qualitative and quantitative evaluations.


Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Optimization, Clare Water Supply Superfund Site, StageRight Area, Clare, Michigan

This report contains a review of the long-term groundwater monitoring network for the StageRight (former Welltronics) Facility area near the Clare Public Water Supply, Clare Michigan. The current monitoring network was evaluated in September 2006 prior to activation of a new municipal well using a formal qualitative approach and statistical tools found in the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System software (MAROS). The goal of the groundwater monitoring program is to track changes in concentrations of priority chlorinated constituents that may affect the drinking water remediation system used to treat the public water supply. The report includes recommendations for groundwater sample frequency and location based on current hydrogeologic, pumping, and contaminant conditions.


Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Optimization, Newark, Muscoy, and Source Operable Units, Newmark Superfund Sites, San Bernardino, California

This report contains a review of the groundwater monitoring network for Newmark Superfund Site in San Bernardino, California (Newmark Site). The Site consists of the Source, Newmark and Muscoy operable units (OUs). The current groundwater monitoring network has been evaluated using a formal qualitative approach as well as statistical tools found in the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System software (MAROS). Recommendations are made for groundwater sampling frequency and location based on current hydrogeologic conditions and long-term monitoring goals for the system. The report evaluates the monitoring system using analytical and hydrogeologic data from sampling events conducted between May 1987 and January 2007.


Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Optimization, Taylor Road Landfill Superfund Site, Seffner, Hillsborough County, Florida

This report reviews and provides recommendations for improving the groundwater monitoring network for Taylor Road Landfill Superfund Site in Seffner, Hillsborough County, Florida (Taylor Road Site). The current groundwater monitoring network has been evaluated using a formal qualitative approach as well as using statistical tools found in the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System software (MAROS). Recommendations are made for groundwater sampling frequency and location based on current hydrogeologic conditions and long-term monitoring (LTM) goals for the system. The recommendations presented below are based on a technical review; balancing both the statistical results with goals of the monitoring system and site management decisions. The recommendations may not reflect the current regulatory requirements. The following report evaluates the monitoring system using analytical and hydrogeologic data from sampling events conducted between January 1995 and April 2007.


Management and Interpretation of Data Under a Triad Approach - Technology Bulletin

The Brownfields and Land Revitalization Technology Support Center (BTSC) created this bulletin to focus on implementing a data management program for a Triad project. It includes a brief introduction to the Triad approach, answers to frequently asked questions about data management on Triad projects, three examples of data management with state agencies as the primary regulatory body, and sources of additional information for project teams and stakeholders who develop or provide input on a data management.


Monitoring Arsenic in the Environment: A Review of Science and Technologies for Field Measurements and Sensors

This report from EPA's Technology Innovation Program reviews field assays and other technologies with the potential to measure and monitor arsenic in the environment. The strengths and weaknesses of the various assays are discussed with respect to their sensitivity, ability to detect the chemical states of arsenic, performance in various media, potential interferences, and ease of operation. The report relies mainly on government documents and the published literature.


The Relationship between SW-846, PBMS, and Innovative Analytical Technologies

This paper explains EPA's position regarding testing methods used within waste programs, documentation of EPA's position, the reasoning behind EPA's position, and the relationship between analytical method regulatory flexibility and the use of on-site measurements (also termed 'field analytical methods') to improve the cost-effectiveness of contaminated site cleanups.


Roadmap to Long-Term Monitoring Optimization

The primary goals of this Roadmap are to assist site managers in: understanding the steps involved in conducting a long-term monitoring optimization (LTMO), determining whether a monitoring program could benefit from a LTMO assessment, identifying potential strategies for applying optimization techniques and evaluating which are appropriate for a program, and accessing more information and resources about LTMO tools, methods, and approaches. This roadmap focuses on optimization of established long-term monitoring programs for groundwater. Tools and techniques discussed concentrate on methods for optimizing the monitoring frequency and spatial (three-dimensional) distribution of wells (i.e., physical program optimization). The LTMO techniques discussed here can be described as qualitative or quantitative or some combination of these techniques.


Resources for Strategic Site Investigation and Monitoring

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in concert with other federal agencies and state organizations, is accelerating the development of policies and information to support Strategic Investigation and Monitoring activities at hazardous waste sites. These efforts are meant to assist site decision makers as they transition to newer, streamlined approaches. The educational, training, and guidance resources described in this fact sheet either already exist or are under development to support project managers seeking to apply these approaches.


A Resource for MGP Site Characterization and Remediation: Expedited Site Characterization and Source Remediation at Former Manufactured Gas Plant Sites

This document was prepared by the USEPA to provide current information on useful approaches and tools being applied at former MGP sites to the regulators and utilities characterizing and remediating these sites. The document outlines site management strategies and field tools for expediting site characterization at MGP sites; presents a summary of existing technologies for remediating MGP wastes in soils; provides sufficient information on the benefits, limitations, and costs of each technology, tool, or strategy for comparison and evaluation; and provides, by way of case studies, examples of the ways these tools and strategies can be implemented at MGP sites.


A Review of Emerging Sensor Technologies for Facilitating Long-Term Ground Water Monitoring of Volatile Organic Compounds

This report summarizes the status of emerging sensor technologies for facilitating long-term ground water monitoring for a class of contaminants called volatile organic compounds (VOCs). It also describes a number of factors, including regulatory acceptance and cost-effectiveness, that influence the applicability of these technologies. The focus is on long-term ground water monitoring that is generally associated with a selected remedy, such as monitored natural attenuation or pump and treat.


Site Characterization Technologies for DNAPL Investigations

The U.S. EPA has compiled this summary of information on the current state of technologies available for locating and characterizing dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contaminated sites. This document is intended to help managers at sites with potential or confirmed DNAPL contamination identify suitable characterization technologies, screen the technologies for potential application, learn about applications at similar sites, and locate additional information on these technologies.


The State-of-the Practice of Characterization and Remediation of Contaminated Ground Water at Fractured Rock Sites

This report provides an analysis of the information provided during a workshop at Providence, RI, on November 8-9, 2000 and the Fractured Rock 2001 International Conference at Toronto on March 26-28, 2001. It is intended to provide: 1) a base line of the state-of-the-practice to help measure trends and directions, 2) a comprehensive view of remediation efforts to local, state and regional practitioners, and 3) suggestions of high priority needs of characterization and remediation to research and development laboratories.


Subsurface Remediation: Improving Long-Term Monitoring and Remedial Systems Performance Conference Proceedings

This document summarizes the presentations and workshops of a conference on improving long-term monitoring (LTM) and remedial systems performance that was held in St. Louis, Missouri between June 8th to 11th, 1999. The conference was sponsored and developed by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable. The conference was designed to provide up-to-date information on LTM and systems optimization through presentations and topical workshops.


Survey of Technologies for Monitoring Containment Liners and Covers

The report provides information on innovative long-term monitoring technologies to detect contaminant releases beneath a liner containment system and identify potential problems with the integrity of final containment covers. Several of the technologies were specifically intended for vadose zone containment monitoring, while others were designed for leak detection or moisture measurements in other industries (petroleum, chemical, agricultural, geological exploration). The report summarizes available information on these technologies and provides examples of where the technology has been used. Information in the report can be used to provide some preliminary assessment on the applicability of these technologies.

Publications from T-Z

Triad Issue Paper: Using Geophysical Tools to Develop the Conceptual Site Model

This technology bulletin explains how hazardous-waste site professionals can use geophysical tools to provide information about subsurface conditions to create a more representative conceptual site model (CSM). The CSM is a tool for gaining a synergistic understanding of the site, improve cost effectiveness, and improve decision-making within the Triad approach. Geophysical tools can be applied to create more robust CSMs with more complete data sets that result in a more representative and accurate depiction of the site characteristics at Brownfields and other hazardous waste sites.


Understanding Procurement for Sampling and Analytical Services Under a Triad Approach

The EPA Brownfields and Land Revitalization Technology Support Center (BTSC) has prepared this document to highlight methods and strategies that have been successfully used to procure services under a Triad framework. The document includes examples and lessons learned from actual Triad projects implemented in the federal, state, local, and private sector arenas.


Use of Dynamic Work Strategies Under a Triad Approach for Site Assessment and Cleanup - Technology Bulletin

The EPA Brownfields and Land Revitalization Technology Support Center (BTSC) is preparing a series of technical bulletins to provide additional information about how to implement specific aspects of the Triad approach. This bulletin focuses on planning and implementation of DWSs, presenting: answers to frequently asked questions on implementing a DWS; summaries of the application of DWS at two redevelopment sites, including: Former Cos Cob Power Plant, Greenwich, CT and Assunpink Creek Greenway, Trenton, NJ; and sources of additional information for communities and project teams desiring to implement a DWS and the Triad approach.


Using the Triad Approach to Improve the Cost-effectiveness of Hazardous Waste Site Cleanups

U.S. EPA's Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response is promoting more effective strategies for characterizing, monitoring, and cleaning up hazardous waste sites. In particular, a paradigm based on using an integrated triad of systematic planning, dynamic work plans, and real-time measurement technologies is encouraged. A central theme of the triad approach is a clear focus on overall decision quality as the overarching goal of project quality assurance, requiring careful identification and management of potential causes for errors in decision-making (i.e., sources of uncertainty).


Using the Triad Approach to Streamline Brownfields Site Assessment and Cleanup

EPA's Brownfields Technology Support Center (BTSC) has prepared this document to provide an educational tool for site owners, project managers, and regulators to help streamline assessment and cleanup activities at brownfields sites. Strategies that reduce costs, decrease time frames, and positively affect regulatory and community acceptance also can improve the economics of redevelopment at brownfields sites. Increased attention to brownfields sites and the manner in which they are redeveloped places greater importance on the approach to site cleanup. This primer is one in a series that will address specific cleanup issues.


Workshop Report: Considerations for Developing Leaching Test Methods for Semi- and Non-Volatile Organic Compounds

This report documents a USEPA workshop in September 2015 in Arlington, VA, and included subject-matter experts from academia. The workshop purpose was to exchange information concerning how to evaluate or predict the potential for leaching of semi- or non-volatile organic constituents at contaminated sites where in place treatment has been used to control migration, and from waste that is disposed or re-used. Workshop discussions focused on identifying technical issues for further consideration to support the development of tools that may be used in making determinations of protectiveness and regulatory compliance.