We've made some changes to EPA.gov. If the information you are looking for is not here, you may be able to find it on the EPA Web Archive or the January 19, 2017 Web Snapshot.

Pulp and Paper Production (MACT I & III): National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Source Categories

Rule Summary

The pulp and paper industry consists of facilities engaged in the production of pulp and/or paper/paperboard. This category includes, but is not limited to:

  • integrated mills (where pulp and paper or paperboard are manufactured on- site),
  • non-integrated mills (where paper/paperboard or pulp are manufactured, but not both), and
  • secondary fiber mills (where waste paper is used as the primary raw material).

This subpart regulates the emissions from the pulp production sources, which include pulping process vents, bleaching process vents, and condensate streams.

Mills that chemically pulp wood using kraft, semi-chemical, sulfite, or soda processes are referred to as MACT I mills. Mills that mechanically pulp wood, or that pulp secondary fiber or non-wood fibers, or that produce paper or paperboard from purchased pulp are referred to as MACT III mills. These standards do not address emissions from recovery area combustion sources (referred to in later sections as MACT II). These sources are being regulated under a separate rule.

The National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for the pulp and paper production sources was originally proposed in 1993 and promulgated in 1998. In these actions, the EPA identified methanol, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, and other hazardous air pollutants were emitted in large quantities from these sources. As a result, this subpart regulates “total HAP” emissions. In general, this regulation requires mills to do the following:

  • Collect and incinerate pulping process vent emissions
  • Collect and control bleaching process vent emissions with a caustic scrubber
  • Eliminate the use of certain bleaching chemicals
  • Collect and treat process condensate streams to remove HAPs through biological treatment or steam stripping (kraft mills only)

See the regulations in the section below for more details.    

Rule History

09/11/2012 – Final Rule

12/27/2011 – Proposed Rule

04/13/2004 – Site-Specific Rulemaking for Packaging Corporation of America’s Pulp and Paper Mill Located in Tomahawk, WI, Pursuant to the Joint State/EPA Agreement To Pursue Regulatory Innovation Direct Final Rule

06/27/2001 – Project XL Site-Specific Rulemaking for Weyerhaeuser Company Flint River Operations Final Rule

05/14/2001 – Final Rule; technical corrections

01/22/2001- Final Rule; amendments

12/22/2000 – Final Rule; amendments

01/25/2000 – Proposed Rule Amendments

04/12/1999 – Final Rule; interpretation and technical amendments

12/28/1998 – Proposed Rule & Direct Final Rule

09/16/1998 – Interpretive Amendments to Final Rule

08/07/1998 – Correction to Final Rule

04/15/1998 – Final Rules

07/15/1996 – Notice of availability

03/08/1996 – Announcement of availability of supplemental information, proposed rule, and opening of the public comment period for these actions.

12/17/1993 – Proposed Rule

Additional Resources

Pulping and Bleaching System National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for the Pulp and Paper Industry: A Plain English Description

Economic Impact Analysis: Final Revisions to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Subpart S (MACT I and MACT III) for the Pulp and Paper Industry

Fact Sheets: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) from the Pulp and Paper Industry (40 CFR 63, Subpart S)

NESHAP from the Pulp and Paper Industry (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart S) Residual Risk and Technology Review, Final Amendments: Response to Public Comments on December 27, 2011 Proposal

Inputs to the Pulp and Paper Industry October 2011 Residual Risk Assessment

Residual Risk Assessment for the Pulp & Paper Source Category

Clean Air Act Section 112(d)(6) Technology Review for Pulping and Papermaking Processes Memorandum

Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard Industry - Background Information for Proposed Air Emission Standards: Manufacturing Processes at Kraft, Sulfite, Soda, and Semi-Chemical Mills

Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard Industry -Background Information for Promulgated Air Emissions Standards: Manufacturing Processes at Kraft, Sulfite, Soda, Semi-Chemical, Mechanical, and Secondary and Non-wood Fiber Mills

The following file Emissions Data Risk and Technology Review of the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Pulp and Paper Industry (subpart S)(1 pg, 257 MB, 2011) provides facility-wide emissions for major sources that submitted data in response to the 2011 data collection survey. This file includes updates provided to EPA during the Risk and Technology Review of the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Pulp and Paper Industry (subpart S) comment period and other updates provided by facilities. If you have any questions, concerns, or updates regarding this data, please contact Kelley Spence at spence.kelley@epa.gov.

WATER9 is a Windows based computer program for estimating air emissions of individual waste constituents in wastewater/waste. Further information or a copy of the WATER 9 can be obtained from EPA. You can also contact the Air Emissions Model Hotline at (919) 541-5610 for support or more information about this model.

Pulp and paper manufacturing is subject to the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. Information regarding available and emerging technologies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from pulp and paper manufacturing can be found here.

Related Rules

MACT II Pulp and Paper Regulations

Kraft Pulp Mills: New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)

Pulp, Paper, and Paper Board Point Source Category Effluent Guidelines and Standards

Compliance

Questions and Answers for the Pulp and Paper National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP): 40 CFR Part 63, Subpart S

Summary Flow Chart of the Pulp and Paper Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Standard (40 CFR part 63, Subpart S)

Letters and Memoranda on Complying with the Clean Condensate Alternative (CCA) in the Pulp and Paper National Emision Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

Applicability Determination Index (ADI).  The ADI is maintained by EPA's Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance (OECA) and provides a data base of memoranda dealing with applicability issues.  The database is searchable by Subpart.