This paper explores the best approaches for:
- characterizing exposure pathways and routes
- estimating the most relevant exposure concentrations
- linking exposure to dose
- coping with natural or background concentrations.
Relevant issues for human, terrestrial and aquatic receptors will be described separately because the relative importance of exposure routes and pathways differs among these receptors. Regardless of the receptor being discussed, an important goal herein is to identify and address issues unique or especially relevant to metals. Approaches will be highlighted that are immediately useful or potentially useful in the near future. Shortcomings or inaccuracies of current approaches will be identified.You may need a PDF reader to view some of the files on this page. See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more.
- Issue Paper on Metal Exposure Assessment (PDF)(54 pp, 667 K, August 19, 2004 )