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Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP)

Substitutes in Solvents

You may need a PDF reader to view some of the files on this page. See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more.Substitutes are reviewed on the basis of environmental and health risks, including factors such as ozone depletion potential, global warming potential, toxicity, flammability, and exposure potential. Lists of acceptableHelpacceptableThis designation means that a substitute may be used, without restriction, to replace the relevant ODS within the end-use specified. For example, HCFC-22 is an acceptable substitute for R-502 in industrial process refrigeration. Note that all SNAP determinations apply to the use of a specific product as a substitute for a specific ODS in a specific end-use. and UnacceptableHelpUnacceptableThis designation means that it is illegal to use a product as a substitute for an ODS in a specific end-use. For example, HCFC-141b is an unacceptable substitute for CFC-11 in building chillers. Note that all SNAP determinations apply to the use of a specific product as a substitute for a specific ODS in a specific end-use. substitutes are updated several times each year. The list of substitutes is shown below.

Note: SNAP-related information published in the Federal Register takes precedence over all information on this page.

               
Substitute Trade Name(s) ODPHelpODPA number that refers to the amount of ozone depletion caused by a substance. The ODP is the ratio of the impact on ozone of a chemical compared to the impact of a similar mass of CFC-11. Thus, the ODP of CFC-11 is defined to be 1.0. Other CFCs and HCFCs have ODPs that range from 0.01 to 1.0. The halons have ODPs ranging up to 10. Carbon tetrachloride has an ODP of 1.2, and methyl chloroform's ODP is 0.11. HFCs have zero ODP because they do not contain chlorine. A table of all ozone-depleting substances (http://www.epa.gov/ozone/science/ods/index.html) shows their ODPs, GWPs, and CAS numbers. GWPHelpGWPThe index used to translate the level of emissions of various gases into a common measure in order to compare the relative radiative forcing of different gases without directly calculating the changes in atmospheric concentrations. GWPs are calculated as the ratio of the radiative forcing that would result from the emissions of one kilogram of a greenhouse gas to that from the emission of one kilogram of carbon dioxide over a period of time (usually 100 years). Gases involved in complex atmospheric chemical processes have not been assigned GWPs. See lifetime. Flammable SNAP Listing Date Listing Status Further Information
Benzotrifluoride   N/A N/A yes June 8, 1999 Acceptable with Use Conditions: Subject to a 100 ppm acceptable exposure limit (AEL).  
C5-C20 Petroleum hydrocarbons   0 N/A yes February 24, 1998 Acceptable Petroleum hydrocarbons are flammable. Use with the necessary precautions. Pesticide aerosols must adhere to FIFRA standards.
Chlorinated solvents (trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, methylene chloride)   N/A N/A N/A March 18, 1994 Acceptable Extensive regulations under other statutes govern use of these chemicals, including VOC standards, workplace standards, waste management standards, and pesticide formulation and handling standards. Should be used only for products where nonflammability is a critical feature.
Chlorobromomethane   0.07 to 0.15 N/A no April 28, 1999 Unacceptable Alternatives exist with lower or zero ODP.
HCFC-141b and its blends   N/A N/A N/A March 18, 1994;
July 20, 2015
Unacceptable as of September 18, 2015.  
HCFC-225ca   0.025 122 no April 28, 1999;
December 20, 2002
Acceptable EPA recommends observing the manufacturer’s recommended exposure guidelines of 50 ppm for the -ca isomer, 400 ppm for the -cb isomer, and 100 ppm for the commercial mixture of HCFC-225ca/cb. EPA encourages users to consider other alternatives that do not have an ozone depletion potential. 
HCFC-225cb   0.033 595 no April 28, 1999;
December 20, 2002
Acceptable EPA recommends observing the manufacturer’s recommended exposure guidelines of 50 ppm for the -ca isomer, 400 ppm for the -cb isomer, and 100 ppm for the commercial mixture of HCFC-225ca/cb. EPA encourages users to consider other alternatives that do not have an ozone depletion potential. 
HFC-245fa   0 1,030 no March 22, 2002 Acceptable EPA expects that the workplace environmental exposure will not exceed the Workplace Environmental Exposure Limit of 300 ppm and that users will observe the manufacturer’s recommendations in MSDSs.
HFC-365mfc   0 794 yes December 18, 2000 Acceptable  
HFC-4310mee   0 1,640 no June 8, 1999 Acceptable with Use Conditions: Subject to a 200 ppm time-weighted average workplace exposure standard and a 400ppm workplace exposure ceiling.  
HFE-347pcf2   0 580 no August 10, 2012 Acceptable CAS Reg. No. is 406-78-0. The manufacturer recommends an acceptable exposure limit of 50 ppm (8-hr TWA) for this substitute. EPA recommends a ceiling limit (maximum concentration) of 150 ppm for HFE-347pcf2. Observe recommendations in the manufacturer’s MSDS and guidance for using this substitute, particularly with respect to proper ventilation and other industrial hygiene practices.
HFE-347mcc3 (heptafluoropropyl methyl ether) Novec 7000 Engineered Fluid (HFE-7000) 0 575 no August 21, 2003 Acceptable EPA expects that the workplace environmental exposure will not exceed the workplace environmental exposure limit of 75 ppm and that users will observe the manufacturer's recommendations in MSDSs.
HFE-449s1 (methoxynonafluorobutane, iso and normal) Novec 7100 Engineered Fluid (HFE-7100)  0 297 no September 5, 1996;
December 18, 2000
Acceptable  
HFE-569sf2 (ethoxynonafluorobutane, iso and normal) Novec™ 7200 Engineered Fluid (HFE-7200) 0 59 no December 6, 1999;
December 18, 2000
Acceptable The Agency expects that any exposures will not exceed any acceptable exposure limits set by any voluntary consensus standards organization, including the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) threshold limit values (TLVs) or the American Industrial Hygiene Association's (AIHA) workplace environmental exposure limits (WEELs).
Methoxytridecafluoroheptene isomers (MPHE)   0 2.5 no July 16, 2015 Acceptable MPHE is a mixture of structural and stereo isomers, which includes trans-5-methoxy-perfluoro-3-heptene and eight isomeric structures. The manufacturer recommends an AEL of 500 ppm (8-hr TWA) for MPHE.
Monochlorotoluenes and benzotrifluorides   N/A N/A N/A May 22, 1996 Acceptable with Use Conditions: Subject to a 50 ppm workplace standard for monochlorotoluenes and a 100 ppm acceptable exposure limit (AEL) for benzotrifluoride.  
Oxygenated organic solvents (esters, ethers, alcohols, ketones)   0 N/A yes March 18, 1994 Acceptable These substitutes are flammable. Use with the necessary precautions.
Perfluorocarbons (PFCs)   0 N/A N/A October 16, 1996 Acceptable with Narrowed Use Limits: Acceptable only where reasonable efforts have been made to ascertain that other alternatives are not technically feasible due to performance or safety requirements. PFCs have extremely long atmospheric lifetimes and high GWPs. This decision reflects these concerns and is patterned after the SNAP decision on PFCs in the solvent cleaning sector.
Perfluoropolyethers (PFPEs)   0 N/A N/A October 16, 1996 Acceptable with Narrowed Use Limits: Acceptable only where reasonable efforts have been made to ascertain that other alternatives are not technically feasible due to performance or safety requirements. PFPEs have extremely long atmospheric lifetimes and high GWPs. This decision reflects these concerns and is patterned after the SNAP decision on PFCs in the solvent cleaning sector.
Terpenes   0 N/A yes March 18, 1994 Acceptable These substitutes are flammable. Use with the necessary precautions.
The Mini-Max Cleaner® The Mini-Max Cleaner® 0 0 N/A September 28, 2006 Acceptable  
Trans-1,2-dichloroethylene   0 N/A yes August 26, 1994 Acceptable The OSHA set exposure limit is 200 ppm.
Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene  Solstice® 1233zd(E) 0.00024 - 0.00034 4.7 - 7 no August 10, 2012 Acceptable CAS Reg. No. is 102687-65-0. The manufacturer recommends an acceptable exposure limit of 300 ppm (8-hr TWA) for trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene. Observe recommendations in the manufacturer’s MSDS and guidance for using this substitute.
Water-based formulations   0 0 no March 18, 1994 Acceptable  
HFO-1336mzz(Z)   0 9 no October 4, 2018 Acceptable