Ordinances and Regulations for Wood-Burning Appliances
- New Source Performance Standards for Residential Wood Heaters
- State Actions - Laws, Fees and Taxes
- Model Rules and Codes
- Community Action - Laws and Ordinances
- Area Source Rule for Small Industrial, Commercial or Institutional Boilers
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New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for Residential Wood Heaters
These EPA standards govern the manufacture and sale of wood stoves, and certain wood burning fireplace inserts, built after 1988.
- EPA’s NSPS for Residential Wood Heaters (2015) - Revised Standards of Performance for Wood Stoves and Wood Pellet Stoves and Standards of Performance for new Residential Hydronic Heaters and Forced-Air Furnaces
- EPA's NSPS for Residential Wood Heaters (1988) - Performance Standards for New Residential Wood Heaters
- EPA's NSPS for Residential Wood Heaters Amendments (1996) (PDF) (32pp, 45k) - Amendments included to ensure that wood heaters that should not have been originally certified due to an invalid certification test are not sold to consumers.
Materials Related to Final Revisions of the NSPS for Residential Wood Heaters
- Federal Register: Final New Source Performance Standards
- Small Entity Compliance Guide for 'Standards of Performance for New Residential Wood Heaters, Hydronic Heaters and Forced-Air Furnaces' (PDF)(60 pp, 1 MB, May 2015, 456-B-14-002)
- Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA) for Proposed Residential Wood Heaters NSPS Revision - Final Report - [EPA/R-13-004] January 2014
- Residential Wood Combustion Tool -- Database used by EPA to estimate emissions from residential wood burning appliances - 2008 version, with 2010 queries
State Action - Laws, Fees and Taxes
The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment posts wood-burning advisoriesExit on its website. During red advisories, mandatory residential burning restrictions generally apply to everyone in the 7-county Denver-Boulder metro area below 7,000 feet. Exceptions include those who use EPA-certified wood burning stoves, other EPA-certified wood heaters, Colorado approved masonry heatersExit, or those whose stoves or fireplaces are a primary source of heat.
NOTE: Colorado has not yet revised this regulation to require certification of new residential wood stoves, pellet stoves, hydronic heaters, and forced-air furnaces pursuant to the U.S. EPA’s revised subpart AAA and subpart QQQQ.
Michigan's Model Ordinance for Outdoor and Open BurningExitincludes language for restrictions or bans on outdoor wood-fired boilers and patio wood-burning units.
The State of Montana allows resident individuals to claim an income tax credit Exitof up to $500 for installing a recognized nonfossil form of energy generation or heating, including low-emission wood or biomass combustion devices, in their principal residence. If necessary, the credit may be carried over for up to four years after the first year it is claimed.
The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality has authority to operate and enforce a program to curtail residential solid fuel heating during periods of air stagnation. Sale and installation of uncertified wood stoves are prohibited. When a house is sold, all used, uncertified solid fuel burning devices, other than cookstoves, in or on the property must be removed and destroyed. DEQ's Heat Smart Program Exitis available for those buying or selling woodstoves. Solid fuel burning devices used in Oregon must meet emission performance standards established under ORS 468A.465 (Certification requirements for new solid fuel burning devices)Exit and by ensuring compliance with ORS 468A.460 (Policy)Exit to 468A.515 (Residential solid fuel heating curtailment program requirements).Exit Oregon also provides a State tax credit for high efficiency wood and pellet stoves.Exit
The Washington Department of Ecology provides informationExit about burn bans, which wood burning devices are legal in Washington, why wood smoke is harmful to health, and how to reduce the smoke from your wood burning device. They have established wood stove emission performance standardsExit that in some respects are more stringent than EPA’s 2015 NSPS. In addition, the state assesses a $30 feeExit on the sale of every wood-burning device to fund education and enforcement of wood burning device rules.
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources' Model OrdinanceExit- The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources has issued a model ordinance for municipalities to use for regulating outdoor burning, open burning and burning of refuse. The model ordinance includes language for restrictions or bans on outdoor wood-fired boilers.
Model Rules and Codes
- NESCAUM Model RuleExit - model rule that State and local agencies can use to regulate hydronic heater emissions.
- Examples of Outdoor Furnace CodesExit - provides samples of local codes for municipalities, including information like setback restrictions, stack locations, and restrictions on types of fuel.
Community and Local Agency Action - Laws and Ordinances
Certain jurisdictions have established legal requirements to reduce wood smoke. For example, some communities have restrictions on installing wood-burning appliances in new construction. The most common and least restrictive action is to limit use at those times when air quality is threatened. The appropriate agency issues an alert, similar to the widespread Ozone Action Day alerts.
Go to Regulations.gov to search for EPA regulations and related documents.
Bay Area Air Quality Management District (San Francisco), CAExit- When the district issues a “Winter Spare the Air Alert,” it is illegal to burn wood. Effective November 1, 2016, new building construction may no longer include the installation of wood-burning devices, including fireplaces, EPA certified wood stoves or inserts, or pellet-fueled devices.
Laguna Beach CA, city ordinancesExit - Any “major remodel” to a single-family residence requires retrofit of existing wood-burning fireplaces to comply with U.S. EPA Phase II emission limits by using a qualified retrofit insert, converting the existing wood-burning fireplace to gas-only use or other approved device.
Puget Sound, WAExit (Kitsap, King, Pierce, and Snohomish counties) - Air-quality burn bans temporarily restrict some or all indoor and outdoor burning, usually called when weather conditions are cold and still. The Puget Sound Clean Air Agency uses current and forecasted conditions to decide when a burn banExit is needed.
Puget Sound agency regulations specify limits on visibility and opacityExit, making it illegal to “smoke out” neighbors. The 2015 Wood Stove RuleExit in the Tacoma-Pierce County Smoke Reduction Zone requires residents to remove, or render inoperable, any uncertified wood stove (most are more than 25 years old) by September 30, 2015.
San Joaquin Valley APCD, CA Exit- Rule 4901 - Existing wood stoves must be replaced with an EPA certified wood stove when a home is sold. Only pellet stoves, gas stoves, and EPA-certified wood stoves can be sold. Wood-burning limited on days when air pollution approaches unhealthy levels. Limits on the number of wood stoves or fireplaces that can be installed in new residential units. Wood-burning curtailment is required on days when air pollution approaches unhealthy levels (Level 1 & 2).
Santa Clara County and The City of Palo Alto, CAExit - Burn bans: Stage 1, use only certified stoves; Stage 2, use wood stove only if it's the primary heat source. The installation of new wood-burning stoves or fireplaces is banned.
Southwest Clean Air Agency, WAExit (Clark, Cowlitz, Lewis, Skamania and Wahkiakum counties) - During periods of stagnant air or temperature inversions, the SWCAA may issue burn bans.Exit A Stage 1 Burn Ban prohibits the use of all fireplaces and uncertified wood stoves and inserts. Uncertified units are typically older than 1990 and lack a certification label on the back of the unit. All outdoor burning is also prohibited. A Stage 2 Burn Ban prohibits all wood heating, including certified units. All outdoor burning is also prohibited.
Yolo-Solano AQMD Exithas initiated "Don't Light Tonight," a voluntary program that encourages residents not to use wood stoves and fireplaces when air pollution approaches unhealthy levels. The district also encourages cleaner burning techniques and switching to cleaner burning technology.
EPA Region 10 (Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington, and 271 Native Tribes) - The Federal Air Rules for Reservations (FARR) apply within exterior boundaries of 39 Indian Reservations in Idaho, Oregon and Washington to ensure that reservation residents have air-quality protection similar to that outside reservations. During an air stagnation advisory or alert, EPA R10 will request air-pollution sources to take voluntary actions to reduce their emissions. People should not use wood stoves or fireplaces unless they provide their only source of heat. Except for cultural and traditional fires, open burning is banned during an air stagnation advisory, alert, warning, or emergency.
Area Source Rule for Small Industrial, Commercial or Institutional Boilers
- Fast Facts: Area Source Boiler Requirements (PDF) (1 pg, 65K), March 2013
- Rule for Subpart DDDDD - National Emission Standards for Major Sources: Industrial/Commercial/Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters and Subpart JJJJJJ - National Emission Standards for Area Sources: Industrial/Commercial/Institutional Boilers
- Boiler Regulation Navigation Interactive Tool to Determine 6J Requirements, Oct 2014
- Area Source Boiler Rule Videos:Exit APTI-Learn on You-Tube, Nov 2013