This handbook provides a general summary of current avoidance, minimization, compensatory mitigation, and restoration strategies that may help address physical damage resulting from:
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- direct adverse impacts to coral reefs (e.g., dredging, placement of fill, vessel groundings, or accidental discharges like oil spills), and
- indirect adverse impacts to coral reefs (e.g., beach nourishment, sedimentation from poor land use practices, sedimentation from dredging or vessel movement, or storm water contaminants).