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Heat Islands

Heat Island Community Actions Database

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State Locality Mechanism Mitigation Strategy Link Title & Description Status
Arizona Phoenix, Mesa Outreach and Education Program; Demonstration Project; Urban Forestry Project; Climate Action Plan Trees and Vegetation Nature's Cooling Systems Project Beginning in 2017, Nature’s Cooling Systems launched three neighborhood pilot projects to develop heat action plans that reflect local knowledge. The plans outline neighborhood-specific solutions to combat the effects of extreme heat. A series of workshops developed awareness, social capital, agency for under-represented populations, and identified appropriate interventions. Solutions include: creating cooler pedestrian routes, adding shade structures at bus stops, and developing a heat safety training program. Nature's Cooling Systems is led by the Nature Conservancy Arizona Chapter, the Maricopa County Department of Public Health, Arizona State University, the Central Arizona Conservation Alliance, Phoenix Revitalization Corporation, RailMesa, and Puente Movement. It is funded by the Vitalyst Health Foundation. Active
Arizona Phoenix Demonstration Project Trees and Vegetation Taylor Mall The Taylor Mall redevelopment, completed in 2012, was a joint project between the City of Phoenix and Arizona State University that used low impact development practices to increase retention and minimize stormwater runoff. Additionally, the project used permeable pavers for on-street parking spaces and sidewalks, and added permeable recycled-glass paving to bus stops. Completed
Arizona Phoenix Green Building Program and Standards; Tree and Landscape Ordinance; Building Code; Resolution; Zoning Code Trees and Vegetation Green Walking Districts As part of the Reinvent PHX project, the city adopted the Walkable Urban Code in 2015, which regulates development around light rail stations in five Transit-Oriented Districts. Building designs are expected to provide a minimum of 75% shade on sidewalks to reduce the heat island effect, increase walkability, and create a more vibrant transit and pedestrian environment. Active
Arizona Phoenix Green Building Program and Standards; Building Code Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Initiative The implementation of the Phoenix Cool Roofs Initiative in 2012 further supported the goals of the city's Green Construction Code. The initiative coated more than 71,000 square feet of public roof tops with reflective materials. Implementation of cool roofs reduced building carbon emissions by an average of nearly 28 metric tons per year. Policy now dictates that all newly designed and renovated city buildings must include cool roof coatings. Active
Arizona Phoenix Comprehensive Plan and Design Guidelines Trees and Vegetation Tree and Shade Master Plan Adopted by City Council in 2010, the Tree and Shade Master Plan is a product of the Tree and Shade Task Force. The multi-departmental Task Force evaluated the causes of Phoenix's declining urban forest and identified regulatory hurdles that prevent the construction of shade structures over public sidewalks. The goals of the Plan include creating a healthier, more livable, and prosperous city through strategic investment in the care and maintenance of the urban forest and engineered shade. Active
Arizona Phoenix Research; Outreach and Education Program Cool Roofs; Cool Pavements ASU SMART Arizona State University Sustainable Materials and Renewable Technologies Program – The Arizona State University Sustainable Materials and Renewable Technologies (SMART) Program is a trans-disciplinary group of researchers, industries and governmental agencies from around the globe working in partnership to develop the next generation of urban materials and advanced biological and solar technologies. SMART researchers are developing these materials that aid in the mitigation of the urban heat island, reduce energy demand for mechanical cooling, and incorporate feedstocks diverted from waste streams in an effort to support urbanization in a more sustainable manner. Active
Arizona Tucson Demonstration Project Cool Roofs; Trees and Vegetation; Cool Pavements Cool Retrofit – Thomas O. Price Service Center City of Tucson's Administration Building – A demonstration project for the City of Tucson documented how a cool roof reduced temperatures inside and on the roof of the building and saved more than 400 million Btu annually in energy. A white elastomeric coating was installed over a 28,000-square-foot (2,600 m2), unshaded metal roof on one of the city's administration buildings. Following the installation, energy savings were calculated at 50 to 65% of the building's cooling energy―an avoided energy cost of nearly $4,000 annually. In addition to measuring the effects of adding a cool roof, the project will also investigate cooler paving materials and more trees and vegetation in the parking lots surrounding the building. Completed
Arizona Tucson Urban Forestry Program Trees and Vegetation Trees for Tucson Urban Forestry Program – Trees for Tucson began in 1989 as a program of Tucson Clean & Beautiful to encourage and facilitate tree planting in the Tucson metropolitan area using desert-adapted trees. The program continues to provide multiple benefits to the city, including higher energy efficiency, reductions in carbon and air pollutant emissions, improved stormwater management, wildlife habitats, and soil conservation. Nearly 70,000 trees have been distributed through the program since 1993. Active
Arizona Tempe Demonstration Project Cool Pavements ASU PowerParasol ASU Power Parasol – In December 2011, Arizona State University completed installation of a 5.25-acre solar “Power Parasol,” which provides shade for 800 parking spaces on ASU’s Tempe Campus and generates power. Completed
California Berkeley Climate Action Plan Cool Roofs City of Berkeley Climate Action Plan (PDF) Cool Roofs – As part of the city's Climate Action Plan, Berkeley will consider requiring the installation of a cool roof anytime a commercial building is built or re-roofed. Cool roofs can achieve a solar reflectance of 70–80%, compared to 10–20% for a typical roof. Active
California Chula Vista Building Standard / Energy Code; Green Building Program and Standards; Tree and Landscape Ordinance; Demonstration Project Cool Roofs; Trees and Vegetation; Cool Pavements Climate Change Working Group – Climate Action Planning
2013 Progress Report
Climate Adaptation Strategies – Chula Vista identified 11 climate adaptation strategies, three of which directly address urban heat islands: the installation of cooler paving products, cooler roofing materials, and the incorporation of more shade trees. The city is sponsoring a demonstration project that will evaluate multiple reflective pavement technologies and develop implementation options based on these results. All new residential buildings in Climate Zone 10 are required to have cool roofs. After new, more stringent California building standards come into effect, the city will evaluate amendments to their cool roof policy. Additionally, it is developing a policy to require all municipal improvement projects and private parking lot development projects to incorporate a certain percentage of shade trees based on the development size. Active
California Culver City Demonstration Project Cool Roofs Culver City Cool Roof Project Culver City Cool Roof Project – A cool roof project in Culver City, which took advantage of Los Angeles’ cool roof rebates, installed cool roofs at city buildings including the police department. Completed
California Davis Tree and Landscape Ordinance Trees and Vegetation Chapter 37 of the City of Davis Municipal Code Davis Landscaping Ordinance – Davis requires that 50% of the paved parking lot surface of any building must be shaded with tree canopies within 15 years of acquisition of a building permit. Specific guidelines for the development of the canopies are outlined by the city. Only trees from the city's list may be used as parking lot shade trees unless otherwise approved by the city's arborist. It is recommended that the genera of trees be varied throughout the parking lot. Trees will receive 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% shading credit based on their location relative to paved surfaces. Active
California Los Angeles Urban Forestry Program Trees and Vegetation Million Trees LA Million Trees LA – This cooperative effort between the City of Los Angeles, community groups, businesses, and individuals aims to plant and provide long-term stewardship of one million trees planted throughout Los Angeles. Residents interested in free trees can contact the program, which also provides tutorials and information on planting trees. Individuals and groups can volunteer to help with community tree plantings. Active
California Los Angeles Building Standard Cool Roofs L.A. Cool Roofs Building Code L.A. Cool Roofs Building Code – The Los Angeles City Council voted unanimously to require "cool roofs" for all new and refurbished homes, becoming the first major U.S. city to do so. The cool roof mandate will not cost homeowners additional money because of expanded incentives. Active
California Los Angeles Research Trees and Vegetation; Cool Roofs; Cool Pavements Los Angeles Urban Cooling Collaborative The Los Angeles Urban Cooling Collaborative (LAUCC) is a multi-disciplinary, national partnership of universities, nonprofit organizations, community groups and government agencies focused on designing data-driven, dynamic, inclusive approaches for cooling urban areas using strategies including trees, reflective surfaces, behavior change and well-crafted policy. LAUCC's goal is to reduce the risk that extreme heat poses to public health in vulnerable communities. LAUCC's research partners represent many entities, including TreePeople, Climate Resolve, Global Cool Cities Alliance, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, UCLA Center for Public Health and Disasters, California State University Northridge Departments of Anthropology and Geography, Arizona State University Urban Climate Research Center, and Kent State University. Active
California Martinez Building Standard / Energy Code; Green Building Program and Standards; Tree and Landscape Ordinance Cool Roofs; Trees and Vegetation City of Martinez Climate Action Plan Urban Heat Islands – Martinez is addressing the issue of urban heat islands in its climate action plan. The city aims to reduce the heat island effect through targeted upgrades of existing buildings and paved areas; adoption of new building standards, including the new cool roof standard contained in California’s Title 24 Energy Standards; tree planting; and new requirements for shading in new parking lots and other large paved areas. Active
California Menlo Park Climate Action Plan Trees and Vegetation City of Menlo Park Climate Action Plan Plant Trees – In Menlo Park's Climate Action Plan the city has set a goal to plant 100 new trees per year. Properly planted trees will reflect sunlight and shade buildings, mitigating the urban heat island effect. The city also has a Heritage Tree Program and Street Tree Reforestation Project and maintains an arborist to provide tree management. The city also installed cool roofs on a portion of municipally owned buildings. Active
California Merced Demonstration Project Cool Pavements San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District: Urban Heat Island Mitigation (PDF) Light Pavement – UC Merced installed a new parking lot that uses light pavement. Gravel aggregate was used for car parking spaces, which reduces heat absorption because it is a more reflective surface. Additionally, it is more permeable than asphalt, which reduces stormwater runoff. Completed
California Sacramento Air Quality Requirement; Urban Forestry Program Trees and Vegetation Trees and Air Quality
Strategic Tree Planting in Sacramento (PDF)
Urban Forests for Clean Air – In 2006, the Sacramento region secured a large Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program grant to support integration of urban forestry in its State Implementation Plan. The project, known as the Urban Forests for Clean Air demonstration project, involves the Sacramento Tree Foundation, the USDA Forest Service, the Sacramento Area Council of Governments and the Sacramento, El Dorado, and Placer and Feather River Air Districts. The project includes three phases: 1) initial estimates of the effects of the urban forest on air quality; 2) development of improved models to analyze these impacts; and 3) a final report on the findings. Under the first phase, the Forest Service's Center for Urban Forest Research estimated the impacts of trees on air quality using existing models and statistical analyses. That analysis predicted that one million additional trees could lower emissions of NOx by almost a quarter ton per day and particulate matter by over one ton per day. If trees that emit low levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were chosen, ground-level ozone could also be reduced by 1.5 tons daily. The long-term goal for the project is to develop the technical support for a SIP revision that includes large-scale, urban tree planting as a ground-level ozone reduction control strategy for the Sacramento region. Active
California Sacramento Demonstration Project Cool Pavements Pervious Concrete Pavements Permeable Parking Lot – The Sacramento Cool Communities Program was a partner in a project to install a pervious concrete parking lot at Bannister Park in Fair Oaks in 2001 to enhance stormwater management and to reduce the urban heat island effect. This parking lot was one of the first in the state to use this type of paving. Pervious concrete helps water infiltrate the soil by capturing rainwater in a network of voids and allowing it to percolate into the underlying soil. Pervious concrete can help reduce or eliminate the need for traditional stormwater management systems such as retention ponds and sewer tie-ins. Completed
California Sacramento Incentive; Urban Forestry Program Trees and Vegetation Rebates – Shade Trees Sacramento Shade – Since 1990, the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) is partnering with the Sacramento Tree Foundation to provide more than 350,000 free shade trees to residents in the Sacramento area. This program encourages residents to strategically plant vegetation around their homes to reduce energy consumption. Homes with an eastern, western, or southern exposure that heats up during the summer are eligible for this program. SMUD provides trees between four and seven feet tall (1.2–2.2 meters), as well as stakes, ties, fertilizer, tree delivery, and expert advice on tree selection and planting techniques free of charge. Homeowners must agree to plant and care for the trees. Active
California Sacramento Incentive Cool Roofs Rebates – Residential Cool Roofs

Cool Roof Rebate Program – The Sacramento Municipal Utility District offers rebates to residential customers who use cool roofing technologies. The utility offers a 30-cent-per-square-foot rebate to customers who own single-family, multi-family, or mobile homes with flat roofs. The rebate for sloped roofs is 10 or 20 cents per square foot, depending on the reflectivity and/or emissivity of the product used. Under this program, a single family could earn a $300 rebate (or more) for incorporating a cool roof, and save an estimated $50 per year on their annual cooling bill.

Active
California Sacramento Tree and Landscape Ordinance Trees and Vegetation Section 17.612.040 Tree Shading Requirements for Parking Lots Sacramento Parking Lot Shading Ordinance – Since 1983, an ordinance in Sacramento's zoning code has required that enough trees be planted to shade 50% of new, or significantly altered, parking lots after 15 years of tree growth. A 2001 study found that the lots were only achieving about 25% shading because sometimes shade was double-counted, trees did not grow to their expected size under conditions of the lot, or trees were not adequately dispersed. Based on these findings, Sacramento modified its code in 2003 to improve coverage. Active
California San Diego Climate Action Plan Trees and Vegetation Executive Summary City of San Diego Climate Protection Action Plan (PDF) San Diego Climate Protection Action Plan – San Diego identified several steps to help mitigate the urban heat island effect. These steps are included in the city's Climate Protection Action Plan and are as follows: develop and adopt an urban heat island mitigation policy; support the Community Forest Advisory Board and Community Forest Initiative, which includes planting 5,000 shade trees per year on public property for twenty years; develop a public tree protection policy; and annually review and revise existing policies that are related to tree planting, water reclamation, and open space preservation. Active
California San Diego Demonstration Project Green Roof San Diego State Student Center Green Roof San Diego State University Green Roof – A new San Diego State University student center was outfitted with plant species that are well-suited to San Diego’s climate, as well as three large 50,000 gallon tanks that will capture and reuse stormwater runoff. The roof is 1,382 square feet, and will capture stormwater runoff that will be directed to three large 50,000 gallon tanks resting below the inner courtyard at ground level. Completed
California San Francisco Research; Outreach and Education Program Heat Vulnerability Index San Francisco's Climate and Health Program (PDF) Heat Vulnerability Spatial Index – The San Francisco Department of Public Health, in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control, has developed a Heat Vulnerability Spatial Index. San Francisco displayed vulnerabilities during the 2006 heat wave. The Heat Vulnerability Spatial Index takes into account social vulnerability, built environmental attributes, and land surface temperature. It shows heat vulnerability by neighborhood, and will allow for a comprehensive citywide strategic plan for extreme heat events. Active
California San Joaquin Valley Research Cool Roofs; Cool Pavements Providence Engineering Study Evaluation of Innovative Ozone Mitigation Strategies – The San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (APCD) awarded Central California Ozone Study (CCOS) funds to Providence Engineering to evaluate urban heat island mitigation for air quality impact. Providence Engineering used the Mitigation Impact Screening Tool developed by the U.S. EPA to simulate the atmospheric effects of citywide pavement and roofing albedo changes for San Francisco, Sacramento, and Fresno. Providence Engineering also calculated the cost-benefit ratio of these urban-scale changes using cost data for various construction materials. Completed
California San Jose Green Building Program and Standards Trees and Vegetation Green Building Policies San Jose Green Building Policy – San Jose includes landscape design for heat island mitigation as one of the goals of its Green Building Policy, adopted in 2001. The policy applies to planning, design, construction, management, renovation, operations, and demolition of facilities that are larger than 10,000 square feet and constructed, owned, managed, or financed by the city. Active
California Statewide Building Code Cool Roofs Title 24, Part 6
2013 Updates
2008 Updates
California Code of Regulations: California's Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential and Nonresidential Buildings – In response to electrical power shortages, the state of California added cool roofs as an energy efficiency option to its building energy code (Title 24) in 2001. The code defines a cool roof as having a minimum solar reflectance of 70% and minimum thermal emittance of 75%, unless it is concrete or clay tile, in which case it can have a minimum solar reflectance of 40%. This 40% rating incorporates new cool-colored residential products into the standard. In 2005, these cool roof provisions became mandatory requirements for all new non-residential construction and re-roofing projects that involve more than 2,000 square feet (180 m2) or 50% replacement. The code allows owners to meet these requirements in a variety of ways. California updated Title 24, with revised standards finalized in 2008. Active
California Statewide Green Building Program and Standards Cool Pavements AB 296 Bill Analysis AB 296 (Skinner) – AB 296 requires that the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) develop and publish a Cool Pavements Handbook that would outline a standard specification for cool pavements. Caltrans is required to conduct one or more cool pavement pilot projects and to report the cost information and results of the pilot projects to the California Legislature, and to incorporate references to the handbook in its Construction Manual. Caltrans is encouraged to work with other state agencies in California, and authorized to enter into an agreement with federal agencies such as EPA, or the Department of Energy, for development of the handbook. The Building Standards Commission are required, for the next triennial code adopted after January 1, 2015, to consider incorporating the specifications from the Cool Pavements Handbook into the California Green Building Standards Code. Active
California Statewide Green Building Program and Standards Cool Roofs; Green Roofs; Trees and Vegetation; Cool Pavements CALGreen (PDF) California Green Building Standards Code – The 2010 California Green Building Standards Code, referred to as CALGreen, went into effect on January 1, 2011. The Code covers residential and commercial buildings, and provides 52 nonresidential mandatory measures and an additional 130 provisions for optional use. There are several voluntary measures that relate to heat island mitigation, including shading, cool pavement, and cool roof technologies. Active
California Statewide Incentive Trees and Vegetation Urban Greening Grants Program Urban Greening Grants – This program provides financial assistance to urban greening plans and projects in California. Up to $20 million of funds were available in Fiscal Year 2011/12. For a plan or project to be selected, it must meet certain requirements and go through a competitive selection process. Active
California Statewide Outreach and Education Program Cool Roofs; Green Roofs; Trees and Vegetation; Cool Pavements Climate Action for Health (PDF) Integrating Public Health into Climate Action Planning – The California Department of Public Health has developed a guide to how health and climate change are related. The guide identifies strategies to reduce the urban heat island effect, a consequence of climate change. The strategies include developing well-vegetated urban parks, exploring the role of landscaping and green roofs, planting urban forests, and using light-colored building and pavement materials. Active
California Statewide Outreach and Education Program Trees and Vegetation California Adaptation Planning Guide (PDF) PHSE 4: Develop an urban heat island reduction program that includes an urban forest program or plan – The California Emergency Management Agency and the California Natural Resources Agency have created a guide for local governments to address the consequences of climate change. The guide includes a Public Health, Socioeconomic, and Equity Impacts (PHSE) strategy to address the urban heat island effect. The strategy includes recommendations such as tree planting and long-term maintenance through urban forest programs, and using cool roofs and pavements. Active
California Statewide Urban Forestry Program; Demonstration Project Green Roofs; Trees and Vegetation California Urban and Community Forestry California Urban Forestry Program – This program is the lead for the development of sustainable urban and community forests in California. It provides information, education and assistance to local governments, nonprofits, private companies, and the general public that help to advance urban forestry initiatives. Through the program, the state plants an average of 10,000 to 20,000 trees a year. Local governments and nonprofits can apply for grants from the program; eligible projects include non-traditional urban forestry initiatives such as green roofs. Active
California Statewide/Alameda County Research; Outreach and Education Program Heat Vulnerability Index Public Health Vulnerabilities to Climate Change and Mapping Risk (PDF) Vulnerabilities to Heat – The California Department of Public Health looked at individual communities' vulnerability to heat waves by identifying indicators of risk. These indicators include: high proportions of elderly population, socially isolated populations, children, outdoor workers, the poor, the chronically ill, and the medically underserved. Using these indicators, heat index values were developed in Alameda County using census tracts: 50 represents the maximum vulnerability, -20 represents the minimum vulnerability, and -3.2 is the mean. Completed
California Visalia Tree and Landscape Ordinance Trees and Vegetation City of Visalia Street Tree Ordinance – Visalia requires trees along main roadways and medians and has tree planting requirements on residential and commercial development streets. Active
California Windsor Green Building Program and Standards Cool Roofs Green Building Ordinance (PDF) Green Building Ordinance – The Green Building Ordinance in Windsor applies to all new residential and commercial construction projects as well as remodels that consist of at least 75% reconstruction of total building/residency. The ordinance states that buildings must follow “green building standards,” which include the use of certified sustainable wood products and energy efficient construction designs, as well as the incorporation of shade trees and cool reflective or green roofs. Active
Colorado Fort Collins Green Building Standard Cool Pavements Urban Drainage and Flood Control District Manual Vol. 3 Chapter 3 – Fort Collins updated its stormwater management policy in February 2013 that requires at least 25% of newly added pavement areas implement permeable pavement technology. Active
Connecticut New Haven Outreach and Education Trees and Vegetation New Haven Urban Resources Initiative New Haven Urban Resource Initiative – The Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection has awarded $30,000 to New Haven’s Urban Forestry Initiative to improve outreach strategies and increase citizen involvement in urban forestry programs that enhance aesthetics and reduce cooling costs.  
District of Columbia Washington Comprehensive Plan and Design Guidelines; Air Quality Requirement Trees and Vegetation Plan to Improve Air Quality in the Washington, DC-MD-VA Region (PDF) State Implementation Plan – The Washington D.C. region's State Implementation Plan includes a Regional Canopy Management Plan as a ground-level ozone reduction strategy. The plan involves working with local governments to establish goals for increasing tree canopy coverage and decreasing ground-level ozone pollution. Active
District of Columbia Washington Demonstration Project Green Roofs Court 5 Green Roof (PDF) USDA South Building Court 5 Green Roof – This 3,500-square-foot green roof followed the installation of a 500-gallon cistern that catches runoff from an adjacent roof and provides irrigation for the new green roof. The green roof reduces the urban heat island effect, is more aesthetically pleasing than conventional roofs, and manages stormwater runoff that is entering local waterways and the Chesapeake Bay. Completed
District of Columbia Washington Incentive Green Roofs Green Roofs D.C.'s Unified Green Roof Rebate Program – The program provides base funding of $7 per square foot for a green roof. Additional funding can be provided for features that add to environmental goals. Green roofs offer numerous benefits, including reduction of the heat island effect and improved stormwater management. The program is administered by the Anacostia Watershed Society for the District Department of the Environment (DDOE). It helped the DDOE develop a Green Roof Toolkit that assists District building owners with making decisions on designing and installing green roofs. Active
District of Columbia Washington Urban Forestry Program Trees and Vegetation District Urban Forestry Program
D.C. Tree Planting Underway
Sustainable DC Plan: Goal 2, Action 2.1
Urban Forestry Program – From November 2012 to May 2013, the D.C. Department of Transportation's Urban Forestry Administration planted 6,400 trees across the city as part of a $1.8 million program. Benefits include stormwater reduction, improved air quality, and lower temperatures. The District of Columbia Grove is part of The American Grove, a national online community created to engage and encourage citizens to plant trees, share stories and experiences, and protect the urban tree canopy. Additionally, the City aims to plant 8,600 new trees per year through 2032. Completed
District of Columbia Washington Demonstration Project Trees and Vegetation ACTrees Community Groves Grants ACTrees Community Groves Grants – The Alliance for Community Trees, based in D.C. announced in 2014 that 12 U.S. communities received grants to plant, maintain, and harvest fruit and nut trees. Completed
District of Columbia Washington Incentive Trees and Vegetation; Cool Pavements RiverSmart Communities/Homes Program RiverSmart Communities Program – The RiverSmart Communities program in D.C. rebates up to 60% of the cost of a low-impact development project. Examples of low-impact practices include vegetated swales and dry wells to manage stormwater. The RiverSmart Homes Program offers up to $1600 for retrofits to homes that reduces stormwater runoff, such as tree planting, rain barrels, and pervious pavement. Active
District of Columbia Washington Comprehensive Plan and Design Guidelines Trees and Vegetation; Cool Pavements; Cool Roofs DC 2013 Updated Green Construction Codes Green Construction Codes – On March 28, 2014, D.C. passed the 2013 DC Construction Codes, which include compliance with the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC), cool roof requirements for private buildings, and a requirement that roofs either have a minimum Solar Reflectance Index rating of 78 or meet ENERGY STAR standards. Active
District of Columbia Washington Demonstration Project Trees and Vegetation; Cool Roofs Smart Roof Program Smart Roof Program for Energy Conservation – The D.C. Smart Roof Program deploys energy performance retrofits to city-owned buildings. The program aims to add 10 megawatts of solar PV capacity, 25 solar thermal projects, 50,000 square feet of green roofs, 300,000 feet of white roofs, daylighting in public schools, stormwater retention, carbon footprint reductions through landfill diversions, and a facility roof and energy database. Active
Florida Cocoa Beach Demonstration Project Cool Roofs Profile of Success (PDF) Our Savior's Elementary School – Our Savior's Elementary School in Cocoa Beach participated in a study conducted by the Florida Solar Energy Center. The school applied a simple white acrylic coating to its 12,000-square-foot roof. As a result, the reflectivity of the roof increased from 23% to 68%. Despite being an energy efficient building, adding the roof coating reduced annual energy consumption by approximately 13,000 kWh and average electricity power demand declined by 10%. Additionally, peak electric power demand fell by 35%. The roof coating saved the school approximately $850 per year and increased student and employee comfort. Completed
Florida Miami-Dade County Tree and Landscape Ordinance Trees and Vegetation See Chapter 18A Miami-Dade Landscaping Ordinance – In 1995, Miami-Dade County established landscaping ordinances for different classes of structures, which establish requirements for planted vegetation surrounding all buildings. For example, single-family residential units are required to have three trees (new construction only). Active
Florida Miami-Dade County Urban Forestry Program; Tree and Landscape Ordinance Trees and Vegetation Million TREES Miami Million TREES Miami (MTM) – MTM is a community-wide effort to plant one million trees by 2020. Miami-Dade County created the Street Tree Master Plan as a framework to design and implement street tree planting. This complements the city’s landscape and tree ordinances and will help reach the goal of 30% tree canopy cover in the city by 2020. The program will help mitigate the urban heat island effect in Miami and reduce the city’s energy consumption. Other co-benefits include reduced stormwater runoff and improved air quality. Active
Florida Orlando Tree and Landscape Ordinance Trees and Vegetation See Section 61.226 Street Trees City of Orlando Street Tree Code – Orlando specifies that trees must be planted along both sides of a street, with one tree every 50 to 100 feet (15–30 m). The selected trees must eventually be capable of reaching a minimum height of 40 feet (12 m) and a crown spread of 30 feet (9 m). Active
Florida Port St. Lucie Demonstration Project Cool Roofs Oxbow Eco-Center Oxbow Eco-Center – The Oxbow Eco-Center in Port St. Lucie is an environmental learning center that was constructed using green building technologies and is a model for sustainability. The building was painted with light-colored or reflective paints and built using recycled and recyclable materials. The floors were built from salvaged pine trees from the St. Johns River, and a cistern system was installed to catch rainwater to flush the toilets. Completed
Florida Statewide Building Code Cool Roofs Chapter 13 Energy Efficiency (PDF) 2007 Florida Building Code – Florida gives cool roofs credit in its building energy code. Buildings using a roof with 70% minimum solar reflectance and 75% minimum thermal emittance are eligible to reduce the amount of insulation needed to meet building efficiency standards, as long as a radiant barrier is not also installed in the roof plenum or attic space. Active
Florida Statewide Incentive Cool Roofs Florida Power and Light Energy Rebate Program (PDF) Florida Power and Light Cool Roof Incentive (Commercial Program) – Florida Power and Light offers rebates of 10 to 25 cents per square foot to customers who insulate their roof with spray polyurethane foam (over air conditioned space) and another 15 cents per square foot if a cool coating is applied. Florida Power and Light estimates that cool coating can reduce cooling costs by 5 to 10%. Active
Florida Statewide Incentive Cool Roofs Residential Building Envelope – Trade Ally Standards (PDF) Florida Building Code Cool Roof Credit (Residential Program) – Florida Power and Light offers customers a 10 cent per square foot rebate for reflective roofs (either metal or tile with 65% or 73% solar reflectance respectively). The program applies only to existing dwellings with whole house electric heating or air conditioning. This initiative is designed to encourage energy conservation. Active
Florida Tallahassee Incentive Cool Roofs Energy Efficiency Loans City of Tallahassee – Tallahassee offers loan programs for residential home or commercial upgrades to more energy efficient practices. One of these upgrades is for the installation of a reflective roof. The programs offer $500 to $20,000 for these loans, depending on the residents’ needs. The terms of the loan are for 5 years at 5% annual interest and a 1% processing fee, with no penalty for early payoff. There are no income requirements; residents only need to have 12 months of account history. Active
Georgia Atlanta Demonstration Project Cool Pavements Cool Pavements Atlanta Pervious Pavement Demonstration – A porous concrete parking lot was constructed in downtown Atlanta at the corner of Pryor and Memorial and was dedicated by the mayor of Atlanta on June 6, 2002. Completed
Georgia Atlanta Demonstration Project Green Roofs Frances Bunzl Administration Center Green Roof Frances Bunzl Administration Center Green Roof – The green roof on top of the High Museum of Art’s Frances Bunzl Administration Center was completed in April, 2008. It will help to mitigate the urban heat island effect, reduce energy consumption, and improve air quality in downtown Atlanta. The roof was financed partially through a Nonpoint Source Implementation Grant from U.S. EPA, which is awarded to projects that address non-point source pollution through strategies such as stormwater management. This modular green roof is able to retain about 70% of total rainfall, or 62,000 gallons of stormwater per year. The project also allowed the Savannah College of Art and Design to take part in the plant selection and to film a documentary on the module installation. Completed
Georgia Atlanta Outreach and Education Program Cool Roofs; Trees and Vegetation; Cool Pavements Cool Communities Cool Communities Program – Cool Communities is a nonprofit program in Atlanta aimed at improving urban environments and conserving energy by promoting the use of lighter, reflective roofing and paving materials as well as planting shade trees. Active
Georgia Atlanta Demonstration Project Trees and Vegetation Trees Atlanta Trees Atlanta Initiative – Trees Atlanta seeks to both promote and plant trees with both staff and volunteer support. Since 1985, the initiative has planted over 100,000 trees, taught information programs to youth and adults, and maintained existing tree canopies. Active
Georgia Columbus Urban Forestry Program Trees and Vegetation Columbus Heat Island Mitigation Program Spiderweb Project – The Spiderweb project is the first initiative of the Columbus Heat Island Mitigation Program. The project will convert an area of urban surfaces into a pleasant environment composed of seasonal vegetation and trees that will benefit the city beyond heat island mitigation. These benefits include improvements to the quality of air and water in the area. Active
Hawaii Honolulu Tree and Landscape Ordinance Trees and Vegetation See Section 21-9.60 (PDF) Chinatown Special District Land Use Ordinance – Honolulu's Park Dedication Ordinance contains landscaping requirements within the urban redevelopment area of Chinatown. Small-scaled interior landscaped courtyards and interior pedestrian walkways are encouraged as well as interior pedestrian walkways. The ordinance states "Street trees should be provided, as needed, to complement adjoining development and minimize the intrusion of towers on Chinatown street scenes. Tree species, spacing and size shall be in accordance with the City's tree planting standards or as approved by the director." Active
Hawaii Honolulu Tree and Landscape Ordinance Trees and Vegetation See Section 21-4.70 (PDF) Honolulu Parking Lot Shade Ordinance – The Honolulu Land Use Ordinance requires that parking lots within the city be landscaped or screened. Depending on the size of the parking lot, a tree canopy may also be required. Active
Illinois Chicago Building Code Cool Roofs Chicago Energy Conservation Code Introduction Chicago Energy Conservation Code – Chicago's energy code contains a section on "Urban Heat Island Provisions," which sets out requirements for both solar reflectance and emissivity for low and medium sloped roofs. As of December 31, 2008, contractors must use roofing products that meet or exceed the minimum criteria to qualify for an ENERGY STAR label. Active
Illinois Chicago Demonstration Project; Procurement Green Roofs; Trees and Vegetation; Cool Pavements Green Alleys Chicago Green Alleys – After the success of a demonstration project using permeable pavement, Chicago began a Green Alley initiative to use permeable pavement any time it needs to repave an alley. Through 2010, more than 100 Green Alleys had been installed and ultimately, almost 2,000 miles of alleyways will be made permeable. The Green Alley Handbook notes that "if all the alleys had a light, reflective surface (high albedo) that reflected heat energy, [they would stay] cool on hot days and thereby reducing the "urban heat island effect." The handbook also mentions the heat island reduction benefits of shade trees and green roofs. Completed
Illinois Chicago Demonstration Project Cool Pavements Green Alleys Handbook (PDF)
Permeable Alleys
Cool Paving Demonstration Alley – In the fall of 2001, the Chicago Department of Environment reconstructed an asphalt alley using a permeable system. Using a porous gravel structure the city was able to eliminate formerly chronic flooding without using the sewer system, while reducing the heat island effect by eliminating dark, heat-absorbing surfaces. This paving can absorb three inches of rainfall per hour, allowing rainwater to soak into the ground and reducing polluted runoff and flooding. Completed
Illinois Chicago Demonstration Project Green Roofs City Hall Rooftop Garden Chicago's City Hall – Chicago installed a green roof on its city hall in 2000 that includes 20,000 plants, shrubs, grasses, vines, and trees. This 20,300-square-foot roof is about 100 degrees cooler than nearby roofs. The city has saved about $5,000 in energy costs annually, and savings may increase as energy prices fluctuate. In addition to assessing energy impacts, the green roof has been designed to test different types of rooftop garden systems, success rates of native and non-native vegetation, and reductions in stormwater runoff. This city hall green roof has helped to raise the visibility and increase public understanding of green roofs. Chicago's Department of Environment staff has frequently given presentations about the roof, which has won numerous awards. Completed
Illinois Chicago Incentive Cool Roofs; Green Roofs Green Roof & Cool Roof Grants Programs Chicago Roof Grants Programs – Chicago started a green roof grant program in 2005 for residential and commercial buildings and supported 20 green roof installation projects that first year; in 2006, it helped fund 40; in 2007, the city expanded the program to include cool roofs and provided about 55 $6,000 grants. Completed
Illinois Chicago Research; Demonstration Project; Building Code; Outreach and Education Program Cool Roofs; Green Roofs; Trees and Vegetation; Cool Pavements Chicago Department of Environment Chicago Urban Heat Island Mitigation Program – Chicago's Department of the Environment has been involved with reducing urban heat islands for several years. Some projects Chicago has conducted include constructing a porous pavement alley, revising the city's building code to require cool roofs and launching a green roof program. Active
Illinois Chicago Research; Outreach and Education Program; Incentive Green Roofs Chicago Sustainable Development Policy (PDF) Chicago Green Roof Program – Chicago's Department of the Environment has launched one of the strongest green roof efforts in the United States. Through this program the city has been constructing green roofs on public buildings, doing research to estimate impacts from green roofs, providing grants to encourage green roof installations (see entry on Chicago Green Roof and Cool Roof Grants Programs), and educating the public about green roofs in general. Active
Illinois Chicago Tree and Landscape Ordinance Trees and Vegetation Landscape Ordinance Chicago Landscape Ordinance – Chicago has a landscape ordinance that requires planting trees or shrubs on parkways and landscaping parking lots, loading docks, and other vehicular use areas, both within the sites themselves and to screen their perimeter. The ordinance applies to most new building construction, as well as repairs, remodeling, and enlargements of a particular size and cost. The Bureau of Forestry, which maintains the standards, must inspect and approve all parkway vegetation prior to planting. The Chicago Department of Zoning reviews all building and zoning permit applications to ensure compliance with the ordinance. Active
Illinois Chicago Urban Forestry Program; Tree and Landscape Ordinance Trees and Vegetation Landscaped Medians Chicago Landscaped Medians Program – Chicago has more than 65 miles of landscaped medians on arterial streets throughout the city. The Chicago Transportation Department plants trees and other vegetation in medians to reduce the urban heat island effect as well as to provide scenic landscaping. Active
Illinois Evanston Comprehensive Plan and Design Guidelines Cool Pavements Design Guidelines for Planned Developments (PDF) City of Evanston Design Guidelines for Planned Developments – Evanston includes permeable pavements in its assessment of green buildings. Active
Indiana Indianapolis Demonstration Project Green Roof WFYI Indianapolis Green Roof Project WFYI Indianapolis Green Roof – Indiana’s flagship Public Broadcasting Service and National Public Radio station installed one of Indianapolis’s largest green roofs. The green roof at WFYI is 6,000 square feet. Completed
Iowa Elkhorn Demonstration Project Green Roof Elkhorn Danish Museum Green Roof Project Elkhorn Danish Museum Green Roof – The Curatorial Center at the Museum of Danish America in Elk Horn installed a green roof using a $50,000 grant from the Iowa West Foundation. The roof is covered in prairie grasses, goldenrod, yellow cornflower, and other plants native to the area. Completed
Kansas Kansas City Research; Demonstration Project; Outreach and Education Program Trees and Vegetation; Cool Pavements Parking Lots to Parks Parking Lots to Parks Project – The Kansas City Sustainable Skylines Program developed the Parking Lots to Parks Project, which works to curb the urban heat island effect and reduce stormwater runoff through sustainable parking lot design in Kansas City. The project provides tools to assist communities with sustainable parking lot planning and in developing design standards. Active
Kansas Kansas City Urban Forestry Program; Demonstration Project; Tree and Landscape Ordinance; Outreach and Education Program; Air Quality Requirement Cool Roofs; Green Roofs; Trees and Vegetation; Cool Pavements Sustainable Skylines – Kansas Kansas City Sustainable Skylines Initiative – Sustainable Skylines is a locally led, EPA-supported, public-private partnership to reduce air emissions and promote sustainability in urban environments. Greater Kansas City was chosen as one of the first pilot communities to implement the Sustainable Skylines program. Projects in Kansas City include: an idling-reduction campaign, water conservation and strategic landscaping projects, converting parking lots to parks, solar demonstration projects, a community forum, and a diesel engine retrofits partnership. Active
Kansas Leawood Demonstration Project Cool Pavements Green Parking Lot Case Studies – I'Lan Park I'Lan Park Pervious Concrete Lot – This parking lot was constructed to examine how pervious pavements perform in the freeze/thaw cycles of the region. The pervious concrete allows stormwater to flow out of the parking lot when the aggregate and pervious concrete become inundated. This test project demonstrates that pervious pavement is a viable alternative for the storage and treatment of stormwater in this region. Completed
Kansas Lenexa Demonstration Project Cool Pavements Green Parking Lot Case Studies – Lenexa Trailhead Porous Asphalt Lot (PDF) Lenexa Trailhead Porous Asphalt Lot – This porous asphalt parking lot was constructed to serve as the trailhead to the Coon Creek Trail in Lenexa. The porous asphalt helps with stormwater management as the material allows water to filter through the asphalt structure and into a gravel storage bed before releasing slowly into the soil below. Completed
Kansas Lenexa Demonstration Project Trees and Vegetation; Cool Pavements Sustainable Success Stories – Applebee's Support Center Applebee's Support Center – The Applebee's Support Center incorporated a series of stormwater treatment features into its Lenexa site. These include terraced, vegetated swales in the parking lots followed by sediment basins, a surface sand filter and a wetland immediately downstream. This combination of features treats the pavement runoff near the source, allowing oils, salts and sediments to be cleansed through onsite natural systems. Completed
Kansas Olathe Demonstration Project Trees and Vegetation; Cool Pavements Pervious Concrete for the Oregon Trail Park (PDF) Oregon Trail Park Renovation – The Oregon Trail Park features a parking lot constructed with pervious concrete and gravel below the pavement. The pervious concrete allows the drainage to filter down into the pavement, slowing down, cooling and filtering the stormwater before discharging it into a nearby pond. The pond has been renovated into an extended wet-detention basin to also accommodate stormwater for 36 acres adjacent to the parking lot. Completed
Kentucky Fort Wright Outreach and Education Program; Demonstration Project Green Roofs Stormwater Management Handbook –Implementing Green Infrastructure in Northern Kentucky Communities (PDF)
Implementing Green Infrastructure in Northern Kentucky Communities (PDF)
Sanitation District No. 1’s Northern Kentucky Green Roof – Sanitation District No. 1 decided to incorporate a green roof in the expansion of its facilities to manage the stormwater of three additional counties. The green roof reduces the urban heat island effect and enhances stormwater management. The facility uses both a conventional roof and a green roof to monitor the storm water benefits of green roof approaches. The green roof is also tied to the district’s educational program and provides a regional example of innovative stormwater practices. Active
Kentucky Louisville Urban Forestry Program Trees and Vegetation Tree Advisory Commission Executive Order (PDF) Community of Trees – In spring 2007, the Louisville Mayor’s Office and Metro Parks organized a consortium of agencies and organizations to develop a comprehensive approach to trees in the community. The consortium’s goals include establishing regulatory oversight of tree planting and maintenance, gathering information related to current tree canopy, creating a master tree planting and maintenance plan, and conducting an outreach campaign to educate residents on the value of urban forestry. Active
Kentucky Louisville Urban Forestry Program Trees and Vegetation Tree Advisory Commission Louisville Metro Tree Advisory Commission – The commission aims to enhance the Louisville tree canopy by developing guidelines on placement of trees in public development projects, promoting the value of trees in the community, holding education events, and publishing informational reports. Active
Louisiana Baton Rouge Tree and Landscape Ordinance Trees and Vegetation Chapter 18 Landscape and Trees (PDF) Baton Rouge Landscape and Trees Ordinance – In 2007, the City of Baton Rouge strengthened its landscape ordinance, which requires tree planting on all new developments, excluding single-family residences. The ordinance requires two shade trees for every 5,000 square feet of site, and one shade tree per 600 square feet of street frontage. Parking lot requirements include one shade tree per 15 parking spaces for a lot with one to 25 spaces; one shade tree per 12 parking spaces for a lot with 25 to 100 spaces; and one shade tree per 10 parking spaces for a lot over 100 spaces. For example, a 10,000-square-foot site with 600 square feet of storefront and 150 parking spaces would require 20 shade trees (i.e., four for the square footage of the site, one for the store frontage, and 15 for the parking lot). Active
Louisiana Baton Rouge Urban Forestry Program Trees and Vegetation NeighborWoods NeighborWoods – NeighborWoods is a program initiated by Baton Rouge Green, a nonprofit urban forestry program in Baton Rouge that provides shade trees for roadway medians, parks, and schools. Each year Baton Rouge Green selects four environmentally underserved neighborhoods throughout the city in which to initiate urban tree planting. The organization provides information and technical assistance to local citizens to help them implement tree planting and maintenance programs in their neighborhoods. Active
Maryland Annapolis Incentive; Urban Forestry Program; Green Building Program and Standards; Tree and Landscape Ordinance; Resolution; Outreach and Education Program Trees and Vegetation See Chapter 17.14 Annapolis Energy Efficiency Resolution – In October 2006, Annapolis adopted a comprehensive energy efficiency resolution that included general goals and specific long-term targets for adopting a range of energy efficiency measures. One recommendation was to increase tree shading so that the city could sequester carbon dioxide, reduce the urban heat island effect, and lower ozone levels. In 2007, the city adopted a new tree protection ordinance as one step to protecting existing shade trees. This resolution also proposed green building goals, including adopting green building standards for public buildings, investigating incentives for green building construction, and developing an outreach and education program for the building community and government staff. The resolution also proposes increasing the urban forest canopy to 50% of the city’s land area by 2036. Active
Maryland Annapolis Tree and Landscape Ordinance Trees and Vegetation See Chapter 17.09 Annapolis Ordinance on Trees in Development Areas – Annapolis has explicitly recognized the environmental value of trees and acted to protect them during construction by adopting a tree protection ordinance that requires a survey of trees on a proposed development site and fences or other means to mark and protect designated trees during construction. The ordinance also prohibits certain activities, such as trenching or grading, within the drip line of trees unless specific precautions are followed. Active
Maryland Baltimore Incentive; Urban Forestry Program Trees and Vegetation The Growing Home Campaign (PDF)
A Stewardship Success Story (PDF)
Baltimore's Growing Home Campaign – Since 2006, Baltimore County's Growing Home Campaign has provided $10 coupons to homeowners toward the purchase of most trees at local nurseries. Each coupon represents $5 of public funds and $5 of retail funds. In order to validate their coupon, homeowners provide information including tree type and location planted, allowing the county to integrate the data with future tree canopy studies. The county began the program as an innovative way to increase tree canopy cover as part of its larger "Green Renaissance" forest conservation and sustainability plan. In the first two months of the program, 1,700 trees were planted. Active
Maryland Baltimore Comprehensive Plan and Design Guidelines Cool Roofs, Green Roofs City of Baltimore Climate Action Plan Baltimore Climate Action Plan – The action plan promotes cool and green roof technology, with the goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by nearly 7,000 metric tons, and achieving a 30% participation rate from commercial buildings and residential buildings, respectively, by 2020. Active
Maryland Montgomery Incentive Green Roofs; Trees and Vegetation; Cool Pavements Montgomery RainScapes Program Montgomery RainScapes Rewards Rebate Program – The program offers financial incentives to property owners who implement measures to reduce stormwater pollution. There are nine measures that individuals can apply for, five of which have a heat island mitigation focus: rain gardens, increased urban tree canopy, incorporation of permeable pavers, pavement removal, and green roof installation. Active
Maryland Takoma Park Tree and Landscape Ordinance Trees and Vegetation Takoma Park Tree Permit Program Takoma Park Trees and Vegetation Ordinance – The Takoma Park Ordinance provides protection to the urban forest by requiring tree impact assessments for paving activities, and permits to construct or develop land when trees would be affected. Active
Massachusetts Boston Building Standard / Energy Code; Green Building Program and Standards Cool Roofs; Green Roofs; Trees and Vegetation; Cool Pavements Boston Green Building Zoning Code Green Building Zoning Code – Boston is decreasing carbon emissions associated with energy use in privately owned and operated buildings by implementing a Green Building Zoning Code. The zoning code requires all major construction projects greater than 50,000 square feet to adhere to the U.S. Green Building Council’s LEED certification standards. Two of the points for this certification can be obtained by using urban heat island reduction strategies, one point coming from cool or green roofs and the other from non-roof strategies. Active
Massachusetts Boston Demonstration Project Green Roofs Macallen Building Macallen Building Green Roof – The design of Boston’s Macallen Building aimed to address concerns about air and noise pollution, water management problems, the heat island effect, and a lack of local green space. The design incorporates a large entrance area of pervious pavers, and two separate green roof areas, including an upper sloping roof and a recreational terrace. The building won LEED Gold in 2008 and the GreenRoofs Award of Excellence in 2009. Completed
Michigan Ann Arbor Urban Forestry Program Trees and Vegetation Ann Arbor Urban Forestry Plan Ann Arbor Urban Forestry Plan – Ann Arbor’s first comprehensive plan for managing the city’s urban forest has been given approval by the city council. The plan includes recommendations such as implementing proactive tree maintenance, developing street tree master plans, and implementing community outreach programs. Active
Michigan Dearborn Demonstration Project Green Roofs; Cool Pavements Ford Motor Company's River Rouge Plant Ford Motor Company's River Rouge Plant Green Roof and Porous Pavement – This 454,000-square-foot green roof will mitigate the urban heat island effect and provide many environmental benefits for the truck assembly plant, such as reducing stormwater runoff, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, improving energy efficiency, improving air quality, and restoring soil; it also helped the plant achieve a LEED gold certification for the facility. Completed
Michigan Detroit Demonstration Project Cool Pavements Detroit Metro Airport Terminal Expansion Slag Cement Detroit Airport Expansion – The Detroit Metro Airport used 720,000 square feet (67,000 m2) of slag cement in an airport terminal expansion project that began in 2004. In this region, the local aggregate is susceptible to alkali-silica reaction, whereas slag resists that form of corrosion better than plain cement and is easier to place in hot weather. This approach increased the life expectancy of the paved surfaces, as well as allowed for the use of a high-albedo product. Completed
Michigan Statewide Urban Forestry Program Trees and Vegetation Michigan Urban Forest Grant Announcement
Michigan Urban Forestry Projects (PDF)
Michigan Urban Forestry Grants – The Department of Natural Resources announced $92,039 in grants to 18 urban forestry projects throughout the state in December 2012. The program supports projects that help create and sustain local urban forestry programs, such as tree planting, community tree inventories, management plans and education and training projects which enhance and promote urban forestry in Michigan. Completed
Minnesota Minneapolis Demonstration Project Green Roofs Minneapolis Central Library Green Roof Minneapolis Central Library Green Roof – The 18,500-square-foot series of three green roofs on the Minneapolis Central Library helps mitigate stormwater runoff that enters the Mississippi River. The project also features a rainwater harvesting system for irrigation, including two 7,500-gallon cisterns and an automated drip irrigation system. Other co-benefits include increased longevity of the roof, better air quality, and reduced energy consumption. The green roof has helped the library cut its energy use by nearly a third. Completed
Minnesota Minneapolis Demonstration Project Green Roofs Target Center Arena Green Roof Target Center Arena Green Roof – The 113,000-square-foot green roof on the Target Center Arena was put in place to mitigate the urban heat island effect, address sewer overflow problems, and prevent drainage into the Mississippi River. The City Council took the leadership role in this difficult large-scale retrofit project. More than 30 species of vegetation are growing on the roof, including lupines that provide habitat for the endangered Karner blue butterfly. Completed
Minnesota St. Paul Demonstration Project Green Roofs; Cool Pavements St. Paul Fire Station Green Roof
Is Green Roof for St. Paul's New Fire Station Worth the Cost
Fire Department Station No.1 Green Roof and Porous Pavements – Fire Station No.1 received a 9,000-square-foot green roof on its parking garage in 2010. The green roof will help mitigate the urban heat island effect in St. Paul, reduce the city’s heating and cooling demands, and decrease stormwater management costs. There are 100 different types of native and low-maintenance plant species on the roof, a small pond, and a garden where firefighters grow their own vegetables. The project also includes porous pavements, and an underground cistern that collects rainwater to irrigate the green roof. Completed
Mississippi Starkville Outreach and Education Program; Demonstration Project Green Roofs Oktibbeha County Heritage Museum
Museum’s New Roof Designed to Help Community ‘Think Green’
Green Roof – Mississippi State University students and faculty constructed a green roof on a new pavilion at the Oktibbeha County Heritage Museum to reduce stormwater runoff and raise awareness on green solutions. The university also plans to install solar panels on the pavilion roof, put in pervious parking spaces, and enlarge the museum’s lawn. Active
Missouri Kansas City Demonstration Project Trees and Vegetation; Cool Pavements Jackson County Courthouse Jackson County Courthouse – The Jackson County Courthouse parking lot employs a variety of stormwater runoff reduction techniques, including the installation of bioswales. The new design reroutes roof drains from the terrace roof and new shelter underground to the bioswales. Flat curbs were also used, which allow water to flow from the perimeter of the lot into planting zones, reducing runoff. Completed
Missouri Kansas City Demonstration Project Trees and Vegetation; Cool Pavements Kansas City Vehicle Impound Facility (PDF) Vehicle Impound Facility – A large bioswale was added to this impoundment facility to infiltrate the stormwater runoff, since pervious pavement could not be used because of the high percentage of chemical sediment contamination released from impounded vehicles. Median landscaping and plantings around the building were also added to curb the heat island effect. Completed
Missouri Kansas City Demonstration Project Trees and Vegetation; Cool Pavements Anita B. Gorman Conservation Discovery Center Anita B. Gorman Conservation Discovery Center – Bioswale landscaping is used in the Anita B. Gorman Conservation Discovery Center parking lot in order to remove pollutants from street and parking lot runoff and lessen the need for year-round maintenance. Curb breaks allow water to enter the bioswales. The project provides reduction of stormwater impacts on the community and nearby Brush Creek. Completed
Missouri Kansas City Tree and Landscape Ordinance; Resolution; Zoning Code Trees and Vegetation; Cool Pavements Kansas City Parking Ordinance (PDF) Green Parking Ordinance – Kansas City’s proposed parking ordinance contains several innovative planning techniques aimed at reducing the amount of parking and properly filtrating stormwater from parking lots. The ordinance allows for less parking where appropriate and increases shared parking options, especially in downtown areas or along transit stops. The ordinance also sets landscaping requirements for parking lots and provides options for pervious pavements to enhance stormwater management. Active
Montana Butte Demonstration Project Trees and Vegetation Butte Tree Planting Butte Tree Planting Program – A $2 million, countywide tree planting project in Butte started in 2014 aims to establish species diversification, stabilize the soil, and prevent soil erosion on Butte Hill, the site of former copper mines. The project is paid for in part by the Butte Natural Resource Damage Council and partially by the county, and will continue for eight years. Active
Nebraska Omaha Demonstration Project Trees and Vegetation Green Streets Omaha Green Streets Initiative – The Green Streets Initiative seeks to enhance urban vegetation and tree canopies in order to realize a range of benefits, such as stormwater management and aesthetics. Active
New Jersey Elizabeth Urban Forestry Program; Outreach and Education Program Trees and Vegetation Groundwork Elizabeth Groundwork Elizabeth – Groundwork Elizabeth works to involve neighborhood residents in community revitalization projects, including tree planting at local schools and parks. The organization was instrumental in getting the city of Elizabeth involved in New Jersey's Cool Cities Initiative, which aims to plant trees primarily in the large cities of New Jersey with low tree coverage. Active
New Mexico Albuquerque Research; Urban Forestry Program Trees and Vegetation City of Albuquerque Municipal Forest Resource Analysis (PDF) Albuquerque Urban Forest Improvement Initiative – Albuquerque’s Urban Forest Improvement Initiative combines multiple efforts to tap the benefits of urban trees. In addition to pledging to plant 2,000 trees per year, the city has hired an urban forester to design and manage municipal trees and commissioned the USDA Forest Service Center for Urban Forest Research to develop a Municipal Forest Resource Analysis. Completed in August 2006, the analysis found that Albuquerque received a benefit of $1.31 for each dollar invested in city trees. Active
New Mexico Albuquerque Comprehensive Plan and Design Guidelines Green Roofs, Cool Roofs City of Albuquerque Climate Action Plan City of Albuquerque Climate Action Plan – Albuquerque’s climate action plan incorporates Urban Heat Island mitigation measures, such as green roofing, shading, reflective roofing, and stormwater management at parking lots. Active
New York Bronx, NYC Research; Demonstration Project Trees and Vegetation NYSERDA Environmental Justice Interagency Taskforce Action Agenda (PDF) Greening the Bronx – The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and New York City worked with horticulture students to undertake a borough-wide tree planting program. NYSERDA led research and the first half of the planting demonstration to identify species and site selection that would maximize the ability to decrease electricity needs in the borough. Completed
New York New York City Building Standard / Energy Code Cool Roofs NYC CoolRoofs NYC CoolRoofs – In 2008 New York City put into place a building code that requires most new buildings to have 75% of the roof area covered with a reflective, white coating, or to be ENERGY STAR rated as highly reflective. Starting from January 2012, existing buildings that replace or renovate 50% or more are also required to add reflective materials to their rooftop. The CoolRoofs program addresses roofs on buildings that were built before the mandated code took effect. To date 3,000 volunteers have coated 2.6 million square feet of rooftops throughout the city. This program helps save money, preserve roof structure and cooling equipment, reduce energy use, reduce carbon emissions, and combat the urban heat island effect. Active
New York New York City Research; Demonstration Project; Outreach and Education Program Green Roofs Green Roofs.com Projects – Earth Pledge Foundation Earth Pledge Foundation Green Roof Initiative – Earth Pledge, a nonprofit organization in New York City, runs a Green Roofs Initiative that supports the development of green, vegetated rooftops in urban areas to prevent stormwater runoff pollution, lower urban temperatures, and improve air quality. Active
New York New York City Tax Incentive Green Roofs Property Tax Abatement Provisions New York Property Tax Abatement Provision – New York City has amended its property tax abatement incentive for green roofs. The amendment expands the definition of a green roof, slightly increases the value of the tax abatement, and extends the application deadline by five years, to March 15, 2018. Active
New York New York City Tax Incentive Green Roofs New York City Green Infrastructure Grant New York City Green Infrastructure Grant – The New York City Department of Environmental Protection is encouraging community groups, nonprofits, and property owners to apply for $6 million in funding made available in 2014 for green infrastructure projects. Ideal projects would absorb rainwater to prevent sewer overflows into waterways. Active
New York New York City Outreach and Education Program Cool Roofs The Urban Forestry Project
Tree Plan for Saratoga Springs Taking Root
White Roof Project – The White Roof Project aims to increase white rooftop deployment in New York City using public outreach, data collection and policy advocacy, and engaging volunteers. Active
New York Saratoga Springs Urban Forestry Program Trees and Vegetation Urban Forest Project Urban Forest Project – Sustainable Saratoga, a nonprofit organization, has been partnering with the City of Saratoga Springs to organize a volunteer effort to inventory the city’s street and park trees. The inventory will be used to develop an Urban Forest Master Plan, which will guide development and cultivation of the city’s street trees. Active
New York Brooklyn Demonstration Project Green Roof Brooklyn Botanic Garden Green Roof Brooklyn Botanic Garden Green Roof – The revamped Brooklyn Botanic Garden unveiled an undulating green roof that will capture and reuse over 200,000 gallons of rainwater each year. Completed
New York The Bronx Research; Demonstration Project; Outreach and Education Program Cool Roofs; Green Roofs Sustainable South Bronx SmartRoofs Sustainable South Bronx – The nonprofit group Sustainable South Bronx has developed several goals for the green roof/cool roof demonstration project on top of its office building in Hunts Point. These goals include gathering research on local impacts, establishing a resource for the community, educating New Yorkers on the benefits of green roofs, and advocating sustainable building practices. The demonstration project has become a springboard for developing a local green and cool roof installation company, called SmartRoofs, which includes a job-training program for local residents and provides employment opportunities in the South Bronx area. Active
New York Statewide Urban Forestry Program Trees and Vegetation NYS DEC Urban Forestry Grant Announcement Urban Forestry Grants – Urban forestry grants totaling $994,878 were awarded to communities and organizations across New York, the Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) announces in November 2012. The New York State Urban and Community Forestry Program provides technical assistance to communities through local DEC Urban Foresters and ReLeaf volunteers. Financial assistance is available from the state through competitive cost-share grants. The grants were awarded to 66 cities, villages, towns, and nonprofits across the state. Active
North Carolina Raleigh Research Cool Pavements Permeable Pavement Research
Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavements
North Carolina State University Permeable Pavement Research – North Carolina State University has an active permeable pavement research program, as well as a specialized collaborative effort with the Interlocking Concrete Pavement Institute (ICPI) and the Low Impact Development Center on permeable interlocking concrete pavements. Active
North Carolina Charlotte Urban Forestry Program Trees and Vegetation Trees Charlotte Trees Charlotte Initiative – Trees Charlotte began as a public/private partnership aiming to plant 15,000 trees annually. Currently, the initiative seeks to increase urban canopy cover to 50% by 2050, which would require planting 500,000 new trees, or 25,000 trees per year over 20 years. Active
Ohio Cincinnati Incentive Green Roofs Green Roof Loans Green Roof Loans – The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency, Metropolitan Sewer District (MSD) of Greater Cincinnati, and the Cincinnati Office of Environmental Quality have made $5 million available for loans to install green roofs within the service area of the MSD. Green roofs will help reduce sewer overflows and improve air quality in the region. Active
Ohio Cincinnati Green Building Program and Standards; Resolution; Comprehensive Plan and Design Guidelines Cool Roofs; Green Roofs; Trees and Vegetation; Cool Pavements Green Cincinnati Plan Green Cincinnati Plan – The Green Cincinnati Plan, originally adopted in 2008, was updated in 2013. The updated plan goes beyond looking at financial savings from environmental improvements by emphasizing the impacts of sustainability measures on public health. The plan also recommends deployment of cool roofs on new construction, and incentivizes green roofs with expedited permitting. Active
Oklahoma Edmond Demonstration Project Trees and Vegetation Edmond Arbor Week Celebration City of Edmond Arbor Week Celebration – Edmond celebrated Oklahoma Arbor Week by planting trees throughout the city for enhanced aesthetics and air quality, erosion prevention, and energy savings. Completed
Oregon Portland Comprehensive Plan and Design Guidelines Green Roofs Section C Project Design Central City Fundamental Design Guidelines – Portland is encouraging the use of green roofs in the city center district, primarily for their aesthetic and stormwater management benefits. Design guidelines call for integrating vegetated roofs into central city projects. Active
Oregon Portland Zoning Code; Building Code Green Roofs Chapter 33.510 (PDF) Central City Plan District Zoning Code – In 2001, Portland modified its zoning code to include an "eco-roof development bonus" for developers to install green roofs (which are called "eco-roofs" in the code). In Title 33 of the Zoning Code there is a floor area ratio bonus for projects that install green roofs in Portland's central district. The bonus amount depends on the extent of the green roof coverage. If the green roof covers 60% or more of the roof surface, developers can build an additional three square feet (0.3 m2) for each square foot of green roof. If the green roof covers a lower percent of the surface, the bonus is reduced. Active
Pennsylvania Philadelphia Building Codes Cool Roofs City of Philadelphia Cool Roof Ordinance (PDF) City of Philadelphia Cool Roof Ordinance – In May 2010, the City of Philadelphia enacted legislation requiring all new construction in the city to use white roof coverings or those that are rated by ENERGY STAR as highly reflective. The law exempts certain projects, including vegetative roofs and those with rooftop photovoltaic and solar thermal equipment. Active
Pennsylvania Philadelphia Weatherization Cool Roofs Energy Coordinating Agency Philadelphia Cool Homes Program – The Energy Coordinating Agency (ECA) of Philadelphia, which administers the city's weatherization services, has applied cool roof coatings as part of its package of energy efficiency treatments. ECA commissioned a study that found the cool coatings and increased insulation eliminated 90% of the heat gain through the ceiling, reducing top-floor ceiling temperatures by an average of 4.7°F (2.6°C) and chest-height temperatures by 2.4°F (1.3°C). These reduced temperatures lowered air conditioning loads by about one-third in a typical row house. Active
Pennsylvania Statewide Incentive Green Roofs Energy Harvest Program Press Release Pennsylvania Office of Energy and Technology – The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection's Energy Harvest Program has been providing grants for specific energy-saving projects since 2003. In 2007, it dispensed more than $500,000 to green roof projects across the state. The Energy Harvest Program overall aims to deploy innovative technologies and encourages "proposals that are market-driven, create jobs, and produce economic development within the Commonwealth." Active
Pennsylvania Statewide Urban Forestry Program Trees and Vegetation TreeVitalize TreeVitalize – The Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources oversees a project called TreeVitalize, which brings together county and local governments, foundations, trade associations, and private industry to restore tree cover in the southeastern part of the state. TreeVitalize aims to plant more than 20,000 trees in approximately 40 neighborhoods in Bucks, Chester, Delaware, Montgomery, and Philadelphia counties. The program targets neighborhoods in older cities, boroughs, and townships where tree cover is below 25%. Active
South Carolina Florence Demonstration Project Green Roofs McMillan Federal Courthouse McMillan Federal Courthouse Green Roof – This 28,500-square-foot green roof was part of a Federal General Service Administration project under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. This project helps public or federal buildings improve energy efficiency. In the Act, $4.5 billion is being used to convert federal buildings to high-performance green buildings. This green roof is an example of how federal buildings can implement strategies to mitigate the urban heat island effect. Completed
South Carolina Spartanburg Outreach and Education Program; Demonstration Project Cool Roofs Goodall Environmental Studies Center Wofford College Cool Roof – The Goodall Environmental Studies Center at Wofford College incorporates a reflective cool roof that mitigates the heat island effect, and is the first academic building in South Carolina to receive the U.S. Green Building Council’s LEED Platinum certification. The building will use 32% less energy annually than average buildings of the same size and type. Completed
Tennessee Chattanooga Demonstration Project Green Roofs Chattanooga Prep School Girls Preparatory School Green and Cool Roofs – These roofs are part of a series of green initiatives at the Girls Preparatory School in Chattanooga. The green roof cost the school $30,000 to build, which is expected to be offset in part by a 30% savings in annual energy costs. Additional energy savings come from a white roof installed on the school’s library. Completed
Tennessee Knoxville Urban Forestry Program; Comprehensive Plan and Design Guidelines Trees and Vegetation Table of Contents Knoxville Street Tree Master Plan – Knoxville Master Street Tree Plan surveys the existing tree cover in Knoxville and Knox County and develops strategies to preserve and increase the urban canopy. Knoxville has established guiding principles, designated preferred species of trees, and evaluated and implemented opportunities to plant throughout the city. Active
Tennessee Nashville Demonstration Project Green Roof Nashville Music City Center Green Roof Nashville Music City Center Green Roof – The Nashville Music City Center achieved LEED Gold certification, a designation given in part for its 175,000-square-foot green roof and 360,000-gallon rainwater harvesting and recycling system. Completed
Texas Austin Green Building Program and Standards; Resolution; Comprehensive Plan and Design Guidelines Cool Roofs; Green Roofs; Trees and Vegetation; Cool Pavements City of Austin – Heat Island Mitigation Resolution (PDF)
City of Austin Cool Spaces Strategies
Austin Climate Protection Plan (PDF)
Austin Heat Island Mitigation – In May 2001, the Austin City Council adopted a heat island mitigation resolution that committed the city manager to review recommendations for a variety of activities to diminish the city's heat island. In September of that year, the City Council awarded $1 million toward implementing the recommendations, which ranged from developing a cool roof strategy to increasing enforcement of the city's tree-saving ordinance. Austin's Climate Protection Plan incorporates heat island reduction through its green building and energy efficiency elements. Active
Texas Austin Green Building Program and Standards Cool Roofs; Cool Pavements Austin Energy Green Building
Pedernales Loft
The Pedernales Lofts – The Pedernales Lofts is the first multi-family development in Austin to receive five stars on the Green Building Multi-Family Rating. The rating system allows for one point if a heat island reduction strategy is used. The Pedernales Lofts used reflective roofing and pervious pavements, and was built on a former industrial brownfield. It also received S.M.A.R.T. Housing fee waivers (S.M.A.R.T. Housing rules ensure homes are Safe, Mixed-income, Accessible, Reasonably priced, and Transit-oriented). Completed
Texas Austin Incentive Cool Roofs Multifamily Rebate
Commercial Rebate
Austin Energy Efficiency Rebates – Austin Energy offers 15-cent-per-square-foot rebates for cool roof retrofits. Customers must use cool roof products that have a minimum reflectivity of 75%. Active
Texas Austin Urban Forestry Program Trees and Vegetation TreeFolks TreeFolks – Started in 1989, TreeFolks directs many programs that help to grow the urban forests of Central Texas. One program in particular, NeighborWoods, began delivering free street trees in 2004 with a goal of reducing heat islands. NeighborWoods evaluates neighborhoods during summer and fall and marks areas that are available for tree planting. Residents who commit to planting and watering the tree for two years can reserve their tree on the website or by mail. The trees are delivered, with planting and watering instructions, between October and March. The program reduces the urban heat island effect by shading paved streets, and it helps residents increase their property values while decreasing their energy bills. Active
Texas Austin Urban Forestry Program Urban Forest Master Plan Austin Master Plan Austin Master Forestry Plan – Austin adopted an Urban Forest Master Plan with guidelines that city departments should address, including protecting trees during development, creating tree canopy cover goals, and recycling green waste. Active
Texas Dallas Green Building Program and Standards Cool Roofs See Item #3 (PDF) Dallas Green Building Program Ordinance – Dallas passed this ordinance to establish a green building program. The program will consist of two phases; the first phase is focused on energy efficiency, water conservation and reduction of the heat island effect through cool roofs, and phase two will expand phase one to implement a comprehensive green building standard for all new construction. For new proposed commercial projects affecting less than 50,000 square feet of floor area, the requirements include energy efficiency, water conservation, cool roof requirements for low-slope roofs, and an outdoor lighting restriction. Active
Texas Dallas Urban Forestry Program; Green Building Program and Standards; Demonstration Project; Tree and Landscape Ordinance; Resolution; Zoning Code; Building Code; Outreach and Education Program; Comprehensive Plan and Design Guidelines; Incentive; Air Quality Requirement Cool Roofs; Green Roofs; Trees and Vegetation; Cool Pavements Sustainable Skylines – Dallas
Urban Heat Island Project Report (PDF)
Dallas Sustainable Skylines Initiative – The Sustainable Skylines initiative is a three-year partnership between the City of Dallas, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the North Central Texas Council of Governments (NCTOG) to promote sustainability within the City via voluntary programs that emphasize air quality improvements. The initiative has identified the following categories of potential projects to initially perform together: green buildings project, creating a greenhouse gas strategy, green taxis project, off-road equipment replacements and retrofits, renewable energy/energy efficiency outreach program, and an urban heat island project. The goal of the urban heat island project is to develop and implement an urban heat island program for the City of Dallas that will both decrease heated surfaces and increase permeability of surfaces in the Central City and other areas of Dallas. Active
Texas Dallas Urban Forestry Program Trees and Vegetation Adopt-a-Median Adopt-a-Median Tree Planting Program – Overseen by the Urban Forest Advisory Committee and the Dallas Streets Department, this program aims to encourage more tree plantings in street medians to reduce the urban heat island effect. Adopt-a-Median allows groups to take responsibility of tree planting and maintenance of the median. Groups can either self-fund tree plantings, or by complying with city regulations, obtain funding from the Street Department’s MOWmentum fund, or the city’s Reforestation Fund. Active
Texas Frisco Green Building Program and Standards Cool Roofs Green Building Program City of Frisco Green Building Program – Frisco, Texas requires cool roofs in its commercial green building program. In late 2006, the City Council approved requirements for most new commercial construction to install ENERGY STAR labeled cool roof products. Active
Texas Houston Building Code Cool Roofs See Section 5.4.3.5 Cool Roofs (PDF) City of Houston Commercial Energy Conservation Code – Houston created this energy conservation code to provide requirements for the design and construction of new buildings. Cool roof requirements are included for new buildings. The code requires low slope roofs up to 2:12 to be covered with a surface that has a minimum solar reflectance of 0.70 and a minimum thermal emittance of 0.75. Active
Texas Houston Incentive Green Roofs; Trees and Vegetation Downtown Houston Development Assistance (PDF)
Vertical Gardens Grant Initiative (PDF)
Vertical Gardens Matching Grant Initiative – The Houston Downtown Management District (HDMD) Vertical Gardens Matching Grant initiative started providing grants in 2007. In addition to encouraging plantings that cover blank walls, the grants also support landscaping that adds significant evapotranspiration and shade for parking garages and sidewalks. Program goals include improving overall aesthetics, pedestrian comfort, air quality, and reducing the heat island effect. Grants cannot exceed half of the total project cost or $20,000, and contributions can be in kind. Tenants, property owners, and registered nonprofits can all apply. Active
Texas Houston Research; Outreach and Education Program; Demonstration Project; Air Quality Requirement Cool Roofs; Green Roofs; Trees and Vegetation; Cool Pavements Cool Houston (PDF) Cool Houston! – Cool Houston! is a program led by the Houston Advanced Research Center and is designed to reduce urban temperatures through use of cool technologies including reflective and green roofing, paving with light colored or porous materials, and a greatly expanded forest canopy. Active
Texas Houston Outreach and Education Trees and Vegetation Houston Urban Forestry Event Tree Planting Competition – Northwest Harris County gained more than 1,000 new trees during the Houston Area Urban Forestry Council's 2014 Tree Planting Competition. The contest is designed to help educate people on proper ways to plant trees and on the benefits of urban forestry for the community. Complete
Texas San Antonio Tree and Landscape Ordinance Trees and Vegetation San Antonio Ordinance (PDF) San Antonio Tree Preservation Ordinance – San Antonio requires different levels of tree protection based on tree class and location. The ordinance classifies significant trees, heritage trees, and trees within the 100-year floodplain. For example, heritage trees―defined, for most species, as trees 24 inches (60 cm) or greater in diameter at breast height―must be preserved. The ordinance, however, generally counts total tree diameter-inches at a site, not individual trees, and gives flexibility in preservation: up to 90% of the tree-diameter-inches can be considered preserved if the developer plants an equal or greater number of tree-diameter-inches elsewhere. Developers can also fulfill the preservation requirement by contributing to the city's tree fund. Active
Texas Statewide Urban Forestry Program Trees and Vegetation Trees for Texas Trees for Texas – The Texas Trees Foundation created Trees for Texas, a program focused on tree plantings throughout the state. The Foundation partnered with a private corporation to provide initial funding for the program. Working with neighborhood groups, schools, churches, other nonprofit organizations and municipalities, the Foundation provides and/or plants trees on public property throughout the North Central Texas region. Since its inception, the Foundation has completed hundreds of tree planting projects, resulting in the planting of more than 139,000 trees. Active
Texas Taylor Tree and Landscape Ordinance Trees and Vegetation Click on Ordinances, and then Landscape Ordinance Landscape Ordinance for Taylor, Texas – Taylor requires that all outdoor parking areas having spaces for more than twenty vehicles have landscaping within the perimeter of the parking area equal in area to not less than 5% of the total paved area. Further, no parking space is to be located more than seventy feet from a portion of the required landscaping, and one tree of at least two inch caliper in size will be provided within the perimeter of the parking area for each two hundred fifty square feet of landscaping required. Active
Utah Highland Comprehensive Plan and Design Guidelines Trees and Vegetation General Plan Update 2008, Chapter 7: Community Design Highland City General Plan – Highland created a master plan for a 50-acre (200,000 m2) overlay zone to be privately developed as a town center. The city design guidelines for the zone recommended several heat island mitigation elements, including reflective roofing, reflective parking lot surfaces, and landscaping. These guidelines were then adopted into the zoning requirements for the town center. Active
Utah Salt Lake City Outreach and Education Program Cool Roofs; Green Roofs; Trees and Vegetation; Cool Pavements Kool Kids (PDF) Utah Kool Kids Program – The Utah State Energy Program, Utah Department of Natural Resources, and the National Energy Foundation worked together to create the Utah Kool Kids program to teach elementary and secondary age students about urban heat islands, their impacts on energy and air quality, and heat island reduction strategies. The program gives teachers lesson plans, overheads, test questions, experiments and research tools to engage students. Active
Utah Salt Lake City Tree and Landscape Ordinance Trees and Vegetation See Chapter 21A.48.070 Salt Lake City Parking Lot Shade Tree Ordinance – This Salt Lake City ordinance stipulates that all hard-surfaced parking lots or hard-surfaced vehicle sales or lease lots for passenger cars and light trucks (with 15 or more parking spaces) must provide landscaping amounting to not less than 5% of the interior of the lot. The ordinance specifies the number of shrubs and trees per foot of front, corner, interior and rear side yards required for compliance. Active
Utah Statewide Urban Forestry Program; Outreach and Education Program Trees and Vegetation Statewide Urban & Community Forestry Program TreeUtah – TreeUtah has launched a comprehensive initiative, the MetroGreening Program, that uses advertising, outreach, and educational workshops to promote proper planting and maintenance of trees to reduce heating and cooling costs, diminish the heat island effect and achieve other benefits in Utah's most densely populated regions. Active
Virginia Alexandria Demonstration Project Cool Roofs Profile of Success (PDF) Jefferson Houston Elementary School – The Jefferson Houston Elementary School replaced its conventional, dark roof with a cool roof, which increased the roof's reflectivity from less than 20% to 78%. The cost of the reflective roof was comparable to alternate materials considered. The school also increased its insulation level from R-10 to R-20. Energy costs were reduced to $90,000 a year from $120,000 a year. Completed
Virginia Arlington Green Building Program and Standards Cool Roofs; Green Roofs Arlington County Community Energy and Climate Adaptation Advisory Report (PDF) Arlington County Green Buildings – Arlington, Virginia bases its municipal green building requirements on the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Rating System, which includes cool roof and green roof options. Active
Virginia Fairfax County Comprehensive Plan and Design Guidelines Trees and Vegetation Fairfax County Tree Action Plan (PDF) Tree Action Plan – In June 2007, Fairfax County, Virginia set a precedent by selecting an urban forestry canopy goal of 45%. The county developed this target after it determined that current tree management efforts would lead to a decrease in canopy size from 41% to 37% over the next 30 years. To combat this loss, the county proposed increasing the number of trees planted from 21,000 to 84,000, justifying the expense of additional trees by citing the multiple benefits they provide. Completed
Washington Olympia Demonstration Project Cool Pavements Decatur Low Impact Development Decatur Street Demonstration Project – Olympia used a grant of $352,000 from the state's Department of Ecology to repave a street in 2007 with permeable pavement as part of a demonstration of stormwater management techniques. Decatur Street drains into nearby Schneider Creek and was originally designed without any stormwater management infrastructure. The permeable pavement used on Decatur Street is designed with an infiltration rate of 0.15 inches per hour. The City of Olympia will monitor the pervious pavement to determine how well rainwater infiltrates into the ground and the amount of pollution that is filtered. The city will also monitor the construction and long-term maintenance costs of the repaved street. Completed
Washington Poulsbo Demonstration Project Cool Pavements City of Poulsbo Public Works Committee (PDF) Poulsbo Pervious Pavement – Poulsbo used a $263,000 grant from the Washington Department of Ecology to pave 2,000 feet of sidewalk with pervious pavement, making it one of the largest pervious surface projects in the state. Completed
Washington Seattle Tree and Landscape Ordinance Trees and Vegetation Street Tree Planting Procedures Seattle Street Tree Planting – Seattle requires a street use permit before landscaping in a planting strip in a public right-of-way. For street trees, the strip must be at least five feet (1.5 m) wide, unless specific approval from the city's arborist is received. A guide is available to help property owners select and install trees in accordance with the city's requirements. Active
Washington Seattle Urban Forestry Program; Incentive Trees and Vegetation Seattle reLeaf Seattle Urban Forestry Initiative – Since 1996, Seattle's Neighborhood Matching Fund program has provided more than 17,200 trees to more than 600 neighborhood groups for Seattle's streets and parks. The city has also established the Emerald City Task Force, which advises the city on incentives and policies to encourage private property owners―residential and commercial―to improve their land by preserving existing trees and planting new ones. Active
Washington Seattle Zoning Code Green Roofs; Trees and Vegetation Department of Planning and Development – Green Factor Seattle Green Factor – Seattle adopted minimum landscaping requirements in 2007, known as the Seattle Green Factor, which require that certain new developments in neighborhood business districts must provide for vegetative cover on the equivalent of 30% of the applicable property. The regulations apply to developments with more than four dwelling units, more than 4,000 square feet (370 m2) of commercial uses, or more than 20 new parking spaces. Developers can use a menu of strategies, including planting new trees, preserving trees, and installing green roofs and green walls to meet this target. The regulations are part of the city's Commercial Code and encourage planting of layers of vegetation and larger trees in areas visible to the public. The rules also include bonuses for harvesting rain water and choosing plants that need less water. The city has developed a worksheet to help applicants calculate a "score" that indicates whether various mixes of landscaping measures meet the requirements, which will allow developers to try different combinations of features. Active
Wisconsin Menomonie Urban Forestry Program Trees and Vegetation Menomonie Tree Planting Program Menomonie Tree Planting – The Menomonie Urban Forestry Board approved a cost-sharing program for tree planting. The program supports a maximum of two trees per property, with participants required to attend a tree planting class. Active
Wisconsin Milwaukee Demonstration Project Green Roofs Milwaukee Public Library Green Roof Milwaukee Public Library Green Roof – A 33,000-square-foot green roof on the Milwaukee Public Library has prevented 2.82 million gallons of rainwater from entering the city's storm sewer system since it was installed. Active